Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. "Garbage" can refer to food waste, as in a garbage disposal. In the European Union, the semantic definition is'mixed municipal waste,' given waste code 20 03 01 in the European Waste Catalog. Although the waste may originate from a number of sources that has nothing to do with a municipality, the traditional role of municipalities in collecting and managing these kinds of waste have produced the particular etymology'municipal.' The composition of municipal solid waste varies from municipality to municipality, it changes with time. In municipalities which have a well developed waste recycling system, the waste stream consists of intractable wastes such as plastic film and non-recyclable packaging materials. At the start of the 20th century, the majority of domestic waste in the UK consisted of coal ash from open fires. In developed areas without significant recycling activity it predominantly includes food wastes, market wastes, yard wastes, plastic containers and product packaging materials, other miscellaneous solid wastes from residential, commercial and industrial sources.
Most definitions of municipal solid waste do not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, medical waste, radioactive waste or sewage sludge. Waste collection is performed by the municipality within a given area; the term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for processing. Waste can be classified in several ways but the following list represents a typical classification: Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper Recyclable materials: paper, glass, jars, tin cans, aluminum cans, aluminum foil, certain plastics, clothes, batteries, etc. Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, rocks, debris Electrical and electronic waste - electrical appliances, light bulbs, washing machines, TVs, screens, mobile phones, alarm clocks, etc. Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastics such as toys Hazardous waste including most paints, tires, light bulbs, electrical appliances, fluorescent lamps, aerosol spray cans, fertilizers Toxic waste including pesticides and fungicides Biomedical waste, expired pharmaceutical drugs, etc.
The municipal solid waste industry has four components: recycling, composting and waste-to-energy via incineration. There is no single approach that can be applied to the management of all waste streams, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency, a U. S. federal government agency, developed a hierarchy ranking strategy for municipal solid waste. The Waste Management Hierarchy is made up of four levels ordered from most preferred to least preferred methods based on their environmental soundness: Source reduction and reuse; the functional element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable materials, but the transport of these materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied. This location may be a materials processing facility, a transfer station or a landfill disposal site. Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in storage containers for collection. Handling encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection.
Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source of collection. The types of means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of waste materials that have been separated at the source include curbside collection, drop-off and buy-back centers; the separation and processing of wastes that have been separated at the source and the separation of commingled wastes occur at a materials recovery facility, transfer stations, combustion facilities and treatment plants. This element involves two main steps. First, the waste is transferred from a smaller collection vehicle to larger transport equipment; the waste is transported over long distances, to a processing or disposal site. Today, the disposal of wastes by land filling or land spreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes, whether they are residential wastes collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual materials from materials recovery facilities, residue from the combustion of solid waste, compost, or other substances from various solid waste processing facilities.
A modern sanitary landfill is not a dump. In the recent years environmental organizations, such as Freegle or Freecycle Network, have been gaining popularity for their online reuse networks; these networks provide a worldwide online registry of unwanted items that would otherwise be thrown away, for individuals and nonprofits to reuse or recycle. Therefore, this free Internet-based service reduces landfill pollution and promotes the gift economy. Landfills are created by land dumping. Land dumping methods vary, most it involves the mass dumping of waste into a designated area a hole or sidehill. After the waste is dumped, it is then
Sewage is a type of wastewater, produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition and toxic constituents, its bacteriologic status, it consists of greywater, blackwater. Sewage travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility. Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design; the reality is, that most wastewater produced globally remains untreated causing widespread water pollution in low-income countries: A global estimate by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater generated is released into the environment untreated. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only; the term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by "wastewater". In general American English usage, the terms "sewage" and "sewerage" mean the same thing.
In common British usage, in American technical and professional English usage, "sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage. Before the 20th century, sewers discharged into a body of water such as a stream, lake, bay, or ocean. There was no treatment, so the breakdown of the human waste was left to the ecosystem. Today, the goal is that sewers route their contents to a wastewater treatment plant rather than directly to a body of water. In many countries, this is the norm. Current approaches to sewage management may include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from blackwater, coping better with abnormal events. Proper collection and safe, nuisance-free disposal of the liquid wastes of a community are recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society; the wastewater from residences and institutions, carrying bodily wastes, washing water, food preparation wastes, laundry wastes, other waste products of normal living, are classed as domestic or sanitary sewage.
Liquid-carried wastes from stores and service establishments serving the immediate community, termed commercial wastes, are included in the sanitary or domestic sewage category if their characteristics are similar to household flows. Wastes that result from industrial processes such as the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial wastewater, not as sewage. Surface runoff known as storm flow or overland flow, is that portion of precipitation that runs over the ground surface to a defined channel. Precipitation absorbs gases and particulates from the atmosphere and leaches materials from vegetation and soil, suspends matter from the land, washes spills and debris from urban streets and highways, carries all these pollutants as wastes in its flow to a collection point. Sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals, with many distinctive chemical characteristics; these include high concentrations of ammonium, nitrogen, high conductivity, high alkalinity, with pH ranging between 7 and 8.
The organic matter of sewage is measured by determining its biological oxygen demand or the chemical oxygen demand. Sewage contains human feces, therefore contains pathogens of one of the four types: Bacteria, Viruses and Parasites such as helminths and their eggs Sewage can be monitored for both disease-causing and benign organisms with a variety of techniques. Traditional techniques involve filtering and examining samples under a microscope. Much more sensitive and specific testing can be accomplished with DNA sequencing, such as when looking for rare organisms, attempting eradication, testing for drug-resistant strains, or discovering new species. Sequencing DNA from an environmental sample is known as metagenomics. Sewage contains environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants. Trihalomethanes can be present as a result of past disinfection. Sewage has been analyzed to determine relative rates of use of prescription and illegal drugs among municipal populations. All categories of sewage are to carry pathogenic organisms that can transmit disease to humans and animals.
Sewage contains organic matter that can cause odor and attract flies. Sewage contains nutrients. A system of sewer pipes takes it for treatment or disposal; the system of sewers is called sewerage or sewerage system in British English and sewage system in American English. Where a main sewerage system has not been provided, sewage may be collected from homes by pipes into septic tanks or cesspits, where it may be treated or collected in vehicles and taken for treatment or disposal. Properly functioning septic tanks require emptying every 2–
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value recovered metals, non-metallic materials are recovered for recycling. Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments. A "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. Scrap is taken to a wrecking yard, where it is processed for melting into new products. A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters, although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap do not selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. Customers are required to supply all of their own tools and labor to extract parts, some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering.
Many scrapyards sell bulk metals by weight at prices below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces. A scrap metal shredder is used to recycle items containing a variety of other materials in combination with steel. Examples are automobiles and white goods such as refrigerators, clothes washers, etc; these items are labor-intensive to manually sort things like plastic, copper and brass. By shredding into small pieces, the steel can be separated out magnetically; the non-ferrous waste stream requires other techniques to sort. In contrast to wrecking yards, scrapyards sell everything by weight, instead of by item. To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs. If a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight.
Equipment containing parts of various metals can be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labor of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled. Scrap prices may vary markedly over time and in different locations. Prices are negotiated among buyers and sellers directly or indirectly over the Internet. Prices displayed. Other prices are not updated frequently; some scrap yards' websites have updated scrap prices. In the US, scrap prices are reported in a handful of publications, including American Metal Market, based on confirmed sales as well as reference sites such as Scrap Metal Prices and Auctions. Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index report on the US scrap price, which has become important to global export markets. Scrap yards directories are used by recyclers to find facilities in the US and Canada, allowing users to get in contact with yards. With resources online for recyclers to look at for scrapping tips, like web sites and search engines, scrapping is referred to as a hands and labor-intensive job.
Taking apart and separating metals is important to making more money on scrap, for tips like using a magnet to determine ferrous and non-ferrous materials, that can help recyclers make more money on their metal recycling. When a magnet sticks to the metal, it will be a ferrous material, like iron; this is a less expensive item, recycled but is recycled in larger quantities of thousands of pounds. Non-ferrous metals like copper and brass do not stick to a magnet; some cheaper grades of stainless steel are other grades are not. These items are higher priced commodities for metal recycling and are important to separate when recycling them; the prices of non-ferrous metals tend to fluctuate more than ferrous metals so it is important for recyclers to pay attention to these sources and the overall markets. Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material present in scrap causes death, injury, or environmental damage. A classic example is radioactivity in scrap.
Toxic materials such as asbestos, toxic metals such as beryllium and mercury may pose dangers to personnel, as well as contaminating materials intended for metal smelters. Many specialized tools used in scrapyards are hazardous, such as the alligator shear, which cuts metal using hydraulic force and scrap metal shredders. According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield: 75% savings in energy. 90% savings in raw materials used. 86% reduction in air pollution. 40% reduction in water use. 76% reduction in water pollution. 97% reduction in mining wastes. Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves: 1,115 kg of iron ore. 625 kg of coal. 53 kg of limestone. Energy savings from other metals include: Aluminium savings of 95% energy. Copper savings of 85% energy. Lead savings of 65% energy. Zinc savings of 60% energy; the metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals.
The more recycled metals are scrap steel, lead, copper, stainless steel and zinc. There are two main categories of metals: ferrous and
The bicentenary of Australia was celebrated in 1988. It marked 200 years since the arrival of the First Fleet of British convict ships at Sydney in 1788; the bicentennial year marked Captain Arthur Phillip's arrival with the 11 ships of the First Fleet in Sydney Harbour in 1788, the founding of the city of Sydney and the colony of New South Wales. 1988 is considered the official bicentenary year of the founding of Australia. The Australian Bicentenary was marked by pomp and ceremony across Australia to mark the anniversary of the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney in 1788; the Australian Bicentennial Authority, pursuant to the Australian Bicentennial Authority Act 1980, was set up to plan and coordinate projects that emphasized the nation's cultural heritage. State Councils were created to ensure cooperation between the federal and state governments; the result was a national programme of events and celebrations to commemorate the Bicentenary, including: Australia Live, a television special on New Year's Night the arrival of the First Fleet Re-enactment Voyage in Sydney Harbour on Australia Day World Expo 88 in Brisbane, the largest event of these celebrations Australian Bicentennial Exhibition, toured throughout Australia all Australian schoolchildren were presented with a Bicentennial "Heritage Medallion" the issue by the NSW Department of Motor Transport of over 160,000 commemorative Bicentennial number plates which were sold at a premium the painting of A class locomotive A66 by regional Victorian train operator V/Line in a unique green and gold livery featuring the official ABA Bicentennial Logo and the wording 1788 Australian Bicentennary 1988 Aus Steam'88, a railway display of steam locomotives at Spencer Street Station the Australian Bicentennial Airshow held at RAAF Richmond the 1988 Women's Cricket World Cup, held in Perth and Melbourne, branded as the Bicentennial World Cup the 1988 Youth Cricket World Cup, held in Sydney and Adelaide, branded as the McDonald's Bicentennial Youth World Cup Trans-Australia hot air balloon Race, Perth to Sydney March 30, 1988 the Bicentennial Classic, held at Royal Melbourne Golf Club the issuing of "expo dollars" by various Australian states in several denominationsThe opening ceremony of the 16th World Scout Jamboree, which took place at midnight on 31 December 1987, was the first official event of Australia's Bicentenary.
In collaboration with state governments, the Commonwealth/State Bicentennial Commemorative Program was established with the development of Heritage Trails in each state. On Australia Day, Sydney Harbour hosted a re-enactment of the arrival of the First Fleet; the Hawke Government refused to fund the First Fleet re-enactment, because it believed this might offend Indigenous Australians. Radio 2 GB in Sydney held a fund raising appeal to keep the re-enactment on track; the government instead funded a rival display of Tall Ships which sailed up Australia's east coast and entered Sydney Harbour on the day, it was felt that this was more acceptable to the Indigenous community. Australia's floral emblem was declared to be the Golden Wattle Acacia pycnantha; the Gazettal was signed by the Governor General, Sir Ninian Stephen, on 19 August 1988. A ceremony was held on 1 September 1988 at the Australian National Botanic Gardens; the Minister for Home Affairs, Robert Ray, made the formal announcement and the Prime Minister's wife, Mrs Hazel Hawke, planted a Golden Wattle 1988 was marked by the completion of many unique development projects such as the Bicentennial National Trail and on 9 May of that year, Queen Elizabeth II opened the New Parliament House in Canberra.
As well as this, the modern Darling Harbour precinct was completed and opened, as was the modern Sydney Football Stadium. It was marked by the creation of one of Australia's most significant art works, the Aboriginal Memorial, which commemorated those Indigenous Australians who died as a result of European settlement. Other events included a series of bonfires lit around Australia. A celebration featuring motor cycle riders from around Australia was held in Canberra during the year. Not all events went well with the disastrous Round Australia Yacht Race claiming several lives and being the subject of legal action. A new musical Manning Clark's History of Australia, directed by John Bell, loosely based on the life of historian Manning Clark opened in January at Princess Theatre to coincide with the Bicentenary, but facing poor reviews and concomitant lack of attendance, closed before the end of February. Significant improvements to Australian roads were made through the Australian Bicentennial Road Development Program.
The event triggered debate on Australian national identity, Aboriginal rights, historical interpretation and multiculturalism. The event was viewed as controversial. Planning for the event raised issues of historical interpretation; some wanted to remember the colonisation as an invasion while others wanted it to focus on historical re-enactments. The Uniting Church in Australia wanted people to boycott the event unless Aboriginal rights were recognised; the official slogan was "Living Together". Former Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser intervened to change the motto to "The Australian Achievement" in order to be more celebratory. Bob Hawke restored the original motto; the response from the right wing in the country was loud. The Institute of Public Affairs suggested; the historian Geoffrey Blainey claimed the Bicentenary was attempting to re-write the British out of the history of
The Canberra Times
The Canberra Times is a daily newspaper in Canberra, published by Fairfax Media part of Nine Entertainment Co.. The Canberra Times was launched in 1926 by Thomas Shakespeare along with his oldest son Arthur Shakespeare and two younger sons Christopher and James; the newspaper's headquarters were located in the Civic retail precinct, in Cooyong Street and Mort Street, in blocks bought by Thomas Shakespeare in the first sale of Canberra leases in 1924. The newspaper's first issue was published on 3 September 1926, it was the second paper to be printed in the first being The Federal Capital Pioneer. Between September 1926 and February 1928, the newspaper was a weekly issue; the first daily issue was 28 February 1928. In June 1956, The Canberra Times converted from broadsheet to tabloid format. Arthur Shakespeare sold the paper to John Fairfax Ltd in 1964, on the condition that it continue to advocate for Canberra. Soon after, in July 1964, the format was switched back to broadsheet and printing was moved to Fairfax's newly installed press in Fyshwick.
Offices remained open in the civic retail precinct until April 1987 when The Canberra Times moved its entire operation to the new office of The Federal Capital Press of Australia in Fyshwick. The paper was sold to Publishing and Broadcasting Limited, which in turn sold it to Kerry Stokes in 1989 for $110 million. Rural Press Limited bought the paper from Stokes in 1998 for $160 million; the Times rejoined the Fairfax stable in 2007. The paper first went online on 31 March 1997. In 2008, The Canberra Times printed a formal apology after the paper published an essay in which Irfan Yusuf falsely accused American historian Daniel Pipes of suggesting that Muslims deserved to be slaughtered as Jews were during the Holocaust. On 17 October 2008, The Canberra Times was distributed with a sticker advertising the ACT Labor Party on the front page. Complaints about the sticker prompted Ken Nichols, to issue an explanation. In October 2013, Fairfax Media announced that The Canberra Times would be restructured to join the Australian Community Media Group of regional and community newspapers, shifting from the metropolitan news division of Fairfax.
A new editorial leadership team was appointed in November 2015, with Grant Newton as editor of the newspaper and Scott Hannaford as deputy editor and news director. In March 2016, staff at the newspaper were told there would be a restructure at The Canberra Times and that the paper would move from a broadsheet format to a tabloid. Fairfax Media announced they would be cutting 12 jobs from the newspaper's staff; the paper's editors have included Jack Waterford and Michelle Grattan, the first female editor of a metropolitan daily newspaper in Australia. A recent editor-in-chief, Peter Fray, left in January 2009 to edit The Sydney Morning Herald, he was succeeded by Rod Quinn, who announced the formation of a new senior editorial team in 2012. Editorial cartoonists have included David Pope and Pat Campbell. List of newspapers in Australia The Canberra Times The Canberra Times at Trove
Ian Bruce Carrick Kiernan was an Australian yachtsman, property developer and environmental campaigner and conservationist, known for co-founding with Kim McKay the not-for-profit Clean Up Australia campaign in 1989 and, in 1993, a similar Clean Up the World operation, serving as the event's chairman, the annual initiative attracted participation from 30 million volunteers in 80 countries. Kiernan was born in Sydney to Leslie Katherine Kiernan, he was educated at The Scots College in Sydney, The Armidale School in northern New South Wales, the Sydney Technical College, where he trained as a builder. Kiernan was a yachtsman, sailing competitively for more than 40 years and representing Australia at the Admiral's, Southern Cross, Clipper and Trans Pacific Cup competitions. In 1986/87 Kiernan represented Australia in the BOC Challenge solo around-the-world yacht race, he finished 6th out of a fleet of 25 yachts from 11 countries, setting an Australian record for a solo circumnavigation of the world.
He died on 16 October 2018 in Sydney at the age of 78. He is survived by son Jack. During the BOC Challenge, Kiernan was appalled by the amount of rubbish choking the world's oceans. With the support of a committee of friends, he organised a community event – Clean Up Sydney Harbour on Sunday 8 January 1989. 40,000 volunteers collected over 5000 tonnes. The success of the first event in 1989 sparked national interest. Since more than seven million people have heeded the call through annual Clean Up Australia Days, Friday Schools Clean Up Days and Business Clean Ups. Clean up Australia's mission is "To inspire and work with communities to clean up and fix up our Earth." The first "Clean Up the World" event took place in 1993. By 2007 some 35 million people from 80 nations turned out to clean up their part of the world and in 2017 it was estimated that 120 nations took part. Kiernan's environmental efforts were recognised in 1991 when the Australian Government awarded him the Medal of the Order of Australia.
He was awarded Australian of the Year in 1994. During the ceremony he assisted the Premier of New South Wales, John Fahey, stopping a "pseudo assassination" attempt on Charles, Prince of Wales. In 1995, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia. In 1998, Kiernan was the recipient of the UNEP Sasakawa Prize; the prize is awarded every year to individuals with an established track record of achievement and the potential to make outstanding contributions to the protection and management of the environment consistent with UNEP's policies and objectives. He received the World Citizenship Award from the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1999. In 2001, Kiernan was awarded the Centenary Medal for "service to the Clean Up Australia Campaign and the Clean up the World Campaign". In 2006 Kiernan received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Trust of Australia; the 2007 Reader's Digest "Most Trusted Poll" voted Clean Up Australia as the country's most trusted environmental charity and Kiernan as the fourth "most trustworthy" Australian.
In 2008 in the same poll Kiernan was ranked number three. Kiernan was the recipient of Toastmasters International Communications and Leadership Award, the Berger-Sullivan Tourism Award, the International Banksia Award and the 1999 Building World Citizenship Award. In 2014, Kiernan pleaded guilty to a DUI charge in Sydney, following a previous charge for the same offence in 1998; this record was cited by the New South Wales Government when Kiernan was overlooked for the honour of having a Sydney ferry named after him
Biosolids is a term used for several types of treated sewage sludges that can be used as soil conditioner. Treated sewage sludge has long been used in agriculture, but there are concerns about offensive odors and disease risks from pathogens and toxic chemicals; this may reduce public acceptance of such reuse activities. Biosolids may be defined as organic wastewater solids that can be reused after suitable sewage sludge treatment processes leading to sludge stabilization such as anaerobic digestion and composting. Alternatively, the biosolids definition may be restricted by local regulations to wastewater solids only after those solids have completed a specified treatment sequence and/or have concentrations of pathogens and toxic chemicals below specified levels; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines the two terms – sewage sludge and biosolids – in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 503 as follows: Sewage sludge refers to the solids separated during the treatment of municipal wastewater, while biosolids refers to treated sewage sludge that meets the EPA pollutant and pathogen requirements for land application and surface disposal.
A similar definition has been used internationally, for example in Australia. Use of the term "biosolids" may be subject to government regulations. However, informal use describes a broad range of semi-solid organic products produced from sewage or sewage sludge; this could include any solids, slime solids or liquid slurry residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage including scum and solids removed during primary, secondary or advanced treatment processes. Materials that do not conform to the regulatory definition of "biosolids" can be given alternative terms like "wastewater solids". 7.1 million dry tons of biosolids were generated in 2004 at 16,500 municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the United States. In the United States, as of 2013 about 55% of sewage solids are turned into fertilizer. Challenges faced when increasing the use of biosolids include, the capital needed to build anaerobic digesters and the complexity of complying with health regulations. There are new concerns about micro-pollutions in sewage which make the process of producing high quality biosolids complex.
Some municipalities, states or countries have banned the use of biosolids on farmland. Encouraging agricultural use of biosolids is intended to prevent filling landfills with nutrient-rich organic materials from the treatment of domestic sewage that might be recycled and applied as fertilizer to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth. Biosolids can be an ideal agricultural conditioner and fertilizer which can help promote crop growth to feed the increasing population. Biosolids may contain macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur with micronutrients copper, calcium, iron, boron and manganese; the United States Environmental Protection Agency and others have shown that biosolids can contain measurable levels of synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals. EPA has set numeric limits for arsenic, copper, mercury, nickel and zinc but has not regulated dioxin levels. Contaminants from pharmaceuticals and personal care products and some steroids and hormones may be present in biosolids.
Substantial levels of persistent and toxic polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in biosolids in 2001. The United States Geological Survey analyzed in 2014 nine different consumer products containing biosolids as a main ingredient for 87 organic chemicals found in cleaners, personal care products and other products; these analysis detected 55 of the 87 organic chemicals measured in at least one of the nine biosolid samples, with as many as 45 chemicals found in a single sample. In 2014, the City of Charlotte discovered extreme levels of PCB's in their biosolids after being alerted by SCDHEC that illegal PCB dumping was taking place at regional waste water treatment plants across the state. Biosolids land application was halted after an emergency regulation was enacted by SCDHEC that outlawed any PCB contaminated biosolids from being land applied regardless if Class A or Class B. Soon thereafter, SCDHEC expanded PCB fish consumption adviseries for nearly every waterway bordering biosolids land application fields.
In the United States the EPA mandates certain treatment processes designed to decrease levels of certain so-called indicator organisms, in biosolids. These include, "...operational standards for fecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. bacteria, enteric viruses, viable helminth ova."However, the US-based Water Environment Research Foundation has shown that some pathogens do survive sewage sludge treatment. EPA regulations allow only biosolids with no detectable pathogens to be applied. Anaerobic Digestion: Micro-organisms decompose the sludge in the absence of oxygen either at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Aerobic Digestion: Micro-organisms decompose the sludge in the presence of oxygen either at ambient and mesophilic or auto-thermal temperatures. Composting: A biological process where organic matter decomposes to produce humus after the addition of some dry bulking material such as sawdust, wood chips, or shredded yard waste under controlled aerobic conditions. Alkaline Treatment: The sludge is mixed with alkaline materials such as lime or cement kiln dust, or incinerator fly ash and maintained at pH above 12 for 24 hours or at temperature 70 °C for 30 minutes (f