Flight into Egypt
The flight into Egypt is a story recounted in the Gospel of Matthew and in New Testament apocrypha. Soon after the visit by the Magi, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream telling him to flee to Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus since King Herod would seek the child to kill him; the episode is shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art, was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ. Within the narrative tradition, iconic representation of the "Rest on the Flight into Egypt" developed after the 14th century; when the Magi came in search of Jesus, they went to Herod the Great in Jerusalem to ask where to find the newborn "King of the Jews". Herod became paranoid that the child would threaten his throne, sought to kill him. Herod initiated the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child, but an angel warned him to take Jesus and his mother into Egypt. Egypt was a logical place to find refuge, as it was outside the dominions of King Herod, but both Egypt and Judea were part of the Roman Empire, linked by a coastal road known as "the way of the sea", making travel between them easy and safe.
After a time, the holy family returned from Egypt. The text states. Herod is believed to have died in 4 BC, while Matthew does not mention how, the Jewish historian Josephus vividly relates a gory death; the land that the holy family return to is identified as Judah, the only place in the entire New Testament where Judah acts as a geographic description of the whole of Judah and Galilee Matthew 2:20, rather than referring to a collection of religious people or the Jewish people in general. It is, however, to Judah that they are described as returning, although upon discovering that Archelaus had become the new king, they went instead to Galilee. Archelaus was such a violent and aggressive king that in the year 6 AD he was deposed by the Romans, in response to complaints from the population. Galilee was ruled by a much calmer king, Herod Antipas, there is historical evidence that Galilee had become a refuge for those fleeing the iron rule of Archelaus. Matthew 2:15 cites Hosea 11:1 as prophetically fulfilled in the return of Joseph and Jesus from Egypt: "... and out of Egypt I called My son".
Matthew's use of Hosea 11:1 has been explained in several ways. A sensus plenior approach states that the text in Hosea contains a meaning intended by God and acknowledged by Matthew, but unknown to Hosea. A typological reading interprets the fulfillment as found in the national history of Israel and the antitypical fulfillment as found in the personal history of Jesus. Matthew's use of typological interpretation may be seen in his use of Isaiah 7:14 and 9:1, Jeremiah 31:15. Another reading of Hosea's prophetic declaration is that it only recounts God summoning of the nation of Israel out of Egypt during the Exodus, referring to Israel as God's son in accordance with Moses' declaration to Pharaoh: "Israel is my first-born son; the Massoretic Text reads my son, whereas the Septuagint reads his children. The Septuagint reading may be explained as having been made to conform to the plurals of Hosea 11:2, they and them; the Gospel of Luke does not recount this story, relating instead that the Holy Family went to the Temple in Jerusalem, home to Nazareth.
Followers of the Jesus Seminar thus conclude that both Luke's and Matthew's birth and infancy accounts are fabrications. A theme of Matthew is likening Jesus to Moses for a Judean audience, the Flight into Egypt illustrates just that theme; the story was much elaborated in the "Infancy Gospels" of the New Testament apocrypha with, for example, palm trees bowing before the infant Jesus, Jesus taming dragons, the beasts of the desert paying him homage, an encounter with the two thieves who would be crucified alongside Jesus. In these tales the family was joined by Salome as Jesus' nurse; these stories of the time in Egypt have been important to the Coptic Church, based in Egypt, throughout Egypt there are a number of churches and shrines marking places where the family stayed. The most important of these is the church of Abu Serghis, which claims to be built on the place the family had its home. One of the most extensive and, in Eastern Christianity, influential accounts of the Flight appears in the seventh-century Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, in which Mary, tired by the heat of the sun, rested beneath a palm tree.
The infant Jesus miraculously has the palm tree bend down to provide Mary with its fruit, release from its roots a spring to provide her with water. The Qur'ān does not include the tradition of the Flight into Egypt, though sūra XXIII, 50 could conceivably allude to it: “And we made the son of Maryam and his mother a sign. However, its account of the birth of Jesus is similar to the account of the Flight in the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew: Mary gives birth leaning against the trunk of a date-palm, which miraculously provides her with dates and a stream, it is therefore thought. Numerous Muslim writers on the life of Jesus did transmit stories about the Flight into Egypt. Prominent examples include Abū Isḥāḳ al-Thaʿlabī, whose ʿArāʾis al-madjālis fī ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, an account of the lives of the prophets, reports the Flight, followed by a
Adoration of the Shepherds
The Adoration of the Shepherds, in the Nativity of Jesus in art, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, arriving soon after the actual birth. It is combined in art with the Adoration of the Magi, in which case it is just referred to by the latter title; the Annunciation to the Shepherds, when they are summoned by an angel to the scene, is a distinct subject. The Adoration of the Shepherds is based on the account in the Luke 2, not reported by any other Canonical Gospel, which states that an angel appeared to a group of shepherds, saying that Christ had been born in Bethlehem, followed by a crowd of angels saying Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth to of good will; this Annunciation to the shepherds forms a distinct subject in Christian art and is sometimes included in a Nativity scene as a peripheral feature, as in the 1485 scene by Domenico Ghirlandaio, where it can be seen in the upper left corner. Ghirlandaio shows a procession of Magi about to arrive with their gifts.
The shepherds are described as hurrying to Bethlehem to visit Jesus, making known what they had been told concerning him, before they return to their flocks. They praise God for "all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told them,". Robert Gundry notes that the statement "appeals to eyewitness testimony combined with heavenly revelation." The scene is commonly combined with the Adoration of the Magi, which makes for a balanced composition, as the two groups occupy opposite sides of the image space around the central figures, represent the theological interpretation of the episode where the two groups – Jewish and gentile – represented the peoples of the world between them. This combination is first found in the 6th century Monza ampullae made in Byzantine Palaestina Prima. In Renaissance art, drawing on classical stories of Orpheus, the shepherds are sometimes depicted with musical instruments. A charming but atypical miniature in the La Flora Hours in Naples shows the shepherds playing to the Infant Jesus, as a delighted Virgin Mary stands to one side.
Many artists have depicted the Adoration of the Shepherds. Famous examples include: Correggio: Adoration of the Shepherds, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden Caravaggio: Adoration of the Shepherds, Museo Regionale, Messina Domenichino: Adoration of the Shepherds, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh Giorgione, Allendale Nativity, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. El Greco, Adoration of the Shepherds, Museo del Prado, Madrid Le Nain brothers: Adoration of the Shepherds, National Gallery, London Hugo van der Goes: Portinari Triptych, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Lorenzo di Credi: Adoration of the Shepherds Uffizi Andrea Mantegna: The Adoration of the Shepherds, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Edward Burne-Jones's stained-glass windows in Trinity Church, Boston Giotto, in the Scrovegni Chapel, Padua Georges de La Tour, Paris Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg Nicolas Poussin and Rembrandt, National Gallery, London Poussin's painting was vandalised in 2011, along with his The Adoration of the Golden Calf.
Martin Schongauer, Berlin Domenico Ghirlandaio, Sassetti Chapel, Santa Trinita, Florence Gerard van Honthorst, Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne Several well-known Christmas carols mention the adoration of the shepherds. Some of these do so along the lines of urging the listener to come to Bethlehem such as the "Shepherd's Pipe Carol"; the modern "Calypso Carol" has the lines "Shepherds swiftly from your stupor rise / to see the Saviour of the world," and the chorus "O now carry me to Bethlehem." "Angels We Have Heard on High" says, "Come to Bethlehem and see / Him Whose birth the angels sing." O Come, All Ye Faithful has a verse which runs: Other carols which mention the adoration of the shepherds include Silent Night. The German carol Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her contains several stanzas on the subject of following the shepherds and celebrating the newborn baby; the Czech carol Nesem vám noviny concerns the adoration of the shepherds. From Giotto to Cézanne. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20024-6.
Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20019-X. Myers, Bernard. Landmarks of Western Art. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-35840-2
The Christ Child known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12. The four Canonical Gospels accepted by most Christians today lack any narration of the years between Jesus' infancy and the Finding in the Temple when he was 12. Liturgical feasts relating to Christ's infancy and the Christ Child include: The Feast of the Nativity of Jesus Christ; these are nativity scenes showing the birth of Jesus, with his mother Mary, her husband Joseph. Depictions as a baby with the Virgin Mary, known as Madonna and Child, are iconographical types in Eastern and Western traditions. Other scenes from his time as a baby, of his circumcision, presentation at the temple, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, are common. Scenes showing his developing years are not unknown. Saint Joseph, Anthony of Padua, Saint Christopher are depicted holding the Christ Child; the Christian mystics Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint Therese of Lisieux, along with the devotees of Divino Niño such as Mother Angelica and Father Giovanni Rizzo claim to have had apparitions of Jesus as a toddler.
The Christ Child was a popular subject in European wood sculpture beginning in the 1300s. The popularity of the Christ child was well known in Spain under the title Montanesino after the santero sculptor Juan Martínez Montañés who began the trend; these icons of the Christ Child was posed in the contrapposto style in which the positioning of the knees reflected in the opposite direction, similar to ancient depictions of the Roman Emperor. The images were quite popular among nobility, while some images were used to colonize kingdoms such of Spain and Portugal. Colonial images of the Christ child began to wear vestments, a pious practice developed by the santero culture in colonial years, carrying the depiction of holding the globus cruciger, a bird symbolizing a soul or the Holy Spirit or various paraphernalia related to its locality or region; the symbolism of the Child Jesus in art reached its apex during the Renaissance: the Holy Family was a central theme in the works of Leonardo da Vinci and many other masters.
Tàladh Chrìosda is a Scottish carol from Scotland. The Catholic priest Father Ranald Rankin, wrote the lyrics for Midnight Mass around the year 1855, he wrote 29 verses in Scottish Gaelic, but the popular English translation is limited to five. The melody, Cumha Mhic Arois, is from the Hebrides and was a sung as a protective charm for the fisherman away at sea; the rhythm mirrors the rhythm of the surf. It is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. In some apocryphal texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period, these are sometimes depicted; these stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge from the youngest age. One common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates; when admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away. Several significant images of Jesus Christ as a child have received Canonical Coronations from the Pope, namely the Infant Jesus of Prague, the Santo Niño de Cebú in the Philippines, the Santo Bambino of Aracoeli in Rome.
In the seventeenth century veneration of the Christ Child under the title the "Little King of Beaune" was promoted by French Carmelites. In the late nineteenth century devotion to the Holy Child of Remedy developed in Madrid; the Christ Child Society was founded in 1885 in Washington, D. C. by Mary Virginia Merrick, as a small relief organization to aid local underprivileged children. Additional chapters were started in other cities. Taladh Criosta
Burial of Jesus
The burial of Jesus refers to the burial of the body of Jesus after crucifixion, described in the New Testament. According to the canonical gospel accounts, he was placed in a tomb by a man named Joseph of Arimathea. In art, it is called the Entombment of Christ; the earliest reference to the burial of Jesus is in a letter of Paul. Writing to the Corinthians around the year 54 AD, he refers to the account he had received of the death and resurrection of Jesus; the four canonical gospels, written between 66 and 95AD, all conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, crucifixion and resurrection. All four state that, on the evening of the Crucifixion, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body, after Pilate granted his request, he wrapped it in a linen cloth and laid it in a tomb. There are significant differences between the four accounts, recording the evolution of the tradition from the earliest gospel to the last. Modern scholarship tends to see the gospel accounts as contradictory, finds the Mark portrayal more probable.
In the earliest of the gospels, the Gospel of Mark, written around 70AD, Joseph of Arimathea is a member of the Jewish Council – the Sanhedrin which had condemned Jesus – who wishes to ensure that the corpse is buried in accordance with Jewish law, according to which dead bodies could not be left exposed overnight. He lays it in a tomb carved into the rock; the Jewish historian Josephus, writing in the century, described how the Jews regarded this law as so important that the bodies of crucified criminals would be taken down and buried before sunset. In this account, Joseph does only the bare minimum needed for observance of the law, wrapping the body in a cloth, with no mention of washing or anointing it; this may explain why Mark has a story prior to the Crucifixion, in which a woman pours perfume over Jesus: Jesus is thereby prepared for burial before his death. The Gospel of Matthew was written around the year 90, using the Gospel of Mark as a source. In this account Joseph of Arimathea is not referenced as a member of the Sanhedrin, but a wealthy disciple of Jesus.
Many interpreters have read this as a subtle orientation by the author towards wealthy supporters, while others believe this is a fulfillment of prophecy from Isaiah 53:9: "And they made his grave with the wicked, And with the rich his tomb. This version suggests a more honourable burial: Joseph wraps the body in a clean shroud and places it in his own tomb, the word used is soma rather than ptoma; the author adds that the Roman authorities "made the tomb secure by putting a seal on the stone and posting the guard." This detail may have been added to answer claims by contemporary opponents that the followers of Jesus had stolen his body. The Gospel of Mark is a source for the account given in the Gospel of Luke, written around the year 90; as in the Markan version, Joseph is described as a member of the Sanhedrin, but as not having agreed with the Sanhedrin's decision regarding Jesus. The last of the gospels, differs from Mark on this point, depicting Joseph as a disciple who gives Jesus an honourable burial.
John says that Joseph was assisted in the burial process by Nicodemus, who brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes and included these spices in the burial cloth according to Jewish customs. By touching a dead body, both men were knowingly willing to make themselves "unclean" for seven days per the law stated in Numbers 19:11. N. T. Wright notes. John A. T. Robinson states that the burial of Jesus in the tomb is one of the earliest and best-attested facts about Jesus." Rudolf Bultmann described the basic story as'a historical account which creates no impression of being a legend'. John Dominic Crossan, suggests that Jesus' body was eaten by dogs as it hung on the cross so that there was nothing left to bury. Martin Hengel argued that Jesus was buried in disgrace as an executed criminal who died a shameful death, a view accepted in scholarly literature. Paul the Apostle includes the burial in his statement of the gospel in verses 3 and 4 of 1 Corinthians 15: "For I delivered unto you first of all that which I received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures.
This appears to be an early pre-Pauline credal statement. The burial of Christ is mentioned in the Apostles' Creed, where it says that Jesus was "crucified and buried." The Heidelberg Catechism asks "Why was he buried?" and gives the answer "His burial testified that He had died." The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, "It is the mystery of Holy Saturday, when Christ, lying in the tomb, reveals God's great sabbath rest after the fulfillment of man's salvation, which brings peace to the whole universe" and that "Christ's stay in the tomb constitutes the real link between his passible state before Easter and his glorious and risen state today." The Entombment of Christ has been a popular subject in art, being developed in Western Europe in the 10th century. It appears in cycles of the Life of Christ, where it follows the Deposition of Christ or the Lamentation of Christ. Since the Renaissance, it has sometimes been conflated with one of these. Notable individual works with articles include: The Entombment The Deposition The Entombment T
Transfiguration of Jesus
The transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, the Second Epistle of Peter refers to it, it has been hypothesized that the first chapter of the Gospel of John alludes to it. In these accounts and three of his apostles, James, John, go to a mountain to pray. On the mountain, Jesus begins to shine with bright rays of light; the prophets Moses and Elijah appear next to him and he speaks with them. Jesus is called "Son" by a voice in the sky, assumed to be God the Father, as in the Baptism of Jesus. Many Christian traditions, including the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, commemorate the event in the Feast of the Transfiguration, a major festival; the transfiguration is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. This miracle is unique among others that appear in the canonical gospels, in that the miracle happens to Jesus himself. Thomas Aquinas considered the transfiguration "the greatest miracle" in that it complemented baptism and showed the perfection of life in Heaven.
The transfiguration is one of the five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus, the others being baptism, crucifixion and ascension. In 2002, Pope Saint John Paul II introduced the Luminous Mysteries in the rosary, which includes the transfiguration. In Christian teachings, the transfiguration is a pivotal moment, the setting on the mountain is presented as the point where human nature meets God: the meeting place of the temporal and the eternal, with Jesus himself as the connecting point, acting as the bridge between heaven and earth. Moreover, Christians consider the transfiguration to fulfill an Old Testament messianic prophecy that Elijah would return again after his ascension. Gardner states The last of the writing prophets, promised a return of Elijah to hold out hope for repentance before judgment.... Elijah himself would reappear in the Transfiguration. There he would appear alongside Moses as a representative of all the prophets who looked forward to the coming of the Messiah....
Christ's redemptive sacrifice was the purpose for which Elijah had ministered while on earth.... And it was the goal. In the Synoptic Gospels, the account of the transfiguration happens towards the middle of the narrative, it is a key episode and immediately follows another important element, the Confession of Peter: "you are the Christ". The transfiguration narrative acts as a further revelation of the identity of Jesus as the Son of God to some of his disciples. In the gospels, Jesus takes Peter, son of Zebedee and his brother John the Apostle with him and goes up to a mountain, not named. Once on the mountain, Matthew 17:2 states. At that point the prophets Elijah and Moses appear and Jesus begins to talk to them. Luke states. Luke is specific in describing Jesus in a state of glory, with Luke 9:32 referring to "they saw His glory". Just as Elijah and Moses begin to depart from the scene, Peter begins to ask Jesus if the disciples should make three tents for him and the two prophets; this has been interpreted as Peter's attempt to keep the prophets there longer.
But before Peter can finish, a bright cloud appears, a voice from the cloud states: "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. The disciples fall to the ground in fear, but Jesus approaches and touches them, telling them not to be afraid; when the disciples look up, they no longer see Moses. When Jesus and the three apostles are going back down the mountain, Jesus tells them to not tell anyone "the things they had seen" until the "Son of Man" has risen from the dead; the apostles are described as questioning among themselves as to what Jesus meant by "risen from the dead". In addition to the principal account given in the synoptic gospels. Elsewhere in the New Testament, Paul the Apostle's reference in 2 Corinthians 3:18 to the "transformation of believers" via "beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord" became the theological basis for considering the transfiguration as the catalyst for processes which lead the faithful to the knowledge of God. Although Matthew 17 lists the disciple John as being present during the transfiguration, the Gospel of John has no account of it.
This has resulted in debate among scholars, some suggesting doubts about the authorship of the Gospel of John, others providing explanations for it. One explanation is that John wrote his gospel not to overlap with the synoptic gospels, but to supplement it, hence did not include all of their narrative. Others believe that the Gospel of John does in fact allude to the transfiguration, in John 1:14; this is not the only incident not present in the fourth gospel, the institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper is another key example, indicating that the author either was not aware of these narrative traditions, did not accept their veracity, or decided to omit them. The general explanation is thus the Gospel of John was written thematically, to suit the author's theological purposes, a
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians on Maundy Thursday; the Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper". The First Epistle to the Corinthians contains the earliest known mention of the Last Supper; the four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus's triumphal entry into Jerusalem and that Jesus and his Apostles shared a meal shortly before Jesus was crucified at the end of that week. During the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles present, foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him; the three Synoptic Gospels and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying "This is my body given to you".
The Gospel of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment "to love one another as I have loved you", has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles who follow his teachings "friends and not servants", as he prepares them for his departure. Scholars have looked to the Last Supper as the source of early Christian Eucharist traditions. Others see the account of the Last Supper as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice as described by Paul in the mid-50s; the term "Last Supper" does not appear in the New Testament, but traditionally many Christians refer so to the event. Many Protestants use the term "Lord's Supper", stating that the term "last" suggests this was one of several meals and not the meal; the term "Lord's Supper" refers both to the biblical event and the act of "Holy Communion" and Eucharistic celebration within their liturgy. Evangelical Protestants use the term "Lord's Supper", but most do not use the terms "Eucharist" or the word "Holy" with the name "Communion".
The Eastern Orthodox use the term "Mystical Supper" which refers both to the biblical event and the act of Eucharistic celebration within liturgy. The Russian Orthodox use the term "Secret Supper"; the last meal that Jesus shared with his disciples is described in all four canonical Gospels. This meal became known as the Last Supper; the Last Supper was a retelling of the events of the last meal of Jesus among the early Christian community, became a ritual which recounted that meal. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, written before the Gospels, includes a reference to the Last Supper but emphasizes the theological basis rather than giving a detailed description of the event or its background; the overall narrative, shared in all Gospel accounts that leads to the Last Supper is that after the Triumphal entry into Jerusalem early in the week, encounters with various people and the Jewish elders and his disciples share a meal towards the end of the week. After the meal, Jesus is betrayed, arrested and crucified.
Key events in the meal are the preparation of the disciples for the departure of Jesus, the predictions about the impending betrayal of Jesus, the foretelling of the upcoming denial of Jesus by Apostle Peter. In Matthew 26:24–25, Mark 14:18–21, Luke 22:21–23 and John 13:21–30 during the meal, Jesus predicted that one of his Apostles would betray him. Jesus is described as reiterating, despite each apostle's assertion that he would not betray Jesus, that the betrayer would be one of those who were present, saying that there would be "woe to the man who betrays the Son of man! It would be better for him if he had not been born."In Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27, Judas is identified as the traitor. In the Gospel of John, when asked about the traitor, Jesus states: It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” Dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him; the three Synoptic Gospel accounts give somewhat different versions of the order of the meal.
In chapter 26 of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus prays thanks for the bread, divides it, hands the pieces of bread to his disciples, saying "Take, this is my body." In the meal Jesus takes a cup of wine, offers another prayer, gives it to those present, saying "Drink from it, all of you. I tell you, I will never again drink of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom." In chapter 22 of the Gospel of Luke, the wine is blessed and distributed before the bread, followed by the bread by a second, larger cup of wine, as well as somewhat different wordings. Additionally, according to Paul and Luke, he tells the disciples "do this in remembrance of me." This event has been regarded by Christians of most denominations as the institution of the Eucharist. There is recorded celebration of the Eucharist by the early Christian community in Jerusalem; the institution of the Eucharist is recorded in the three Synoptic Gospels and in Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians.
As noted above, Jesus's words differ in each account. In addition, Luke 22:19b–20 is a disputed text which does not appear in some of the early manuscripts of Luke; some scholars, believe that it is an interpolation, while others have argue
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is an early episode in the life of Jesus, describing his presentation at the Temple in Jerusalem in order to induct him into Judaism, celebrated by many Christian Churches on the holiday of Candlemas. It is described in the Gospel of Luke of the New Testament in the Christian Bible. Within the account, "Luke's narration of the Presentation in the Temple combines the purification rite with the Jewish ceremony of the redemption of the firstborn."In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Presentation of Jesus at the temple is celebrated as one of the twelve Great Feasts, is sometimes called Hypapante. In Western Christianity, the additional name for the Service the day, Candlemas, is added; this Feast-day is known as the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin or the Meeting of the Lord. In some liturgical churches, Vespers on the Feast of the Presentation marks the end of the Epiphany season. In the Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple is a Principal Feast celebrated either on 2 February or on the Sunday between 28 January and 3 February.
In the Catholic Church since the time of Pope Gelasius I who in the fifth century contributed to its expansion, the Presentation is celebrated on 2 February and is the fourth Joyful Mystery of the Rosary. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church, the episode was reflected in the once-prevalent custom of churching new mothers forty days after the birth of a child; the event is described in the Gospel of Luke. According to the gospel and Joseph took the Infant Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, to perform the redemption of the firstborn son, in obedience to the Torah. Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people, sacrificing "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Leviticus 12:1–4 indicates that this event should take place forty days after birth for a male child, hence the Presentation is celebrated forty days after Christmas.
Upon bringing Jesus into the temple, they encountered Simeon. The Gospel records that Simeon had been promised that "he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ". Simeon uttered the prayer that would become known as the Nunc Dimittis, or Canticle of Simeon, which prophesied the redemption of the world by Jesus: “Lord, now let your servant depart in peace, according to your word. Simeon prophesied to Mary: "Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, for a sign, spoken against, that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed.. The elderly prophetess Anna was in the Temple, offered prayers and praise to God for Jesus, spoke to everyone there of His importance to redemption in Jerusalem; the event forms a usual component of extensive cycles of the Life of Christ and of the Life of the Virgin. Either the Presentation of Jesus or the visually similar Circumcision of Jesus was shown, but by the late Middle Ages the two were sometimes combined. Early images concentrated on the moment of meeting with Simeon shown at the entrance to the Temple, this is continued in Byzantine art and Eastern Orthodox icons to the present day.
In the West, beginning in the 8th or 9th century, a different depiction at an altar emerged, where Simeon by the Late Middle Ages came to be shown wearing the elaborate vestments attributed to the Jewish High Priest, conducting a liturgical ceremony surrounded by the family and Anna. In the West, Simeon is more already holding the infant, or the moment of handover is shown. Many motets and anthems have been composed to celebrate this feast and are performed as part of the liturgy, among them an anthem by 16th century German composer Johannes Eccard, Maria wallt zum Heiligtum translated in English as "When Mary to the Temple went"; the Lutheran church of the Baroque observed the feast as "Mariae Reinigung". Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas to be performed in the church service of the day, related to Simeon's canticle Nunc dimittis as part of the prescribed readings. Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde, BWV 83, 1724 Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin, BWV 125, 1725 Ich habe genug, BWV 82, 1727 In addition to being known as the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, other traditional names include Candlemas, the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin, the Meeting of the Lord.
The date of Candlemas is established by the date set for the Nativity of Jesus, for it comes forty days afterwards. Under Mosaic law as found in the Torah, a mother who had given birth to a boy was considered unclean for seven days. Candlemas therefore corresponds to the day on which Mary, according to Jewish law, should have attended a ceremony of ritual purification; the Gospel of Luke 2:22–39 relates that Mary was purified according to the religious law, followed by Jesus' presentation in the Jerusalem temple, this explains the formal names given to the fe