A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
The M61 is a motorway in North West England. It runs from the M60 motorway northwest of Manchester and heads northwest past Bolton and Chorley to join the M6 just north of the junction between the M6 and M65 motorways to the south of Preston; the most distinguishing section of the M61 is to be found at the southern end at the Worsley Braided Interchange between junctions 1 and 3. This stretch of the road on the approach to the terminus with the M60 ring road is a collection of sliproads and overpass tunnels providing free-flowing access to and from the following: the A580 the A666 the M60 the M61 This complicated junction earns a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the most traffic lanes side by side, spread across several parallel carriageways at Linnyshaw. On its opening on 17 December 1970, it was known locally as "Spaghetti Junction", 17 months before the opening of Gravelly Hill Interchange in Birmingham, nowadays most associated with that name in Britain; the M61 has one service station: Rivington services, located between Junctions 6 and 8.
This motorway service area was used in the filming of The Services, a pilot episode for the Farnworth-born comedian Peter Kay series That Peter Kay Thing, a spoof documentary of a day in the life of the services staff. Data from driver location signs are used to provide distance information. CBRD Motorway Database – M61 Lancashire County Council – Historic Highways – M61 The Motorway Archive – M61
Clayton-le-Woods is a large village and civil parish of the Borough of Chorley, in Lancashire, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, it has a population of 14,528, rising marginally to 14,532 at the 2011 Census. Situated to the north of the town of Chorley, Clayton-le-Woods is only a few miles from the city of Preston and adjacent to the small towns of Leyland and Bamber Bridge; the villages of Clayton Brook, Whittle-le-Woods and Buckshaw Village are located next to Clayton-le-Woods. The village is divided in two by Cuerden Valley Park and the River Lostock, the western part bordering Leyland and the eastern bordering Whittle-le-Woods; the village is close to different junctions of the motorway network, junctions 28 & 29 of the M6, junction 8 & 9 of the M61, junction 1A, 1 and 2 of the M65. There is a smaller area called Wood End, West of the village, close to Leyland, it was built between the 1980s. The village has six primary schools in its vicinity; the primary schools are, Clayton-le-Woods CE, Lancaster Lane, Clayton Brook, Manor Road and St Bede's RC.
A library was built in the village in 1985, located in Clayton Green next to Cuerden Valley Park. There are a number of pubs, a large supermarket, a sports centre and two hotels all located within the village; the village is split into five areas. Charcoal burning is still being carried out by coppicing the woods, in the grounds of nearby Cuerden Hall. There are linen hand weavers' cottages which are located on Sheep Hill Lane. Clayton-le-Woods has four local bus services operated by Stagecoach in Chorley and Preston Bus respectively; the 125 Stagecoach Gold route, connects Clayton-le-Woods to Chorley and Bolton. The 111 is operated by Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire, connects the village to nearby Leyland and Chorley. Cycling Route 55 connects Clayton-le-Woods with Buckshaw Euxton via Cuerden Valley Park. Preston Bus, the service 114 is operated by Preston Bus, connects the village with Chorley, Whittle-le-Woods and Leyland; the village lies along the A6 known locally as Preston Road, as well as this, Clayton-le-Woods is connected by the B5256 between Blackburn and Leyland, the B5254 between Clayton and Leyland, the M6 at Junction 28 and 29, the M61 at Junction 8 and 9 and the M65 at Junction 1A, 1 and 2.
Further roads, such as the A49, connect Clayton to Buckshaw Village, Charnock Richard and Wigan. Listed buildings in Clayton-le-Woods Clayton-le-Woods chorley.gov.uk. Parish council, etc
Hoghton Tower is a fortified manor house located about two-thirds of a mile to the east of the village of Hoghton, Lancashire and standing on a hilltop site on the highest point in the area. It takes its name from its historical owners since at least the 12th century; the present house dates from about 1560–65. It was damaged during the Civil War and subsequently became derelict, but was rebuilt and extended between 1862 and 1901; the house is listed at Grade I, as is the Great Barn in its grounds, dated 1692. In the grounds are two structures listed at Grade II; the house and garden are open to the public at advertised times, are administered by a charitable trust, the Hoghton Tower Preservation Trust. The property is situated on a hill which may be described as "the last, southwesterly tip of the Pendle range"; the land on which the house stands has been in the possession of the de Hoghton family from at least the 12th century. The present building dates from about 1560–65, was built for the Right Worshipful Thomas de Hoghton, replacing an earlier house on or near the same site.
It has been suggested that the property has links to William Shakespeare through Alexander Hoghton who died in 1581. King James I stayed in the house for three days on 15–18 August 1617.. James was accompanied by his favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham and by the Earls of Pembroke, Richmond and Bridgewater. Following a petition of Lancashire folk he lifted the restrictions on Sunday recreations, that culminated in the publishing just for Lancashire, nationally the following year, of the Book of Sports. In 1643 the house was damaged by Parliamentary forces during the Civil War. In February 1643, after the taking of Preston by Seaton, Hoghton Tower was besieged by Parliamentary troops under Captain Nicholas Starkie of Huntroyd. At the time the house held a garrison of only 30-40 musketeers, but when the Roundheads entered the house, the powder magazine in the old pele tower, between the two courtyards, exploded with immense force, killing over 100 Parliamentary men. This central tower was never rebuilt.
From 1662, for over a hundred years, Hoghton Tower housed nonconformism in the Banqueting Hall, after Sir Gilbert's son Sir Richard converted to Presbyterianism and by 1664 it had become a centre, in the Blackburn District, for both Independents and Presbyterians. John and Charles Wesley are reputed to have preached at Hoghton. In 1692–1702 Sir Charles de Hoghton, who founded Preston Grammar School, carried out repairs and rebuilding. King William III was a frequent visitor to the house. In 1768 the family permanently moved to another property and it was rented to local farmers. Sir Henry de Hoghton, the 9th Baronet, inherited the estate in 1862 and decided to restore the house, it is not known who carried out the earlier part of the restoration, but by 1876 the Lancaster architects Paley and Austin were involved, having carried out work on rooms including the banqueting hall. Sir Henry died in 1876, restoration work was continued by his brother, the 10th Baronet, although the house was not ready for him to take up residence until 1880.
By that time Paley and Austin had restored the gateway tower and the adjacent walls, designed an entrance lodge, carried out work on the offices in the east wing, built a new kitchen, a new underground service corridor, made other alterations. Further work on the stables and farm buildings was carried out by the Blackburn-based architect James Bertwistle. Sir Charles died in 1893, from 1896 to 1901 the London architect Robert Dudley Oliver added nursery accommodation, a smoking room, a billiards room and a large drawing room. In 1854 Charles Dickens found it in a depressing state of disrepair; the mood of the place inspired his 1868 short story George Silverman's Explanation, in which the house features prominently. Hoghton Tower is constructed with stone slate roofs, it has a double courtyard plan, the outer courtyard being entered on the west side through a large gatehouse. The gatehouse is embattled and in two storeys, with a central tower rising by more than one additional storey. Above its archway is a 16th-century cartouche containing a carving of the Lion.
On each side of the gateway, embattled walls lead to square corner pavilions, which are embattled. Buildings of differing dates stand on the south sides of the outer courtyard; this is in the eastern part being higher than the western. Between the two levels is a wall, steps leading up to a gateway with 18th-century wrought iron gates between gate piers. In the northeast corner of the courtyard is a 17th-century well house, which stands on the traditional site of the original tower, destroyed in the Civil War; the inner courtyard has a west gateway, a great hall and kitchen on the north side, state rooms on the east, living rooms on the south and west sides. At the north east corner is a porch. Bay windows project from the south sides of the great hall; the building has many interesting features including the Tudor Well House, 120 feet deep and has a horse-drawn pump and oaken winding gear. The State Bedroom contains the State Bed carved at Samlesbury in about 1560-65; the beautifully proportioned Ballroom has fine, decorative late Victorian doors and panelling by Gillows of La
Leyland is a town in the South Ribble borough, in the county of Lancashire, England. It is six miles south of the city of Preston; the population of the town was estimated as 35,600 at the 2011 Census. Throughout the 20th and 21st century, the community has seen a large growth in industry and farming; the name of the town is of old Anglo-Saxon origin, meaning "untilled land". English Leyland was an area of fields, with Roman roads passing through, from ancient Wigan to Walton-le-Dale, it was left undisturbed for many centuries. Leyland is mentioned in the Domesday Book. In 1066, King Edward the Confessor presided over the whole of Leyland; the manor was divided into three large ploughlands. In the 12th century, it came under the barony of Penwortham; the area of Worden, now Worden Park, was one of nine oxgangs of land granted to the Knights Hospitaller, by Roger de Lacy, in Lancashire, but the land was not assigned to any individual and a local man, a close friend of de Lacy, Hugh Bussel, was assigned holder of the land in 1212.
Notable features that remain include the St Andrew's Parish Church, built around 1200 AD and the large stone Leyland Cross, thought to date back to Saxon times. The town is famous for the bus and truck manufacturer Leyland Motors, which between the 1950s and 1970s expanded and grew to own several British motor manufacturers, including British Motor Corporation, Standard-Triumph and Rover, culminating in the massive British Leyland company; the truck business still operates today as Leyland Trucks, is owned by Paccar. Leyland is home to one of the leading maintenance and utility companies in the United Kingdom, Enterprise plc on Centurion Way; the Leyprint company is situated on Leyland Lane, a company which produces menus and other printed items. A large superstore of Tesco was built in July 2002, it stands near the police station; the old BTR Factory was knocked down to make way for new housing in 2004, in July 2006, the town was installed with a Morrisons, a Homebase and an Argos. The Leyland Band have recently moved to the town, after several years in various other rehearsal locations, now have a permanent home in Farington Business Park.
Chronic 4 is a professional eSports organisation from Leyland participating in tournaments for games like Wii Sports. Leyland railway station is operated by Northern. There is one train an hour between Preston. There is one train an hour between Manchester Victoria/Hazel Grove to Blackpool North. There is a marker adjacent to the old Leyland Motors Spurrier works declares the halfway point on the railway journey between Glasgow and London, some 198 miles in either direction. John Fishwick & Sons served, they connected the town to Chorley and Preston. The company ceased trading on 24 October 2015, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire have taken over their core route 111. High schools in Leyland include Balshaw's CE High School near Leyland Cross, St Mary's Catholic High School, Worden Sports College, a smaller high school situated to the west of the town and Wellfield High School near the town centre. To the east of Worden Park is Runshaw College; the college received the best Ofsted report, for any further education college in the United Kingdom, for the year of 2005.
Most of the housing in Leyland falls under the semi-detached and bungalow categories. There are a few modern housing estates, but about 65% of the accommodation in the town was built in the 1970s. Leyland is made up by six different areas, the town centre itself counts as the main retail side, with the railway station and shops nearby; the other areas include Moss Side, Worden Park, Turpin Green and the Wade Hall estate. Notable people who have grown up or lived in Leyland include: Fred Beardsworth, footballer William Bennett, 1920s footballer Clarke Carlisle, was educated at Balshaw's CE High School Trevor Hemmings, multi millionaire philanthropist spent his teenage years in Leyland Allen Hill, played in the first cricket Test Phil Jones, footballer Frank Moss, football manager and former player, known for his six-year contract with Arsenal Danny Mayor, footballer Mike Salmon, retired goalkeeper, who works as a football manager Kevin Simm, Liberty X singer grew up in the area and attended St Anne's Primary School and St Mary's High School Mark Strange, martial arts expert and film producer Chris Tuson, rugby league player John Woodcock, executed by the Stuarts in 1646, for his Catholicism Listed buildings in Leyland, Lancashire BBC Online Schools in Lancashire, Education\League Tables, 19 January 2006 BBC Online Institutions in Lancashire, Education\League Tables, 19 January 2006 Hunt, D.
The History of Leyland and District, Carnegie Press, ISBN 0-948789-48-4 Hunt, D. and Waring, W. The Archive Photograph Series: Leyland, Chalford Publishing Company, ISBN 0-7524-0348-6 Smith, J, and Now: Leyland, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2672-9 South Ribble Borough Council – Leyland Town Centre Masterplan Leyland Historical Society
Stagecoach North West
Stagecoach North West was a major operator of bus services in North West England. It was a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, had its origins in the purchase of Cumberland in 1987 and Ribble Motor Services in 1988 from the National Bus Company; the head office of Stagecoach North West was in Carlisle. Although the cities of Liverpool and Manchester are in the North West of England, Stagecoach Manchester and Stagecoach Merseyside were run as separate divisions. Stagecoach North West was split in September 2011 into Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire and Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire, with the former incorporating Chorley and Preston depots and the Gillmoss depot of Stagecoach Merseyside, the latter incorporating Barrow, Carlisle and Workington depots. After the split, the company, Stagecoach North West Ltd, continues to exist with the trading name Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire. Stagecoach North West operated services in Carlisle, Lancaster, Preston, the Lake District with some services running to/from Blackburn, Manchester and Southport.
Stagecoach North West consisted of 3 different areas, which were: Stagecoach in Cumbria Stagecoach in Lancashire Stagecoach in LancasterStagecoach North West ran several services which are contracted to Cumbria County Council, Lancashire County Council or Transport for Greater Manchester Stagecoach in Cumbria is a trading name of Stagecoach North West Ltd and operates services around the Cumbria area. Cumberland was one of the first National Bus Company subsidiaries to be privatised: this was immediately after gaining the Penrith and Carlisle depots from Ribble; the company was bought from the NBC by Stagecoach, who split it into two territories: CMS Carlislebus for services within Carlisle itself and CMS Cumberland for the rest of the services. In 2005 Stagecoach introduced new double-decker buses on its flagship service X35 route between Barrow-in-Furness, Grange-over-Sands and Kendal; this route, now renamed X6, is subsidised by Cumbria County Council, ensuring that a return fare between Barrow/Ulverston and Kendal is £6.50, as of April 2014.
The 62, 62A and 62B service to Kingmoor Park are subsidised by Cumbria County Council, as of 2013. In January 2008, the flagship 555/6 route from Keswick - Lancaster was upgraded to Dennis Trident/ALX400 operation. A further upgrade was due in October 2011, this time to brand new Scania N230UD/Enviro400s. Barrow Carlisle Kendal Workington Stagecoach in Lancashire was the trading name of Ribble Motor Services Ltd and operated services around the Central Lancashire area, serving Preston, Chorley and Blackburn; the company operated Network Chorley, which provided transport around the Chorley area. In 2006 Stagecoach started to increase services in Preston under the name Stagecoach Preston Citi, using Optare Solos and Dennis Enviro 400s, in competition with the established operator, Preston Bus. Stagecoach duplicated some Preston Bus routes, such as 19 and 22 to Royal Preston Hospital, 11 to Gamull Lane and 16 to Farringdon Park, as well as introducing new services such as the 32 to Larches and Savick and services to Tanterton and Ingol.
They increasing the frequency of service 3 to Penwortham, as Preston Bus had started a frequent service between Preston and Penwortham, a limited service between Preston and Southport, duplicating existing Stagecoach routes. The bus war ended with the purchase of Preston Bus by Stagecoach North West. For more details, see Stagecoach in Preston or the sub category below. Stagecoach in Lancashire has many smaller labels: The Fylde Villager, The Wyre Villager, Network Ribble Valley & Network Chorley. Other services include X2, 125 and 109. In early 2009, Stagecoach lost the contract for some Fylde Villager branded services to Cumfybus and Coastal Coaches, who operate them on behalf of Lancashire County Council. Preston On 23 January 2009 Preston Bus became part of the Stagecoach North West subsidiary, ending over 100 years service of Preston Bus to the city. In March 2009 Preston Bus was rebranded Stagecoach Preston Bus and operated Stagecoach routes within the City of Preston, its suburbs and the surrounding area.
Stagecoach Preston Bus operated from the Deepdale Road Depot. On 19 January 2011 Stagecoach in Preston was sold to Rotala. Preston Stagecoach in Lancaster operates services in Lancaster and the surrounding area, including the services between Morecambe/Lancaster and Preston/Blackpool, it is a trading name of Stagecoach North West Ltd, consists of the former Stagecoach Ribble services in the area combined with those operated by Lancaster City Transport, the local municipal bus operator which ceased trading in 1993. They operate from their depot in White Lund, Morecambe. There is a small depot, no more than 10 parking spaces next to Whittingham's Farming Supplies, in Catterall, near Garstang. Lancaster From 2006-2009, Preston Bus had been experiencing competition from Stagecoach North West. Competition escalated into a bus war with Stagecoach offering lower fares on the busiest routes; the managing director of Preston Bus was concerned that Stagecoach could force his com
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri