Pacific Gas and Electric Company
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company is an investor-owned electric utility with publicly traded stock that is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco. PG&E provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, PG&E is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission. It is the subsidiary of the holding company PG&E Corporation which has a market capitalization of $29.37 billion. It was founded by George H. Roe during the period after Californias Gold Rush, PG&E is one of three regulated, investor-owned utilities s in California—the other two being Southern California Edison and Sempra Energys San Diego Gas & Electric. In the 1850s, manufactured gas was introduced in the United States as a means of lighting, gasworks were built in the larger eastern American cities, but there was no gas industry in the West, however. In San Francisco, street lighting was available only on Merchant Street, Joseph G. Eastland, an engineer and clerk at the foundry, joined them in gathering as much information on gas making as they could find.
The council specified that gas should be supplied to households at such rates as will make it to their interest to use it in preference to any other material. The Donahue brothers and Eastland incorporated the San Francisco Gas Company on August 31,1852, the company became the first gas utility in the West. Its official seal bore the inscription Fiat Lux—let there be light—the same slogan adopted by the University of California, there were 11 original stockholders, and the three Donahue brothers subscribed for 610 of the 1,500 shares. The original location for the gas works was bounded by First, Fremont and Natoma streets south of Market, work on the plant started in November,1852, and it was ready for operation only a few months later. On the night of February 11,1854, the streets of San Francisco were for the first time lighted by gas, to celebrate the event, the company held a gala banquet at the Oriental Hotel. Gas lighting quickly gained public favor, in the first year of operation, there were 237 customers.
That number more than doubled the year, to 563. By the end of 1855, the company had more than 6 ½ miles of pipe and 154 street lamps were in operation. The growing popularity of gas light led to the establishment of competing gas companies, including Aubin Patent Gas Company and these smaller companies were quickly acquired by the San Francisco Gas Company. However, one rival provided serious competition, the City Gas Company was founded in April 1870 by the Bank of California to compete with the gas monopoly held by the Donahue brothers operation. City Gas began operation in 1872 and initiated a war with the San Francisco Gas Company. In 1873, the companies negotiated their consolidation as a compromise, on April 1,1873, the San Francisco Gas Light Company was formed, representing a merger of the San Francisco Gas Company, the City Gas Company, and the Metropolitan Gas Company
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, rain, tides and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas, electricity generation and water heating/cooling, based on REN21s 2016 report, renewables contributed 19. 2% to humans global energy consumption and 23. 7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8. 9% coming from biomass,4. 2% as heat energy,3. 9% hydro electricity and 2. 2% is electricity from wind, geothermal. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015, with countries like China, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer. As of 2015 worldwide, more than half of all new electricity capacity installed was renewable, Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries.
Rapid deployment of energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation. In international public opinion there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade, for example, in Denmark the government decided to switch the total energy supply to 100% renewable energy by 2050. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. Renewable energy systems are becoming more efficient and cheaper. Their share of energy consumption is increasing. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables, in its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.
Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, ocean, biomass, geothermal resources, rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. New government spending and policies helped the industry weather the financial crisis better than many other sectors. As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Some countries have much higher long-term policy targets of up to 100% renewables, outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020–2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50%
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
Government of San Francisco
It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and one of only thirteen charter counties of California. The fiscal year 2007–08 city and county budget was approximately $6 billion, San Francisco utilizes the strong mayor form of mayoral/council government, composed of the mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities. San Francisco voters use ranked-choice voting to elect the mayor, the Mayor of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the city and county government. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office, the Board of Supervisors is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets. Proposition K - 2009-2034, Different formula for local streets and local and regional public transit, pursuant to its charter, San Francisco causes to be published several codified version of its ordinances and regulations, the San Francisco Municipal Codes.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, and every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, San Franciscans make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. In addition, several regional governmental units in San Francisco operate independently of the municipal government, there are several school districts that are co-extensive with San Francisco. The San Francisco Unified School District is governed by the elected seven-member San Francisco Board of Education, the community college district of the City College of San Francisco is governed by an elected seven-member Board of Trustees. Also notable are the independent police forces of the University of California, San Francisco and the Park Police of the Presidio Trust and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The San Francisco Democratic Central Committee, the body of the San Francisco Democratic Party, is a county central committee of the California Democratic Party for San Francisco. The SFDCC is elected from the two Assembly districts in San Francisco and consists of 24 members, with a 14/10 member split between the two Assembly districts based on number of registered Democrats
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28,1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, in recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include promoting green energy, mitigating global warming, in 2015 Sierra Club launched its activism platform AddUp. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses, rock climbs, the Sierra Club is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors. Each year, five directors are elected to terms. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members, the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group. Michael Brune, formerly of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the executive director since 2010. Pope stepped down amid discontent that the group had strayed from its core principles, Sierra Club members belong to statewide chapters and local groups.
National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues, the national Sierra Club sets the organizations policy agenda. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an association to protect the Sierra Nevada. Others involved in the planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte. The Sierra Clubs charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914, Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, and two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government. The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the second national park. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from resource management conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams.
Gifford Pinchot, a supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service. Muir appealed to his friend U. S. President Roosevelt and attorney William Edward Colby began a national campaign against the dam, attracting the support of many eastern conservationists. With the 1912 election of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, the bill to dam Hetch Hetchy passed Congress in 1913, and so the Sierra Club lost its first major battle
John Avalos is an American politician. He was member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 11, the district consists of the Crocker-Amazon, Ingleside and Outer Mission districts. Avalos was elected on November 4,2008 in the 2008 San Francisco elections and he was termed out of office and succeeded in January 2017 by Ahsha Safaí. Avalos was born in Wilmington and his mother, an office manager, and his father, a member of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, raised seven children. His parents divorced when he was young, and his mother cared for them on her own, Avalos moved to Andover, Massachusetts as a teenager and graduated from Andover High School in 1982. Avalos earned a degree in English from University of California, Santa Barbara. He was the first person in his family to graduate from college, Avalos worked as an educator and counselor for the Columbia Park Boys and Girls Club, Mission Neighborhood Health Center, and San Francisco Conservation Corps.
For four years before being elected to the Board of Supervisors, District 11 includes the Outer Mission, Oceanview, Merced Heights and Ingleside neighborhoods. As chair of the Budget and Finance Committee in 2009 and 2010, John Avalos led the Board of Supervisors effort to approve budgets, in January 2011, Avalos was appointed to serve as chair of the City Operations and Neighborhood Services Committee. In June 2010, Avalos introduced a resolution condemning Israels military attack on the freedom flotilla, on Tuesday, December 14,2010, Avalos local hiring ordinance passed with an 8-3 vote. This legislation mandates that up to 50% of labor hours on San Francisco public works go to San Francisco residents. Requirements start at 20% in the first year, building up to 50% after seven years, Avalos voted to reinstate Ross Mirkarimi as sheriff after Mayor Ed Lee initiated official removal proceedings against Sheriff Mirkarimi. Avalos said that removing Mirkarimi would be a precedent to set. In the charging documents, Lee alleged a list of behaviors that Lee believed constituted official misconduct and he questioned whether Milk, who served as a Navy diver and dive instructor before becoming a politician, would want his name on the Navy vessel.
Given that Milk was deceased, Avalos used a Ouija board to ask Milks opinion, the ship was named after Milk, who honorably served his countrys Navy, despite the protest from Avalos. In 2013 Avalos sponsored legislation to prohibit San Francisco from complying with Federal authorities requests to hold illegal immigrants who may be subject to deportation. In 2015, Avalos railed on Twitter against San Franciscos yearly Fleet Week which draws thousands of people along with hundreds of thousands of dollars for the local economy. Slamming the Navy and its Blue Angel flight team even though the majority of San Franciscos population supports Fleet Week, in 2016, Avalos stated that he wants to ban the U. S