Battle of Neville's Cross
The Battle of Neville's Cross took place during the Second War of Scottish Independence on 17 October 1346, half a mile to the west of Durham, within sight of Durham Cathedral. An invading Scottish army of 12,000 led by King David II was defeated with heavy loss by an English army of 6,000–7,000 men led by Lord Ralph Neville; the battle was named after an Anglo-Saxon stone cross on the hill. The battle was the result of the invasion of France by England during the Hundred Years' War. King Philip VI of France called on the Scots to fulfil their obligation under the terms of the Auld Alliance and invade England. David II obliged and after ravaging much of northern England was taken by surprise by the English defenders; the ensuing battle ended with the rout of the Scots, the capture of their king and the death or capture of most of their leadership. Strategically this freed significant English resources for the war against France, the English border counties were able to guard against the remaining Scottish threat from their own resources.
The eventual ransoming of the Scottish king resulted in a truce which brought peace to the border for forty years. By 1346 England had been embroiled in the Second War of Scottish Independence since 1332 and the Hundred Years' War with France since 1337. In January 1343 the French and English had entered into the Truce of Malestroit, which included Scotland and was intended to last until 29 September 1346. In defiance of the truce, hostilities continued on all fronts, although at a lower level. Edward III of England planned an invasion of northern France in 1346 and King Philip VI of France sent an appeal to David II to open a northern front. Philip VI wanted the Scots to divert English troops and attention away from the army under Edward III, gathering in southern England; the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland had been renewed in 1326 and was intended to deter England from attacking either country by the threat that the other would invade English territory. In June Philip VI asked David II to attack pre-emptively: "I beg you, I implore you...
Do for me what I would willingly do for you in such a crisis and do it as quickly... as you are able." Edward III landed in Normandy with an army of 15,000 in July. Philip VI renewed his pleas to David II; as the English had committed troops to Gascony and Flanders, Philip VI described northern England to David II as "a defenceless void". David II felt certain that few English troops would be left to defend the rich northern English cities, but when the Scots probed into northern England they were rebuffed by the local defenders. David II agreed a truce, to last until 29 September, in order to mobilise the Scottish army, assembling at Perth. By the time the truce expired, the French had been decisively beaten at Crécy and the English were besieging Calais; the French were in difficulty in south-west France, where their front had collapsed, with the major city and provincial capital of Poitiers, 125 miles from the border of English Gascony, falling on 4 October. On 7 October the Scots invaded England with 12,000 men.
Many had armour supplied by France. A small number of French knights marched alongside the Scots, it was described by both Scottish and English chroniclers of the time, by modern historians, as the strongest and best equipped Scottish expedition for many years. The border fort of Liddell Peel was stormed and captured after a siege of three days and the garrison massacred. Carlisle was bypassed in exchange for a large indemnity and the Scottish army moved east, ravaging the countryside as they went, they sacked Hexham Abbey, taking three days to do so advanced to Durham. They arrived outside Durham on 16 October and camped at Beaurepaire Priory, where the monks offered the Scots £1,000 in protection money to be paid on 18 October; the invasion had been expected by the English for some time. Once the Scots invaded, an army was mobilised at Richmond in north Yorkshire under the supervision of William de la Zouche, the Archbishop of York, Lord Warden of the Marches, it was not a large army: 3,000–4,000 men from the northern counties of Cumberland and Lancashire.
Another 3,000 Yorkshiremen were en route to reinforce their fellow northerners. This was possible because Edward III, when raising his army to invade France, had exempted the counties north of the River Humber. On 14 October, while the Scots were sacking Hexham Abbey, the Archbishop decided not to wait for the Yorkshire troops and marched north west towards Barnard Castle, rapidly north east to Durham, he was joined en route by the Yorkshire contingent and Lord Ralph Neville took command of the combined force of 6,000–7,000 men. The Scots at Beaurepaire only discovered the English army on the morning of 17 October, when they were some 6 miles away. Around 500 men under William Douglas stumbled upon them in the morning mist during a raid near Merrington, south of Durham; the two rear divisions of the English army drove them off with heavy Scottish casualties, around 300. Douglas raced back to David II's camp, alerting the rest of the army, which stoo
Leith is an area to the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the Water of Leith. The earliest surviving historical references are in the royal charter authorising the construction of Holyrood Abbey in 1128; the medieval settlements of Leith had grown into a burgh by 1833, the burgh was merged into Edinburgh in 1920. Part of the county of Midlothian, Leith is sited on the coast of the Firth of Forth and lies within the council area of the City of Edinburgh; the port remains one of its most valuable enterprises, handling over 1.5 million tonnes of cargo in 2003. Previous to the bridge being built in the late 15th century, Leith had settlements on either side of the river, lacking an easy crossing. South Leith was larger and was controlled by the lairds of Restalrig: the Logan family, it had many merchants' houses and warehouses. This was where ships offloaded their cargoes at The Shore where they were collected by Edinburgh merchants. Leithers were explicitly forbidden by statute to participate directly in the trade at the port, to ensure that landed goods were not sold elsewhere.
North Leith was proportionately richer, coming under the jurisdiction of Holyrood Abbey. It was a fishing village consisting of one street, now Sandport Street and Quayside Lane. Burgage plots ran down to the river from each house; this has traditionally been the shipbuilding side of Leith with several wet and dry docks built over time. The first dry dock in Scotland was built here in 1720. A small peninsula of land on the east bank came under the same jurisdiction on what is now Sheriff Brae/Sheriff Bank; the first bridge to link both banks of the river was built in 1493 by Abbot Bellenden, who controlled the church at North Leith. The bridge was the revenue supplementing the church's income. Reputedly Leith's oldest building, it was demolished in 1780 to allow ships to sail further upstream; the earliest evidence of settlement in Leith comes from several archaeological digs undertaken in the Shore area in the late 20th century. Amongst the finds were medieval wharf edges from the 12th century.
This date fits with the earliest documentary evidence of settlement in Leith - the foundation charter of Holyrood Abbey. Leith has played a prominent role in Scottish history; as the major port serving Edinburgh, it has been the stage on which many significant events in Scottish history have taken place. Mary of Guise ruled Scotland from Leith in 1560 as Regent while her daughter, Queen of Scots remained in France. Mary of Guise moved the Scottish Court to Leith, to a site, now Parliament Street, off Coalhill. According to the 18th-century historian William Maitland, her palace was situated on Rotten Row, now Water Street. Artifacts from the demolished residence are held by the National Museum of Scotland, her sculptured coat of arms, dated 1560, can be seen in South Leith Parish Church; when the large French garrison stationed in Leith was attacked by Scottish Protestant lords, reinforced by troops and artillery sent from England, Mary of Guise was forced to shut herself in Edinburgh Castle.
In June 1560, Mary of Guise died, the Siege of Leith ended with the departure of the French troops in accordance with the Treaty of Leith known as the Treaty of Edinburgh. Two mounds on Leith Links, known as "Giant's Brae" and "Lady Fyfe's Brae", identified as Somerset's Battery and Pelham's Battery are believed to be artillery mounds created for the siege in April 1560 and are listed as scheduled monuments. Stuart Harris was of the opinion, based on the contemporary Petworth map, that Pelham's Battery was built on the slope to the south of Leith Links and Somerset's Battery was located adjacent to the present Pilrig House, he notes that the "tradition" that these batteries were situated on Leith Links is spurious, going no further back than Campbell's "History of Leith" 1827. Lent authority by the Ordnance Survey map of 1852, this attribution saved the mounds when several other hillocks on the links were removed in the 1880s; the best documented day of the siege was 7 May 1560, when the English and Scots charged the walls of Leith with ladders that turned out to be too short.
John Knox records the delight of Mary of Guise at the failure of the attack, English sources report 1000 casualties. Late in 1561, Queen of Scots, arrived in Leith and, finding no welcoming party to receive her, made a brief stop at the "house of Andro Lamb... beit the space of ane hour", before being collected and escorted by coach to Holyrood Palace, to begin her ill-fated six-year-long reign. The Protestant reformer, John Knox, explained the lack of preparation thus. A century Leith was a prospective battleground when the Army of the Covenant, led by General David Leslie, threw up an earthen rampart between Calton Hill and Leith to defend the northern approach to Edinburgh against Oliver Cromwell's forces; this rampart became the line of one of Edinburgh's longest streets, Leith Walk. After Cromwell's victory at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 and subsequent occupation of Scotland, a fort known as Leith Citadel was erected in 1656
Battle of Roslin
The Battle of Roslin was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. It took place near the village of Roslin, Midlothian on 24 February 1303. An Anglo-Scottish truce expired on 30 November 1302, the English prepared for a fresh invasion of Scotland, with John Segrave as the king's lieutenant in Scotland. King Edward I ordered Segrave to carry out a large-scale reconnaissance as far as Kirkintilloch, before the king himself fought a larger campaign; this force moved north. The English advanced in three divisions, harassed by the Scots. At night they camped in three divisions, several miles apart; the two commanders, John III Comyn and Simon Fraser, led a Scots force on a night march, fell on the English, capturing Segrave and several others. Robert Neville led his division towards the action; the English freed Segrave, but the English paymaster Manton was killed.. The Scottish historian John of Fordun wrote an exaggerated description of the fight:...there never was so desperate a struggle, or one in which the stoutness of knightly prowess shone forth so brightly.
The commander and leader in this struggle was John Comyn, the son... But John Comyn guardian of Scotland, Simon Fraser with their followers and night, did their best to harass and to annoy, by their general prowess, the aforesaid kings officers and bailiffs... But the aforesaid John Comyn and Simon, with their abettors, hearing of their arrival, wishing to steal a march rather than have one stolen upon them, came briskly through from Biggar to Rosslyn, in one night, with some chosen men, who chose rather death before unworthy subjection to the English nation; the battle was the subject of a fictional account written by Walter Bower in the mid-15th century. Like Fordun, Bower exaggerated its size and importance; the distorted impression of Roslin has lingered in the public imagination to this day. A monument cairn erected by the Roslin Heritage Society at the end of the 20th century marks the site of the battle. At the start of the 21st century the battlefield was under research to be inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009.
Scottish Battlefields, 2006 A. D. M. Barrell, Medieval Scotland, Peter Traquair Freedom's Sword, Michael Brown, The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371 Historic Environment Scotland. "Battle of Roslin"
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus was a Scottish nobleman active during the reigns of James V and Mary, Queen of Scots. He was the son of George, Master of Angus, killed at the Battle of Flodden, succeeded as Earl of Angus on the death of his grandfather, Archibald. In 1509, Douglas married daughter of the Earl of Bothwell. After her death, that of his father, in 1513, on 6 August 1514 the new Earl of Angus married the dowager queen and regent, Margaret Tudor, widow of James IV, mother of two-year-old James V, elder sister of Henry VIII of England; the marriage stirred up the jealousy of the nobles and the opposition of the faction supporting French influence in Scotland. Civil war broke out, Margaret lost the regency to John Stewart, Duke of Albany. Angus withdrew to his estates in Forfarshire, while Albany besieged the queen at Stirling and got possession of the royal children, he met her once more at Berwick in June 1517, when Margaret returned to Scotland on Albany's departure in vain hopes of regaining the regency.
Meanwhile, during Margaret's absence, Angus had become involved with a daughter of the Laird of Traquair. Angus had a daughter named Lady Janet Douglas with Lady Jane of Traquair and seized some property belonging to his wife, Margaret Tudor, an estate at Newark and proceeded to live in it with his wife and illegitimate child. Margaret, was more annoyed with Douglas over his seizure and usage of her dower income as dowager queen of Scotland more so than the birth of his illegitimate daughter. Margaret avenged his neglect by refusing to support his claims for power and by secretly trying through Albany to get a divorce. In Edinburgh, Angus held his own against the attempts of the Earl of Arran, but the return of Albany in 1521, with whom Margaret now sided against her husband, deprived him of power. The regent took the government into his own hands, Angus was charged with high treason in December and in March 1522 was sent a prisoner to France, whence he succeeded in escaping to London in 1524.
He returned to Scotland in November with promises of support from Henry VIII, with whom he made a close alliance. Margaret, refused to have anything to do with her husband. On the 23rd, Angus forced his way into Edinburgh, but was fired upon by Margaret and retreated to Tantallon Castle, he now organized a large party of nobles against Margaret with the support of Henry VIII, in February 1525 they entered Edinburgh and called a parliament. Angus was made a Lord of the Articles, was included in the Council of regency, bore the king's crown on the opening of the session, with Archbishop Beaton held the chief power. Angus was appointed Lord Warden of the Marches in 1526, suppressed the disorder and anarchy on the border, he had contracted a treaty for three years of peace with England on 10 October 1525 at Berwick upon Tweed, but was unable to return to Berwick to exchange papers as arranged on 13 January 1526 because he had to deal with his political opponents at Linlithgow. Instead, he sent a delegation of commissioners including Adam Otterburn to Berwick to conclude the treaty.
The terms of the treaty included abstinence from war, safe-conducts for legitimate travellers, redress for cross-border robbery and rendition of criminals. Trade by sea was assured according to the previous treaty made by Edward IV and James III in 1464. Among the provisions was the traditional clause, that neither side should dismantle or rebuild the fishgarth, where the River Esk meets the Solway. A new clause addressed, it was hoped that during the three years Scottish commissioners would come to London to negotiate a new treaty of Perpetual Peace. Henry VIII signed on 17 August. In July 1526 the guardianship of the King James V was entrusted to him for a fixed period till 1 November, but he refused at its close to retire, advancing to Linlithgow put to flight Margaret and his opponents, he now with his followers engrossed all the power, succeeded in gaining over some of his antagonists, including Arran and the Hamiltons, filled the public offices with Douglases, he himself becoming Chancellor.
"None that time durst strive against a Douglas nor Douglas's man". The young king James V, now fourteen, was far from content under the tutelage of Angus, but he was guarded, several attempts to free him were foiled. Angus defeated John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, who had advanced towards Edinburgh with 10,000 men in August at the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge, he subsequently took Stirling. After his military successes, he reconciled with Beaton, in 1527 and 1528 was busy in restoring order through the country. On 11 March 1528, Margaret succeeded in obtaining her divorce from Angus, about the end of the month she and her lover, Henry Stewart, were besieged at Stirling. A few weeks however, James escaped from Angus's custody, took refuge with Margaret and Arran at Stirling, proscribed Angus and all the Douglases, forbidding them to come within seven miles of his person; this did not include his half-sister, Margaret, allowed to be with them. Angus, having fortified himself in Tantallon, was attainted and his lands confiscated.
Repeated attempts by James to subdue the fortress by siege failed, on one occasion Angus's men captured the royal artillery. At length, Tantallon was given up as a condition of a truce between England and Scotland, in May 1529 Angus sought refuge with Henry VIII in England, he obtained a pension and took an oath of allegiance, with Henry'
Battle of Inverurie (1308)
The Battle of Inverurie known as the Battle of Barra, was fought in May 1308 in the north-east of Scotland. Though part of the wider Wars of Scottish Independence it is more properly viewed as an episode in a brief but bitter civil war; the battle was a victory for the Scottish King Robert Bruce over his chief domestic enemy, John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan. It was followed by the Harrying of Buchan, a violent act of destruction, at least equal to, if not greater than, some of the excesses practiced elsewhere by the English; the battlefield was added to the Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland in 2011. In February 1306, Robert Bruce and his supporters murdered John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch known as the Red Comyn. Comyn was a nephew of the former King John Balliol and had been a leading player in the wars against the English, his death automatically meant that his extensive network of family and associates would regard Bruce as an enemy. Chief among these was namesake, John Comyn, Earl of Buchan.
Edward I of England died in July 1307. His son, Edward II, preoccupied with political problems at home, left his Scottish allies unsupported at a critical time. Bruce acted on the assumption that the English were bound to return in strength for the campaigning season in 1308. One by one King Robert confronted his domestic enemies, beginning with the Balliol party in Galloway. From the south of the country he moved through the English held central lowlands, making his way by the western route through Argyllshire through the Great Glen towards Inverness and the north-east, towards the territory held by Buchan, he had under his command some 3000 men, at least according to a letter sent by the Earl of Ross to King Edward. It's certain that Buchan would have been unable to match such a force, but he was saved from immediate destruction when Bruce was overtaken by an unspecified illness, which kept him out of action for a considerable time. During this period much of his army melted away, leaving him with no more than about 700 men by the spring of 1308.
The only accounts of the whole campaign in Aberdeenshire are from sources uniformly hostile to Buchan. Although Buchan made some attempt to take advantage of the situation by harassing attacking on the king's camp at Slioch, these were repulsed. Edward Bruce decided to shift camp to Strathbogy, the king was carried there on a litter. During his illness, King Robert was carried from place to place by his supporters. In May 1308, his army made camp at Inverurie near Oldmeldrum. On the 22nd Buchan gathered his forces, ready to attack Bruce the following day, his army made camp to the north-east of Bruce. At dawn on the 23rd David, Lord of Brechin made a surprise attack on Bruce's camp, his men galloped over the bridge on the River Ury at Balhalgardy right into the streets of Inverurie. Taken unprepared, Bruce's sentries were cut down. However, Buchan's main force was still too far away to take advantage of this opportunity. Bruce, still ill, rose from his bed and prepared a counter-attack; as he approached Buchan hastily drew up his forces astride the road to Inverurie, between Barra Hill and the marshes of the Lochter Burn.
His unreliable feudal levies were placed to the rear, with the knights and men-at-arms taking up a position to the front. The levies seem to have been given the assurance that Bruce was too ill to take to the field in person. John Barbour describes the scene in his rhyming narrative, but when his foemen saw the king Advancing without lingering, A little on their reins they drew. The king by this time right well knew That in their hearts they were distressed, And with his banners forward pressed, thus they retreated more. And when the small folk with them saw Their leaders all retreating so, They turned their backs to go, And fled and scattered far and wide, their lords, that still were side by side, When they beheld the small folk flee, And the king advancing Themselves became disheartened so That they, turned their backs to go. A short while stayed they side by side, And they scattered far and wide. Buchan made some attempt to steady the line, but he too soon joined the flight, pursued by Bruce's men as far as Fyvie.
The fugitive earl took his flight all the way to England. The Battle of Inverurie ended active resistance to King Robert in Aberdeenshire, he was not, however prepared to risk leaving a hostile district in his rear, took drastic action, to last in living memory for some fifty years beyond the event. Following the battle, Bruce ordered his men to burn to the ground farms and strongholds associated with the Comyns in the violent and bloody Harrying of Buchan. Barbour, The Bruce, trans. A. A. Douglas, 1964. Bower, Scotichronicon, ed. D. E. R. Watt, 1987-96. Fordun, John of, Chronicles of the Scottish Nation, ed. W. F. Skene, 1872. Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Communuity of the Realm of Scotland, 1976. Barron, E. M; the Scottish War of Independence, 1934. Meldrum, E, Bruce's Buchan Campaign, in Deeside Field, vol. 5, 1966. Marren, P, Grampian Battlefields, 1990. Historic Environment Scotland. "Battle of Barra"
Declaration of Arbroath
The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320. It is in the form of a letter in Latin submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 1320, intended to confirm Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and defending Scotland's right to use military action when unjustly attacked. Believed to have been written in the Arbroath Abbey by Bernard of Kilwinning Chancellor of Scotland and Abbot of Arbroath, sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles, the letter is the sole survivor of three created at the time; the others were a letter from the King of Scots, Robert I, a letter from four Scottish bishops which all made similar points. The Declaration was part of a broader diplomatic campaign which sought to assert Scotland's position as an independent kingdom, rather than being a feudal land controlled by England's Norman kings, as well as lift the excommunication of Robert the Bruce; the pope had recognised Edward I of England's claim to overlordship of Scotland in 1305 and Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope for murdering John Comyn before the altar in Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306.
The Declaration made a number of points: that Scotland had always been independent, indeed for longer than England. In fact it stated that the nobility would choose someone else to be king if Bruce proved to be unfit in maintaining Scotland's independence; some have interpreted this last point as an early expression of'popular sovereignty' – that government is contractual and that kings can be chosen by the community rather than by God alone. Modern Scottish nationalists point to the “Declaration" as evidence of the long-term persistence of the Scots as a distinct national community, giving a early date for the emergence of nationalism; however "the overwhelming majority of academics challenge this vision. Scholars point out; the meaning ascribed to words similar to nation during the ancient and medieval periods was quite different than it is today."It has been argued that the Declaration was not a statement of popular sovereignty but a statement of royal propaganda supporting Bruce's faction.
A justification had to be given for the rejection of King John Balliol in whose name William Wallace and Andrew de Moray had rebelled in 1297. The reason given in the Declaration is that Bruce was able to defend Scotland from English aggression whereas, by implication, King John could not. Whatever the true motive, the idea of a contract between King and people was advanced to the Pope as a justification for Bruce's coronation whilst John de Balliol still lived in Papal custody. There are 39 names—eight earls and thirty one barons—at the start of the document, all of whom may have had their seals appended over the space of some weeks and months, with nobles sending in their seals to be used. On the extant copy of the Declaration there are only 19 seals, of those 19 people only 12 are named within the document, it is thought that at least 11 more seals than the original 39 might have been appended. The Declaration was taken to the papal court at Avignon by Bishop Kininmund, Sir Adam Gordon and Sir Odard de Maubuisson.
The Pope heeded the arguments contained in the Declaration, influenced by the offer of support from the Scots for his long-desired crusade if they no longer had to fear English invasion. He exhorted Edward II in a letter to make peace with the Scots, but the following year was again persuaded by the English to take their side and issued six bulls to that effect. On 1 March 1328 the new English king, Edward III signed a peace treaty between Scotland and England, the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. In this treaty, in effect for five years until 1333, Edward renounced all English claims to Scotland. Eight months in October 1328, the interdict on Scotland, the excommunication of its king, were removed by the Pope; the original copy of the Declaration, sent to Avignon is lost. A copy of the Declaration survives among Scotland's state papers, held by the National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh; the most known English language translation was made by Sir James Fergusson Keeper of the Records of Scotland, from text that he reconstructed using this extant copy and early copies of the original draft.
G. W. S. Barrow has shown that one passage in particular quoted from the Fergusson translation, was written using different parts of The Conspiracy of Catiline by the Roman author, Sallust as the direct source: Listed below are the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320. Although it includes several consistent Bruce loyalists, it includes others who had opposed Bruce, or whom Bruce tried for plotting against him a few months and others of whom little is known; the declaration itself is written in Latin. It uses the Latin versions of the signatories' titles, in some cases the spelling of names has changed over the years; this list uses the titles of the signatories' Wikipedia biographies. Duncan, Earl of Fife Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March Malise, Earl of Strathearn Malcolm, Earl of Lennox William, Earl
Battle of Falkirk
The Battle of Falkirk, which took place on 22 July 1298, was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence. Led by King Edward I of England, the English army defeated the Scots, led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland. King Edward learned of the defeat of his northern army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. After concluding a truce with the French king, Philip the Fair in October 1297, he returned to England on 14 March 1298 to continue the ongoing organising of an army for his second invasion of Scotland, in preparation since late 1297; as a preliminary step he moved the centre of government to York, where it was to remain for the next six years. A council-of-war was held in the city in April to finalise the details of the invasion; the Scottish magnates were all summoned to attend, when none appeared they were all declared to be traitors. Edward ordered his army to assemble at Roxburgh on 25 June; the force counted ca 2,000 men-at-arms and about 12,000 infantry receiving wages, after the manner of medieval armies there would have been many more serving without pay either as a statement of personal independence, forgiveness of debts to the crown, criminal pardons or just for adventure, including 10,900 Welshmen armed with the longbow.
Edward advanced into central Scotland and Wallace's army shadowed the English, intending to avoid battle until shortages of supplies and money forced Edward to withdraw, at which point the Scots would harass his retreat. Edward's own supply fleet was delayed by bad weather, when the army reached central Scotland it was both tired and hungry; the Welsh infantry in particular were badly demoralised. While the army was encamped at Temple Liston, near Edinburgh, they erupted in a drunken riot, broken up by the English cavalry, who killed 80 Welshmen. Edward faced the prospect of the kind of ignominious retreat that became a regular feature of his son's campaigns in the succeeding reign; as he was on the point of falling back on Edinburgh he received intelligence that Wallace had taken up position in the wood of Callendar near Falkirk, only thirteen miles away, ready to pursue the retreating English. Edward was delighted: As God lives... they need not pursue me. The Scots army, again made up chiefly of spearmen as at Stirling, was arranged in four great armoured'hedgehogs' known as schiltrons.
The long spears pointed outwards at various heights gave these formations a formidable and impenetrable appearance. The gaps between the schiltrons were filled with archers and to the rear there was a small troop of men-at-arms, provided by magnates. On Tuesday 22 July, the English cavalry, divided into four battalions caught sight of their elusive enemy; the left was commanded by the Earls of Norfolk and Lincoln. The right was under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, while the King commanded the centre, still a little distance to the rear of the vanguard. Once in sight of the enemy and his colleagues began an immediate attack, but on encountering a small marsh to the front of the Scots position, made a long detour to the west before being able to make contact with the right of Wallace's army. Bek tried to hold back his own battalion to give the King time to get into position but he was overruled by his impatient knights, who were anxious to join their comrades on the left in an immediate attack.
In a disorganised pell-mell the cavalry closed on the Scots, on the right and left. The Scots bowmen commanded by Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, the younger brother of the High Steward of Scotland, stood their ground and were destroyed, but the schiltrons held firm, with the knights making little impression on the dense forest of long spears, a small number of riders being killed under their horses. King Edward arrived in time to witness the discomfiture of his cavalry and restored discipline; the knights were ordered to withdraw and Edward prepared to employ the tactics that the Earl of Warwick had used to defeat the Welsh spearmen at the Battle of Maes Moydog in 1295. The Scottish light cavalry charged the English heavy cavalry, but were outnumbered and destroyed. Edward's longbowmen were brought into place and overcame the inexperienced force of badly armed Scottish archers; the schiltrons were an easy target. The hail of arrows was supplemented by slingshot. Unable to retreat or attack, the battle was lost for the Scots as soon as the first arrows began to fall, the arrows came at a pace of up to 14 arrows per minute per long bowmen.
The English cavalry waited, this time observing the King's command, until the Scots ranks were thin enough to allow them to penetrate the Scottish formation and cause whatever damage they could. The English footsoldiers, advancing during the English barrage on the Scottish formations, closed the distance and the schiltrons started to break and scatter. A great many Scots were killed, including son of the Earl of Fife; the survivors, Wallace included, escaped as best they could into the nearby forest of Torwood where their pursuers could not safely follow. Casualties among the Scottish leaders were not heavy, but did include Wallace's second-in-command Sir John de Graham, Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Macduff of Fife; the Falkirk Roll is a collection of the arms of the English bannerets and noblemen present at the battle of Falkirk. It is the oldest known English occasional roll of arms, contains 111 names and blazoned shields. Following are a collection of modern illustrations of the Falkirk Rol