An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication. An IMC is a platform in which a group of people can group their ideas and concepts into one large media base. Advertising campaigns utilize diverse media channels over a particular time frame and target identified audiences; the campaign theme is the central message that will be received in the promotional activities and is the prime focus of advertising campaign, as it sets the motif for the series of individual advertisements and other marketing communications that will be used. The campaign themes are produced with the objective of being used for a significant period but many of them are temporal due to factors like being not effective or market conditions and marketing mix. Advertising campaigns are built to accomplish a set of objectives; such objectives include establishing a brand, raising brand awareness, aggrandizing the rate of conversions/sales.
The rate of success or failure in accomplishing these goals is reckoned via effectiveness measures. There are 5 key points at which an advertising campaign must consider to ensure an effective campaign; these points are, integrated marketing communications, media channels, the communications process diagram and touch points. Integrated marketing communication is a conceptual approach used by the majority of organizations to develop a strategic plan on how they are going to broadcast their marketing and advertising campaigns. There has been a shift in the way marketers and advertisers interact with their consumers and now see it as a conversation between Advertising/ Marketing teams and consumers. IMC has emerged as a key strategy for organizations to manage customer experiences in the digital age; the more traditional advertising practices such as newspapers and magazines are still used but fail to have the same effect now as they did in previous years. The importance of the IMC is to make the marketing process seamless for both the brand and the consumer.
IMC attempts to meld all aspects of marketing into one cohesive piece. This includes sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, social media; the entire point of IMC is to have all of these aspects of marketing work together as a unified force. This can be done through methods and activities all while using a media platform; the end goal of IMC is to get the brands message across to consumers in the most convenient way possible. Advantages of using IMC are that it has the ability to communicate the same message through several channels to create brand awareness. IMC is the most cost-effective solution when compared to mass media advertising to interact with target consumers on a personal level. IMC benefits small businesses, as they are able to submerge their consumers with communication of various kinds in a way that pushes them through the research and buying stages creating a relationship and dialogue with their new customer. Popular and obvious examples of IMC put into action are the likes of direct marketing to the consumer that the organisation has a knowledge that the person is interested in the brand by gathering personal information about them from when they shopped there and sending mail, emails and other direct communication with the person.
In-store sales promotions are tactics such as ‘30% off’ sales or offering loyalty cards to consumers to build a relationship. Television and radio advertisement are a form of advertising strategy derived from IMC. All of the components of IMC play an important role and a company may or may not choose to implement any of the integration strategies Media channels known as, marketing communications channels, are used to create a connection with the target consumer. Traditional methods of communication with the consumer include newspapers, Radio, billboards, telephone and door to door sales; these are just a few of the traditional methods. Along with traditional media channels, comes new and upcoming media channels. Social media has begun to play a large role in the way media and marketing intermingle to reach a consumer base. Social media has the power to reach a wider audience. Depending on the age group and demographic, social media can influence a company's overall image. Using social media as a marketing tool has become a popular method for branding.
A brand has the chance to create an entire social media presence based around their own specific targeted community. With advancements in digital communications channels, marketing communications allow for the possibility of two-way communications where an immediate consumer response can be elicited. Digital communications tools include: websites, social media, email and search engines as a few examples, it is important for an advertising campaign to select channels based on where their target consumer spends time to ensure market and advertising efforts are maximized. In the changing marketing and advertising environment, exposure to certain consumer groups and target audiences through traditional media channels has blurred; these traditional media channels are defined as print, out-of-home and direct mail. The introduction of various new modern-day media channels has altered their traditional advantages and disadvantages, it is imperative to the effectiveness of the Integrated Marketing Communication strategy that exposure to certain demographics, consumer groups and target audiences is anticipated to provide clarity and maximum communications impact.
Print media is defined as newspapers and magazines. With the transition in
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. Plasticine is used extensively for children's play, but as a modelling medium for more formal or permanent structures; because of its non-drying property, it is a popular choice of material for stop-motion animation. The brand-name clay is sometimes mentioned in British music, such as the "plasticine porters" in the Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", the Oasis songs "Little James" and "Shakermaker", the Placebo song "Plasticine". William Harbutt, an art teacher in Bath, formulated Plasticine in 1897. Harbutt wanted a non-drying clay for his sculpture students, he created a non-toxic, sterile and malleable clay that did not dry on exposure to air. Harbutt received a patent in 1899 and commercial production started at a factory in Bathampton in 1900; the original Plasticine was grey. Four colours were produced for initial sale to the public. Plasticine was popular with children, was used in schools for teaching art, has found a wide variety of other uses.
Plasticine is 65% bulking agent, 10% petroleum jelly, 5% lime and 10% lanolin and stearic acid. It cannot be hardened by firing, melts when exposed to heat, is flammable at higher temperatures. Harbutt patented a different formulation in 1915, which added wool fibres to give plasticine a stronger composition intended for ear plugs, as a sterile dressing for wounds and burns; the Harbutt company marketed Plasticine as a children's toy by producing modelling kits based on characters from children's stories, such as Noddy, the Mr. Men and Paddington Bear; the original Plasticine factory was replaced by a modern building. The Harbutt company produced Plasticine in Bathampton until 1983, when production was moved to Thailand; the Colorforms company was the major American licensee of Plasticine from 1979 until at least 1984. The use of a different chalk compound caused a product inconsistency, the US version was considered inferior to the original mix. Bluebird Toys plc acquired Plasticine through its purchase of Harbutt's parent company.
In 1998, Mattel bought Bluebird and the brand was sold to Humbrol Ltd, famous for its model paints and owner of the Airfix model kit brand. Flair Leisure licensed the brand from Humbrol in relaunched Plasticine, it acquired the brand outright. A similar product, "Kunst-Modellierthon", was invented by Franz Kolb of Munich, Germany in 1880; this product is still available, known as "Münchner Künstler Plastilin". In Italy, the product Pongo is marketed as "plastilina" and shares the main attributes of Plasticine. Play-Doh, based on flour and water, dries on exposure to air. In France, it is made by Herbin, marketed as Plastiline. Plasticine and similar materials are used in clay animation. One of its main proponents is Aardman Animations' Nick Park, who used characters modelled in Plasticine in his four Oscar-winning Wallace and Gromit short films A Grand Day Out, The Wrong Trousers, A Close Shave and A Matter of Loaf and Death, as well as the feature film The Curse of the Were-Rabbit; this technique is popularly known as claymation in the US, is a form of stop motion animation.
Plasticine-like materials are appealing to animators because the material can be used with ease: it is mouldable enough to create a character, flexible enough to allow that character to move in many ways, dense enough to retain its shape when combined with a wire armature, it does not melt under hot studio lighting. Plasticine is used in long jump and triple jump competitions to help officials determine if the competitors are making legal jumps. A 10 cm wide'indicator board' is placed beyond and above the take-off line; the edges of this are edged with plasticine. If an athlete leaves a mark in the plasticine, it is considered proof that the jump was a foul, the attempt is not measured. Plasticine is used rather than sand, so that several boards may be prepared in advance: if a board is marked it may be replaced by a smoothed board to avoid delaying the competition, but keeping the marked board available in case of challenges. An indicator board is used, rather than a wide strip of plasticine, as this provides a firm footing should the athlete step on it.
Plasticine-like clays are used in commercial party games such as Cranium and Barbarossa. Television presenter James May together with Chris Collins, Jane McAdam Freud, Julian Fullalove and around 2000 members of the public created a show garden made of Plasticine for the 2009 Chelsea Flower Show. Called'Paradise in Plasticine', it took 6 weeks and 2.6 tons of Plasticine in 24 colours to complete. May said, "This is, to our knowledge, the largest and most complex model of this type created." It couldn't be considered as part of the standard judging criteria as it contained no real plants, but was awarded an honorary gold award made from Plasticine. The garden was popular with the public and went on to win the Royal Horticultural Society's'peoples choice' for best small garden. During World War II, Plasticine was used by bomb disposal officer Major John P. Hudson R. E. as part of the defuzing process for the new German "Type Y" battery-powered bomb fuze. The "Type Y" fuze has an anti-disturbance device that had to be disabled before the fuze could be removed.
Plasticine was used to build a dam around the head of the fuze to hold some liquid o
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, distributed and preserved on digital electronics devices. Examples of digital media include software, digital images, digital video, video game, web pages and websites, including social media and databases, digital audio, such as MP3 and electronic books. Digital media contrasts with print media, such as printed books and magazines, other traditional or analog media, such as images, movies or audio tapes. Digital media has a significant complex impact on society and culture. Combined with the Internet and personal computing, digital media has caused disruptive innovation in publishing, public relations, education and politics. Digital media has posed new challenges to copyright and intellectual property laws, fostering an open content movement in which content creators voluntarily give up some or all of their legal rights to their work; the ubiquity of digital media and its effects on society suggest that we are at the start of a new era in industrial history, called the Information Age leading to a paperless society in which all media are produced and consumed on computers.
However, challenges to a digital transition remain, including outdated copyright laws, the digital divide, the spectre of a digital dark age, in which older media becomes inaccessible to new or upgraded information systems. Digital media has a wide-ranging and complex impact on society and culture. Codes and information by machines were first conceptualized by Charles Babbage in the early 1800s. Babbage imagined that these codes would give him instructions for his Motor of Difference and Analytical Engine, machines that Babbage had designed to solve the problem of error in calculations. Between 1822 and 1823, Ada Lovelace, wrote the first instructions for calculating numbers on Babbage engines. Lovelace's instructions are now believed to be the first computer program. Although the machines were designed to perform analysis tasks, Lovelace anticipated the possible social impact of computers and programming, writing. "For in the distribution and combination of truths and formulas of analysis, which may become easier and more subjected to the mechanical combinations of the engine, the relationships and the nature of many subjects in which science relates in new subjects, more researched...
There are in all extensions of human power or additions to human knowledge, various collateral influences, in addition to the primary and primary object reached. "Other old machine readable media include instructions for pianolas and weaving machines. It is estimated that in the year 1986 less than 1% of the world's media storage capacity was digital and in 2007 it was 94%; the year 2002 is assumed to be the year when human kind was able to store more information in digital than in analog media. Though they used machine-readable media, Babbage's engines, player pianos, jacquard looms and many other early calculating machines were themselves analog computers, with physical, mechanical parts; the first digital media came into existence with the rise of digital computers. Digital computers use binary code and Boolean logic to store and process information, allowing one machine in one configuration to perform many different tasks; the first modern, digital computers, the Manchester Mark 1 and the EDSAC, were independently invented between 1948 and 1949.
Though different in many ways from modern computers, these machines had digital software controlling their logical operations. They were encoded in binary, a system of ones and zeroes that are combined to make hundreds of characters; the 1s and 0s of binary are the "digits" of digital media. While digital media came into common use in the early 1950s, the conceptual foundation of digital media is traced to the work of scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush and his celebrated essay "As We May Think," published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1945. Bush envisioned a system of devices that could be used to help scientists, doctors and others, store and communicate information. Calling this then-imaginary device a "memex", Bush wrote: The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow, he is studying why the short Turkish bow was superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of pertinent books and articles in his memex.
First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, ties the two together, thus he goes. He inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item; when it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own, thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him. Bush hoped that the creation of this memex would be the work of scientists after World War II. Though the essay predated digital computers by several years, "As We May Think," anticipated the potential social and intellectual benefits of digital media and provided the conceptual framework for digital scholarship, the World Wide Web and social media.
It was recognized as a significant work at the time of its publication. In the years since the invention of the first digital
Bob Gardiner (animator)
James Robbins "Bob" Gardiner was a multi-talented artist, cartoonist, holographer, musician and comedy writer, who invented the stop-motion 3-D clay animation technique that Will Vinton would market as Claymation although Bob preferred the term Sculptimation for his frame-by-frame method of sculpting plasticine clay characters and sets. Gardiner and Vinton won the Oscar for Best Animated Short in 1975 for Closed Mondays. Closed Mondays, art direction and sculptimation Mountain Music, art direction and sculptimation Bob Gardiner at Internet Movie Database Bob Gardiner at Find a Grave Rolling Stone Magazine: The 10th Anniversary, Main Title Animation of The Rubinoos, at Internet Movie Database Rolling Stone Magazine: The 10th Anniversary on YouTube Mountain Music on YouTube Mountain Music on IMDB
Gumby is an American clay animation franchise, centered on a green clay humanoid character created and modeled by Art Clokey. The character has been the subject of a feature-length film and other media. Since the original series aired, Gumby has become a famous example of stop-motion clay animation and an influential cultural icon, spawning tributes and merchandising. Gumby follows the titular character on his adventures through different environments and times in history. Gumby's primary sidekick is a talking orange pony, his nemeses are the Blockheads, a pair of red humanoid figures with cube-shaped heads, inspired by the trouble-making Katzenjammer Kids. Other characters include Prickle, a yellow dinosaur who sometimes styles himself as a detective with pipe and deerstalker hat like Sherlock Holmes; the 1988 syndicated series added Gumby's sister Minga, mastodon friend Denali and chicken friend Tilly. Gumby was created by Art Clokey in the early 1950s after he finished film school at the University of Southern California.
Clokey's first animated film was a 1953 three-minute student film called Gumbasia, a surreal montage of moving and expanding lumps of clay set to music in a parody of Disney's Fantasia. Gumbasia was created in the "kinesthetic" style taught by Clokey's USC professor Slavko Vorkapić, described as "massaging of the eye cells." Much of Gumby's look and feel was inspired by this technique of editing. In 1955, Clokey showed Gumbasia to movie producer Sam Engel, who encouraged him to develop his technique by animating figures into children's stories. Clokey moved forward; the name "Gumby" came from the muddy clay found at Clokey's grandparents' farm that his family called "gumbo". Gumby's appearance was inspired by a suggestion from his wife, that Gumby be based on the Gingerbread Man; the color green was chosen because Clokey saw it as both racially neutral and a symbol of life. Gumby's legs and feet were made wide for pragmatic reasons. Gumby's famous slanted head was based on the hairstyle of Clokey's father, Charles Farrington, in an old photograph.
Clokey's pilot episode was seen by NBC executive Thomas Warren Sarnoff, who asked Clokey to make another one. The second episode, Gumby on the Moon, became a huge hit on Howdy Doody, leading Sarnoff to order a series in 1955 entitled The Gumby Show. In 1955 and 1956, 25 eleven-minute episodes aired on NBC. In early episodes, Gumby's voice was provided by Ruth Eggleston, wife of the show's art director Al Eggleston, until Dallas McKennon assumed her role in 1957. Gumby's best friend, an orange pony named Pokey, was introduced during the earliest episodes; because of its variety-type format, The Gumby Show featured not only Clokey's puppet films, but interviews and games. During this time, the show went through a succession of Robert Nicholson and Pinky Lee. In 1959, The Gumby Show entered syndication, more episodes were produced in the 1960s. Production started in Hollywood and in 1960 moved to a larger studio in Glendora, where it remained until production ended in 1969. During this time, Gumby was voiced by Norma MacMillan, by Ginny Tyler.
The cartoon shorts introduced new characters including a blue mermaid named Goo and a yellow dinosaur named Prickle. Beginning in 1982, Gumby was parodied by Eddie Murphy on Saturday Night Live. According to Murphy’s parody, when the television cameras were turned off, the sweet Gumby reverted to his true self: an irascible, cigar-chomping celebrity, demanding of the production executives. Whenever the executives refused to give in to his demands, Gumby would assert his star status by saying “I’m Gumby, dammit!"In 1987, the original Gumby shorts enjoyed a revival on home video. The following year, Gumby appeared in The Puppetoon Movie; this renewed interest led to a reincarnation of the series consisting of 99 new seven-minute episodes produced for television syndication in association with Lorimar-Telepictures in 1987. Dallas McKennon returned to voice Gumby in the new adventures, in which Gumby and his pals traveled beyond their toyland-type setting and established themselves as a musical band.
The show included new characters, such as Gumby's little sister Minga, a mastodon named Denali and a chicken named Tilly. In addition to the new episodes, the 1950s and 1960s shorts were included in the series, but with new audio; the voices were re-recorded and the original music was replaced by Jerry Gerber's synthesizer score from the 1987 series. Legal issues prevented Clokey from renewing rights to the original Capitol Records production tracks. Starting in 1992, TV channels such as Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network aired reruns of Gumby episodes. In 1995, Clokey's production company produced an independently released theatrical film, Gumby: The Movie, marking the character's first feature-length adventure. In it, the villainous Blockheads replace Gumby and his band with robots and kidnap their dog, Lowbelly; the movie featured in-joke homages to science-fiction films such as Star Wars, The Terminator and 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Heat. In 1998, the Gumby episode "Robot Rumpus" was featured on Mystery Science Theater 3000.
On March 16, 2007, YouTube announced that all Gumby episodes would appear in their full-length form on its site, digitally remastered and with their original soundtracks. This deal extended to other video sites, including AOL. In March 2007, KQED-TV broadcast an hour-long documentary Gumby Dha
Out of the Inkwell
Out of the Inkwell was a major animated series of the silent era produced by Max Fleischer from 1918 to 1929. The series was the result of three short experimental films that Max Fleischer independently produced in the period of 1914–1916 to demonstrate his invention, the Rotoscope, a device consisting of a film projector and easel used as an aid for achieving realistic movement for animated cartoons; the Rotoscope would project motion picture film through an opening in the easel, covered by a glass pane serving as a drawing surface. The image on the projected film was traced onto paper, advancing the film one frame at a time as each drawing would be made. Fleischer's younger brother Dave Fleischer, working as a clown at Coney Island, served as the model for their first famous character known as "Koko the Clown." Out of the Inkwell began at the Bray Studio as a monthly entry in The Bray Pictorgraph Screen Magazine produced for Paramount from 1918, for Goldwyn from 1920 to 1921. In that same year, The Fleischer brothers started their own studio, in 1923, the clown who had no name came to be known as KO-KO when animation veteran Dick Huemer became the new Director of Animation.
Huemer, who began his animation career with the Mutt and Jeff cartoons in 1916, brought the influence of the short and tall companions to Out of the Inkwell with the creation of a small canine companion named Fitz, who would evolve into Bimbo in the sound era. Huemer redesigned the clown for animation, which reduced the Fleischer's dependency on the Rotoscope for fluid animation, he defined the drawing style with his distinctive inking quality that the series was famous for. But it was the interaction of the live action sequences with the artist/creator, Max Fleischer and his pen and ink creations, the foundation of the series; the cartoons start out with live action showing Max drawing the characters on paper, or opening the inkwell to release the characters into "reality." The Out of the Inkwell series ran from 1918 to mid 1927, was renamed The Inkwell Imps for Paramount, continuing until 1929. In all, 62 Out of the Inkwell and 56 Inkwell Imps films were produced within 11 years; the Inkwell Imps series was replaced by the "Talkartoons" in 1929, Koko was retired until 1931, appearing as a supporting character with Bimbo and Betty Boop.
Koko's last theatrical appearance was in the Betty Boop cartoon, Ha-Ha-Ha, a remake of the silent Out of the Inkwell film, The Cure. Koko had a brief cameo in his only color theatrical appearance in the "Screen Song" entry, Toys will be Toys. In 1950, Stuart Productions released a number of the Inkwell Studios Out of the Inkwell cartoons, a selection of the Paramount Inkwell Imps cartoons to television. In 1955, the Inkwell Imps, along with 2,500 pre-October 1950 Paramount shorts and cartoons were sold to television packagers, the majority acquired by U. M. & M. TV Corporation. In 1958, Max Fleischer reactivated his studio in a partnership with Hal Seeger, in 1960 produced a series of 100 Out Of The Inkwell five-minute cartoons. In the new color series, KoKo had a clown girlfriend named a villain named Mean Moe. Larry Storch provided all of the supporting characters; the series is the result of three experimental short films Max Fleischer produced independently in the period 1914-1916 to demonstrate his invention, the rotoscope, a device made up of a movie projector and a stand used as an aid to obtain realistic movements in cartoons.
The rotoscope projected a film through an opening in the stand, covered by a glass plate acting as a design surface. The image on the projected film was drawn on paper, advancing the film one frame at a time as each drawing was made. Brother Dave Fleischer was working as a clown at Coney Island, served as a model for what would become their first famous character, Koko the Clown. Out of the Inkwell was started at Bray Productions as a monthly release at The Bray's Pictorgraph Screen Magazine produced for Paramount Pictures from 1918 to 1920 and for Goldwyn Pictures in 1921. In the same year, Fleischer brothers opened their studio, And in 1923 the clown who had no name began to be known as Ko-Ko when veteran animator Dick Huemer became the new director of animation. Huemer, who started animating with the Mutt and Jeff series in 1916, brought the influence of that series into Out of the Inkwell and created a small canine partner named Fitz. Huemer redesigned the clown for animation and brought the Fleischer away from their dependence on the rotoscope.
He defined the design style with its distinctive inking quality for which the series was famous. But it was the integration and interaction of live action sequences featuring Max Fleischer who spun the series. Cartons begin live action by showing Max who begins his day, he begins to draw characters on paper, or open the inkwell and they come out and interact with reality. An image of Ko-Ko at The Chinese Restaurant of The Inkwell Imps series, with Koko il Clown and Fitz the Dog; the Out of the Inkwell series lasted from 1918 to 1926, the following year was renamed The Inkwell Imps for Paramount and continued until 1929. Fleischer continued in the series, acting as an actor, producer and animator for his studio Out of The Inkwell Films, producing 62 episodes of Out of the Inkwell and 56 by The Inkwell Imps. Although the Inkwell Imps series was replaced by Talkartoons in 1929, Koko il Clown returned in 1931 as a supporting character with Bimbo and Betty Boop. Koko's latest cinematic appearance was in the hilarious Betty Boop Gas cartoon, a remake of The Cure of this series.
Koko had a short cameo in his only color film appearance in the ep