Martin Charles Scorsese is an American filmmaker and historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese's body of work addresses such themes as Italian and Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption, machismo, modern crime, gang conflict. Many of his films are known for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity. Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is regarded as one of the most significant and influential filmmakers in cinematic history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation, he is a recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award for his contributions to the cinema, has won an Academy Award, a Palme d'Or, Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award, Silver Lion, Grammy Award, Golden Globes, BAFTAs, Directors Guild of America Awards. He has directed works such as the crime film Mean Streets, the vigilante-thriller Taxi Driver, the biographical sports drama Raging Bull, the black comedies The King of Comedy, After Hours, the religious epic drama The Last Temptation of Christ, the crime film Goodfellas, the psychological thriller Cape Fear and the crime film Casino, some of which he collaborated on with actor and close friend Robert De Niro.
Scorsese has been noted for his successful collaborations with actor Leonardo DiCaprio, having directed him in five films, beginning with Gangs of New York and most The Wolf of Wall Street. Their third film together, The Departed, won Scorsese the Academy Award for Best Director in addition to the film winning the award for Best Picture, their collaborations have resulted in numerous Academy Award nominations for both as well as them winning several other prestigious awards. Scorsese's other film work includes the biographical drama The Aviator, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the historical adventure drama Hugo and the religious epic Silence, his work in television includes the pilot episodes of the HBO series Boardwalk Empire and Vinyl, the latter of which he co-created. With eight Best Director Oscar nominations, he is the most nominated living director and is tied with Billy Wilder for the second-most nominations overall; as a fan of rock music, he has directed several documentaries on the subject, including The Last Waltz, No Direction Home, Shine a Light, George Harrison: Living in the Material World.
Scorsese was born on November 1942, in New York City's Queens borough. His family moved to Little Italy, his father, Charles Scorsese, mother, Catherine Scorsese, both worked in New York's Garment District. His father was a clothes presser and an actor, his mother was a seamstress and an actress, his father's parents emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, in the province of Palermo and his maternal grandparents were from Palermo from Ciminna. Scorsese was raised in a devoutly Catholic environment; as a boy, he had asthma and could not play sports or do any activities with other children, so his parents and his older brother would take him to movie theaters. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese rented Powell and Pressburger's The Tales of Hoffmann from a store that had one copy of the reel. Scorsese was one of only two people who rented that reel. Scorsese has cited Victor Mature as his favorite actors during his youth, he has spoken of the influence of the 1947 Powell and Pressburger film Black Narcissus, whose innovative techniques impacted his filmmaking.
Enamored of historical epics in his adolescence, at least two films of the genre, Land of the Pharaohs and El Cid, appear to have had a deep and lasting impact on his cinematic psyche. Scorsese developed an admiration for neorealist cinema at this time, he recounted its influence in a documentary on Italian neorealism, commented on how Bicycle Thieves alongside Paisà, Open City inspired him and how this influenced his view or portrayal of his Sicilian roots. In his documentary, Il Mio Viaggio in Italia, Scorsese noted that the Sicilian episode of Roberto Rossellini's Paisà, which he first saw on television alongside his relatives, who were themselves Sicilian immigrants, made a significant impact on his life, he acknowledges owing a great debt to the French New Wave and has stated that "the French New Wave has influenced all filmmakers who have worked since, whether they saw the films or not." He has cited filmmakers including Satyajit Ray, Ingmar Bergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini as a major influence on his career.
His initial desire to become a priest attending preparatory seminary but failing after the first year while attending Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx gave way to cinema and Scorsese enrolled in NYU's Washington Square College, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1964. He went on to earn his M. F. A. from NYU's School of the Arts in 1966, a year after the school was founded. Scorsese attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts making the short films What's a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? and It's Not Just You, Murray!. His most famous short of the period is the darkly comic The Big Shave; the film is
Sydney Irwin Pollack was an American film director and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films, his 1985 film Out of Africa won him Academy Awards for producing. He was nominated for Best Director Oscars for They Shoot Horses, Don't They? and Tootsie in which he appeared. Some of his other best known works include Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were, Three Days of the Condor and Absence of Malice, his subsequent films included Havana, The Firm, The Interpreter, he produced and acted in Michael Clayton. Pollack is best known to television viewers for his recurring role playing Will Truman's father on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace. Sydney Pollack was born in Lafayette, Indiana, to a family of Russian-Jewish immigrants, the son of Rebecca and David Pollack, a semi-professional boxer and pharmacist; the family relocated to South Bend and his parents divorced. His mother, who suffered from alcoholism and emotional problems, died at the age of 37 while Pollack was a student.
Despite earlier plans to attend college and medical school, Pollack left Indiana for New York City soon after finishing high school at age 17. Pollack studied acting with Sanford Meisner at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre from 1952–54, working on a lumber truck between terms. After two years army service, ending in 1958, he returned to the Playhouse at Meisner’s invitation to become his assistant. In 1960, John Frankenheimer, a friend of Pollack, asked him to come to Los Angeles in order to work as a dialogue coach for the child actors on Frankenheimer's first big picture, The Young Savages, it was during this time that Pollack met Burt Lancaster who encouraged the young actor to try directing. Pollack played a director in The Twilight Zone episode "The Trouble with Templeton" in 1961, but he found his real success in television in the 1960s by directing episodes of series, such as The Fugitive and The Alfred Hitchcock Hour. After doing TV he made the jump into film with a string of movies.
His film-directing debut was The Slender Thread. Over time, Pollack's films received a total of 48 Academy Award nominations, his first Oscar nomination was for his 1969 film They Shoot Horses, Don't They?, his second in 1982 for Tootsie. For his 1985 film Out of Africa starring Meryl Streep and Robert Redford, Pollack won Academy Awards for directing and producing. During his career, he directed 12 different actors in Oscar-nominated performances: Jane Fonda, Gig Young, Susannah York, Barbra Streisand, Paul Newman, Melinda Dillon, Jessica Lange, Dustin Hoffman, Teri Garr, Meryl Streep, Klaus Maria Brandauer and Holly Hunter. Young and Lange won Oscars for their performances in Pollack's films, his disputes with Hoffman during the filming of Tootsie became well known. Hoffman began pushing the idea that Pollack play the role of his agent and Pollack reluctantly agreed despite not having any film roles in 20 years, their off-screen relationship added authenticity to their scenes in the movie, most of which feature them arguing.
Pollack subsequently took on more acting roles in addition to directing. He appeared as himself in the documentary One Six Right, describing his joy in owning and piloting his Cessna Citation X jet aircraft. One of a select group of non- and/or former actors awarded membership in The Actors Studio, Pollack resumed acting in the 1990s with appearances in such films as The Player and Eyes Wide Shut playing corrupt or morally conflicted power figures; as a character actor, Pollack appeared in films such as A Civil Action, Changing Lanes, as well as his own, including Random Hearts and The Interpreter. He appeared in Woody Allen's Husbands and Wives as a New York lawyer undergoing a midlife crisis, in Robert Zemeckis's Death Becomes Her as an emergency room doctor, his last role was as Patrick Dempsey's father in the 2008 romantic comedy Made of Honor, playing in theaters at the time of his death. He was a recurring guest star on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, playing Will Truman's unfaithful but loving father, George Truman.
In addition to earlier appearances on NBC's Just Shoot Me and Mad About You, in 2007, Pollack made guest appearances on the HBO TV series The Sopranos and Entourage. Pollack received the first annual Extraordinary Contribution to Filmmaking award from the Austin Film Festival on October 21, 2006; as a producer he helped to guide many films that were successful with both critics and movie audiences, such as The Fabulous Baker Boys, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Michael Clayton, a film in which he starred opposite George Clooney and for which he received his sixth Academy Award nomination, in the Best Picture category, he formed a production company called Mirage Enterprises' with the English director Anthony Minghella. The last film they produced together, The Reader, earned them both posthumous Oscar nominations for Best Picture. Besides his many feature film laurels, Pollack was nominated for five Primetime Emmys, earning two: one for directing in 1966 and another for producing, given four months after his death in 2008.
The moving image collection of Sydney Pollack is housed at the Academy Film Archive. In the 2002 Sight and Sound Directors' Poll, Pollack revealed his top ten films: Casablanca, Citizen Kane, The Conformist, The Godfather Part II, Grand Illusion, The Leopard, Once Upon a Time in America, Raging Bull, The Seventh Seal, Sunset Boulevard. Pollack's brother, Bernie, is a costume desig
Robert Bernard Altman was an American film director and producer. A five-time nominee of the Academy Award for Best Director and an enduring figure from the New Hollywood era, Altman was considered a "maverick" in making films with a naturalistic but stylized and satirical aesthetic, unlike most Hollywood films, he is ranked as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in American cinema. His style of filmmaking was unique among directors, in that his subjects covered most genres, but with a "subversive" twist that relies on satire and humor to express his personal vision. Altman developed a reputation for being "anti-Hollywood" and non-conformist in both his themes and directing style. However, actors enjoyed working under his direction because he encouraged them to improvise, thereby inspiring their own creativity, he preferred large ensemble casts for his films, developed a multitrack recording technique which produced overlapping dialogue from multiple actors. This produced a more natural, more dynamic, more complex experience for the viewer.
He used mobile camera work and zoom lenses to enhance the activity taking place on the screen. Critic Pauline Kael, writing about his directing style, said that Altman could "make film fireworks out of next to nothing."In 2006, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognized Altman's body of work with an Academy Honorary Award. He never won a competitive Oscar despite seven nominations, his films MASH, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Nashville have been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. Altman is one of the few filmmakers whose films have won the Golden Bear at Berlin, the Golden Lion at Venice, the Golden Palm at Cannes. Altman was born on February 20, 1925, in Kansas City, the son of Helen, a Mayflower descendant from Nebraska, Bernard Clement Altman, a wealthy insurance salesman and amateur gambler, who came from an upper-class family. Altman's ancestry was German and Irish. Altman had a Catholic upbringing, but he did not continue to follow or practise the religion as an adult, although he has been referred to as "a sort of Catholic" and a Catholic director.
He was educated including Rockhurst High School, in Kansas City. He graduated from Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri in 1943. In 1943 Altman joined the United States Army Air Forces at the age of 18. During World War II, Altman flew more than 50 bombing missions as a crewman on a B-24 Liberator with the 307th Bomb Group in Borneo and the Dutch East Indies. Upon his discharge in 1946, Altman moved to California, he worked in publicity for a company. He entered filmmaking on a whim, selling a script to RKO for the 1948 picture Bodyguard, which he co-wrote with George W. George. Altman's immediate success encouraged him to move to New York City, where he attempted to forge a career as a writer. Having enjoyed little success, in 1949 he returned to Kansas City, where he accepted a job as a director and writer of industrial films for the Calvin Company. In February 2012, an early Calvin film directed by Altman, Modern Football, was found by filmmaker Gary Huggins. Altman directed some 65 industrial films and documentaries before being hired by a local businessman in 1956 to write and direct a feature film in Kansas City on juvenile delinquency.
The film, titled The Delinquents, made for $60,000, was purchased by United Artists for $150,000, released in 1957. While primitive, this teen exploitation film contained the foundations of Altman's work in its use of casual, naturalistic dialogue. With its success, Altman moved from Kansas City to California for the last time, he co-directed The James Dean Story, a documentary rushed into theaters to capitalize on the actor's recent death and marketed to his emerging cult following. Altman's first forays into TV directing were on the DuMont drama series Pulse of the City, an episode of the 1956 western series The Sheriff of Cochise. After Alfred Hitchcock saw Altman's early features The Delinquents and The James Dean Story, he hired him as a director for his CBS anthology series Alfred Hitchcock Presents. After just two episodes, Altman resigned due to differences with a producer, but this exposure enabled him to forge a successful TV career. Over the next decade Altman worked prolifically in television directing multiple episodes of Whirlybirds, The Millionaire, U.
S. Marshal, The Troubleshooters, The Roaring 20s, Bus Stop, Kraft Mystery Theater, Combat!, as well as single episodes of several other notable series including Hawaiian Eye, Lawman, Surfside 6, Peter Gunn, Route 66. Through this early work on industrial films and TV series, Altman experimented with narrative technique and developed his characteristic use of overlapping dialogue, he learned to work and efficiently on a limited budget. During his TV period, though fired for refusing to conform to network mandates, as well as insisting on expressing political subtexts and antiwar sentiments during the Vietnam years, Altman always was able to gain assignments. In 1964, the producers decided to expand "Once Upon a Savage Night", one of his episodes of Kraft Suspense Theatre, for theatrical release under the name, Nightmare in Chicago. Two years Altman was hired to direct the low-budget space travel feature Countdown, but was fired with
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro
Charles Robert Redford Jr. is a retired American actor, director and businessman. He is the founder of the Sundance Film Festival. Redford began acting on television in the late 1950s, including an appearance on The Twilight Zone on January 5, 1962, he earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont. His greatest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of co-star Elizabeth Ashley's character in Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park. Redford made his film debut in War Hunt, his role in Inside Daisy Clover won him a Golden Globe for best new star. He starred in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, a huge success and made him a major star, he had a critical and box office hit with Jeremiah Johnson, in 1973 he had the greatest hit of his career, the blockbuster crime caper The Sting, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award. The popular and acclaimed All the President's Men was a landmark film for Redford. In the 1980s, Redford began as a director with Ordinary People, one of the most critically and publicly acclaimed films of the decade, winning four Oscars including Best Picture and the Academy Award for Best Director for Redford.
He continued acting and starred in Brubaker, as well as playing the male lead in Out of Africa, an enormous box office success and won seven Oscars including Best Picture. He released his third film as a director, A River Runs Through It, in 1992, he went on to receive Best Picture nominations in 1995 for Quiz Show. He received a second Academy Award—for Lifetime Achievement—in 2002. In 2010, he was made a chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur, he has won BAFTA, Directors Guild of America, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild awards. In April 2014, Time magazine included Redford in their annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", declaring him the "Godfather of Indie Film". In 2016, Redford was honored with a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Redford retired from acting after completing the film The Old Man & the Gun, released in October 2018. Redford was born on August 18, 1936, in Santa Monica, California, to Martha W. and Charles Robert Redford Sr. a milkman-turned-accountant.
He has a stepbrother, from his father's remarriage. Redford is of English, Scottish and Scots-Irish ancestry, his paternal great-great grandfather, English-born Elisha Redford, married Irish-Catholic Mary Ann McCreery in Manchester Cathedral. They had a son named the first in line to have been given the name. Redford's family moved to Van Nuys, while his father worked in El Segundo, he attended Van Nuys High School. He has described himself as having been a "bad" student, finding inspiration outside the classroom, being interested in art and sports, he hit tennis balls with Pancho Gonzales at the Los Angeles Tennis Club to warm him up. After graduating from high school in 1954, he attended the University of Colorado Boulder in Boulder, Colorado for a year and a half, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity. While there, he worked at the restaurant/bar The Sink. While at Colorado, Redford began drinking and as a result lost his half-scholarship and was kicked out of school, he traveled in Europe, living in France and Italy.
He studied painting at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and took classes at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. Redford's career, like that of many major stars who emerged in the 1950s, began in New York City, where an actor could find work both on stage and in television, his Broadway debut was in a small role in Tall Story, followed by parts in The Highest Tree and Sunday in New York. His biggest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of Elizabeth Ashley in Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park. Starting in 1960, Redford appeared as a guest star on numerous television drama programs, including Naked City, The Untouchables, The Americans, Whispering Smith, Perry Mason, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, Playhouse 90, The Twilight Zone, Captain Brassbound's Conversion with a young Christopher Plummer, among others. In 1960, Redford was cast as Danny Tilford, a mentally disturbed young man trapped in the wreckage of his family garage, in "Breakdown", one of the last episodes of the syndicated adventure series, Rescue 8, starring Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries.
Redford earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont. One of his last television appearances was on October 7, 1963, on Breaking Point, an ABC medical drama about psychiatry. Redford made his screen debut in Tall Story in a minor role; the film's stars were Anthony Perkins, Jane Fonda, Ray Walston. After his Broadway success, he was cast in larger feature roles in movies. In 1962 Redford got his second film role in War Hunt, was soon after cast alongside screen legend Alec Guinness in the war comedy Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious, in which he played a soldier who spends years of his life hiding behind enemy lines. In Inside Daisy Clover, which won him a Golden Globe for best new star, he played a bisexual movie star who marries starlet Natalie Wood, rejoined her along with Charles Bronson for Sydney Pollack's This Property Is Condemned —again, as her lover, though this time in a film which achieved greater success; the same year saw h
John David Landis is an American film director, screenwriter and producer. He is best known for the comedy films that he has directed, such as National Lampoon's Animal House, The Blues Brothers, An American Werewolf in London, Trading Places, Three Amigos, Coming to America and Beverly Hills Cop III, for directing Michael Jackson's music videos for "Thriller" and "Black or White". Landis was born into a Jewish family in Chicago, the son of Shirley Levine and Marshall Landis, an interior designer and decorator. Landis and his parents relocated to Los Angeles. Though spending his childhood in California, Landis still refers to Chicago as his hometown, is a big fan of the Chicago White Sox baseball team; when Landis was a young boy, he watched The 7th Voyage of Sinbad which inspired him to become a director: I had complete suspension of disbelief—really, I was eight years old and it transported me. I was on that beach running from that dragon, it just dazzled me, I bought it completely. And so, I sat through it twice and when I got home, I asked my mom, "Who does that?
Who makes the movie?" Landis began his film career working as a mailboy at 20th Century Fox. He worked as a "go-fer" and as an assistant director during filming MGM's Kelly's Heroes in Yugoslavia in 1969. During that time Landis became acquainted with actors Don Rickles and Donald Sutherland, both of whom would work in his films. Following Kelly's Heroes, Landis worked on several films that were shot in Europe, including Once Upon a Time in the West, El Condor and A Town Called Bastard. Landis worked as a stunt double. I worked on all kind of movies. French foreign movies. I worked on a movie called Red Sun where Toshiro Mifune kills me, puts a sword through me.... I worked as a stunt guy. I worked as a dialogue coach. I worked as an actor. I worked as a production assistant. Landis made his directorial debut with Schlock, he was 21 years old. The film, which he wrote and appeared in, is a tribute to monster movies; the gorilla suit for the film was made by Rick Baker—the beginning of a long-term collaboration between Landis and Baker.
Though complete in 1971, it was not released until 1973 that Schlock was released after it caught the attention of Johnny Carson. Carson was a fan of the film and invited Landis as a guest on The Tonight Show, showing clips from the film and in the process bringing attention to it. Schlock has since gained a cult following, but Landis has described the film as "terrible". Landis was hired to directed The Kentucky Fried Movie after David Zucker saw his Tonight Show appearance; the film was inspired by the satirical sketch comedy of shows like Monty Python, Free the Army, The National Lampoon Radio Hour and Saturday Night Live. It is notable for being the first film written by the Zucker and Zucker team, who would have success with Airplane! and The Naked Gun trilogy. Sean Daniel, an assistant to Universal executive Thom Mount, saw The Kentucky Fried Movie and recommend Landis to direct Animal House based on that. Landis says of the screenplay, "It was literally one of the funniest things I read.
It had a nasty edge like National Lampoon. I told him it was wonderful smart and funny, but everyone’s a pig for one thing." While it received mixed reviews, it was a massive financial success, earning over $120 million at the domestic box office, making it the highest grossing comedy film of its time. It's success started the gross out film genre, it featured the screen debuts of John Belushi, Karen Allen and Kevin Bacon. In 1980, he co-wrote and directed The Blues Brothers, a comedy starring John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd, it featured musical numbers by R&B and soul legends James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles and John Lee Hooker. It was, at the time, one of the most expensive films made, costing $30 million, it is speculated that Spielberg and Landis engaged in a rivalry, the goal of, to make the more expensive movie. The rivalry might have been a friendly one, as Spielberg makes a cameo appearance in Blues Brothers and Landis had made a cameo in 1941 as a messenger. In 1981, Landis wrote and directed another cult-status movie, the comedy-horror An American Werewolf in London.
It was Landis's most personal project. It was another commercial success for Landis and inspired studios to put comedic elements in their horror films. On July 23, 1982, during the filming of Twilight Zone, actor Vic Morrow and child extras Myca Dinh Le and Renee Shin-Yi Chen were killed in an accident involving an out-of-control helicopter; the three were caught under the aircraft. The National Transportation Safety Board reported in October 1984: The probable cause of the accident was the detonation of debris-laden high temperature special effects explosions too near a low-flying helicopter leading to foreign object damage to one rotor blade and delamination due to heat to the other rotor blade, the separation of the helicopter's tail rotor assembly, the uncontrolled descent of the helicopter; the proximity of the helicopter to the special effects explosions was due to the failure to establish direct communications and coordination between the pilot, in command
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement. Copyright infringement disputes are resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system. Shifting public expectations, advances in digital technology, the increasing reach of the Internet have led to such widespread, anonymous infringement that copyright-dependent industries now focus less on pursuing individuals who seek and share copyright-protected content online, more on expanding copyright law to recognize and penalize, as indirect infringers, the service providers and software distributors who are said to facilitate and encourage individual acts of infringement by others.
Estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary and depend on many factors. Copyright holders, industry representatives, legislators have long characterized copyright infringement as piracy or theft – language which some U. S. courts now regard otherwise contentious. The terms piracy and theft are associated with copyright infringement; the original meaning of piracy is "robbery or illegal violence at sea", but the term has been in use for centuries as a synonym for acts of copyright infringement. Theft, emphasizes the potential commercial harm of infringement to copyright holders. However, copyright is a type of intellectual property, an area of law distinct from that which covers robbery or theft, offenses related only to tangible property. Not all copyright infringement results in commercial loss, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in 1985 that infringement does not equate with theft; this was taken further in the case MPAA v. Hotfile, where Judge Kathleen M. Williams granted a motion to deny the MPAA the usage of words whose appearance was "pejorative".
This list included the word "piracy", the use of which, the motion by the defense stated, serves no court purpose but to misguide and inflame the jury. The term "piracy" has been used to refer to the unauthorized copying and selling of works in copyright; the practice of labelling the infringement of exclusive rights in creative works as "piracy" predates statutory copyright law. Prior to the Statute of Anne in 1710, the Stationers' Company of London in 1557, received a Royal Charter giving the company a monopoly on publication and tasking it with enforcing the charter; those who violated the charter were labelled pirates as early as 1603. Article 12 of the 1886 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works uses the term "piracy" in relation to copyright infringement, stating "Pirated works may be seized on importation into those countries of the Union where the original work enjoys legal protection." Article 61 of the 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights requires criminal procedures and penalties in cases of "willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale."
Piracy traditionally refers to acts of copyright infringement intentionally committed for financial gain, though more copyright holders have described online copyright infringement in relation to peer-to-peer file sharing networks, as "piracy". Richard Stallman and the GNU Project have criticized the use of the word "piracy" in these situations, saying that publishers use the word to refer to "copying they don't approve of" and that "they imply that it is ethically equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas and murdering the people on them." Copyright holders refer to copyright infringement as theft. In copyright law, infringement does not refer to theft of physical objects that take away the owner's possession, but an instance where a person exercises one of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder without authorization. Courts have distinguished between copyright theft. For instance, the United States Supreme Court held in Dowling v. United States that bootleg phonorecords did not constitute stolen property.
Instead, "interference with copyright does not equate with theft, conversion, or fraud. The Copyright Act employs a separate term of art to define one who misappropriates a copyright:' an infringer of the copyright.'" The court said that in the case of copyright infringement, the province guaranteed to the copyright holder by copyright law – certain exclusive rights – is invaded, but no control, physical or otherwise, is taken over the copyright, nor is the copyright holder wholly deprived of using the copyrighted work or exercising the exclusive rights held. A 1979 East German court ruling found that software was "neither a scientific work nor a creative achievement" and ineligible for copyright protection, legalizing software copying in the country; the term "freebooting" has been used to describe the unauthorized copying of online media videos, onto websites such as Facebook, YouTube or Twitter. The word itself had been in use since the 16th century, referring to pirates, meant "looting" or "plundering".
This form of the word – a portmanteau of "freeloading" and "bootlegging" – was suggested by YouTuber and podcaster Brad