click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

ClearType

ClearType is Microsoft's implementation of subpixel rendering technology in rendering text in a font system. ClearType attempts to improve the appearance of text on certain types of computer display screens by sacrificing color fidelity for additional intensity variation; this trade-off is asserted to work well on LCD flat panel monitors. ClearType was first announced at the November 1998 COMDEX exhibition; the technology was first introduced in software in January 2000 as an always-on feature of Microsoft Reader, released to the public in August 2000. ClearType was changed with the introduction of DirectWrite in Windows 7. Word 2013 stopped using ClearType, because it "depends critically on the color of the background pixels", which made it difficult to give good animation performance on arbitrary backgrounds. Computer displays where the positions of individual pixels are permanently fixed – such as most modern flat panel displays – can show saw-tooth edges when displaying small, high-contrast graphic elements, such as text.

ClearType uses spatial anti-aliasing at the subpixel level to reduce visible artifacts on such displays when text is rendered, making the text appear "smoother" and less jagged. ClearType uses heavy font hinting to force the font to fit into the pixel grid; this increases edge contrast and readability of small fonts at the expense of font rendering fidelity and has been criticized by graphic designers for making different fonts look similar. Like most other types of subpixel rendering, ClearType involves a compromise, sacrificing one aspect of image quality for another; the compromise can improve text appearance. Only user and system applications render the application of ClearType. ClearType does not alter other graphic display elements. For example, ClearType enhancement renders text on the screen in Microsoft Word, but text placed in a bitmapped image in a program such as Adobe Photoshop is not. In theory, the method can enhance the anti-aliasing of any digital image. ClearType is not used. Most printers use such small pixels that aliasing is a problem, they don't have the addressable fixed subpixels ClearType requires.

Nor does ClearType affect text stored in files. ClearType only applies any processing to the text. ClearType was invented in the Microsoft e-Books team by Greg Hitchcock, it was analyzed by researchers in the company, signal processing expert John Platt designed an improved version of the algorithm. Dick Brass, a Vice President at Microsoft from 1997 to 2004, complained that the company was slow in moving ClearType to market in the portable computing field; the software in a computer treats the computer’s display screen as a rectangular array of square, indivisible pixels, each of which has an intensity and color that are determined by the blending of three primary colors: red and blue. However, actual display hardware implements each pixel as a group of three adjacent, independent subpixels, each of which displays a different primary color. Thus, on a real computer display, each pixel is composed of separate red and blue subpixels. For example, if a flat-panel display is examined under a magnifying glass, the pixels may appear as follows: In the illustration above, there are nine pixels but 27 subpixels.

If the computer controlling the display knows the exact position and color of all the subpixels on the screen, it can take advantage of this to improve the apparent resolution in certain situations. If each pixel on the display contains three rectangular subpixels of red and blue, in that fixed order things on the screen that are smaller than one full pixel in size can be rendered by lighting only one or two of the subpixels. For example, if a diagonal line with a width smaller than a full pixel must be rendered this can be done by lighting only the subpixels that the line touches. If the line passes through the leftmost portion of the pixel, only the red subpixel is lit; this triples the horizontal resolution of the image at normal viewing distances. ClearType uses this method to improve the smoothness of text; when the elements of a type character are smaller than a full pixel, ClearType lights only the appropriate subpixels of each full pixel in order to more follow the outlines of that character.

Text rendered with ClearType looks “smoother” than text rendered without it, provided that the pixel layout of the display screen matches what ClearType expects. The following picture shows a 4× enlargement of the word Wikipedia rendered using ClearType; the word was rendered using a Times New Roman 12 pt font. In this magnified view, it becomes clear that, while the overall smoothness of the text seems to improve, there is color fringing of the text. An extreme close-up of a color display shows text rendered without ClearType and text rendered with ClearType. Note the changes in subpixel intensity that are used to increase effective resolution when ClearType is enabled – without ClearType, all sub-pixels of a given pixel have the same intensity. In the above lines of text, when the orange circle is shown, all the text in the frame is rendered using ClearType.

Nikolaos Golias

Nikolaos Golias is a Greek professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for AEL. He started his career from the youth team of his hometown A. O. Karditsa in 2011. A year he joined his other hometown club Anagennisi. On July 2, 2013, he joined Aris Thessaloniki of Greek Super League, he managed to play in 2 games in the 1st category and stayed in the club after its relegation in the Gamma Ethniki where he had his most productive season with 28 appearances, until September 2015, when he returned to Anagennisi Karditsa in the Greek Football League. On June 10, 2016, he signed a 3-years contract with AEL. On 25 September 2016 he scored. Sport24.gr footballleaguenews.gr karditsasportiva.gr

Charles Edward Wallis

Charles Edward Wallis, otherwise known as the'father' of the London School Dental Service, was a physician and dental surgeon in London in the early 20th century. As one of the first assistant medical officers to London County Council, his research led to the establishment of a school dental treatment service and an improvement in child welfare, he was an active member of the British Dental Association and a keen historian of medicine, participating in the activities of the Royal Society of Medicine's History of Medicine Section renamed society. Between his medical and dental training, Wallis took up a post as a ship’s surgeon, a position he pursued again to travel much of the world and learn dental procedures, he was skilled in the bilateral molar extraction before the use of local anaesthetic. As a King's College Hospital dental surgeon, Wallis published extensively in the British Dental Journal being an important part of its editorial board, his legacy is honoured through a fund left by his brother to the RSM.

Charles Edward Wallis was born on 26 March 1869 in Lambeth, his mother being called Fanny Margaret and his father, Augustus Wallis, an insurance clerk. His early education was at Bedford Grammar School, following which he gained the conjoint medical diploma from Kings College Hospital in 1894. Wallis became a ship's surgeon on the Royal Microscopical Society's RMS Garth Castle, after fulfilling two house appointments, he would use vacations to travel to Canada, the United States, South Africa and the Antarctic and learn new dental techniques. Subsequently, he went to study in Paris and again in London. At one time, Wallis was Joseph Lister's dresser. In 1897, he gained the Licentiate in Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England from the Dental Hospital of London named the Royal Dental Hospital which subsequently merged with Guy's Dental School and became the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals. Wallis set up practice in Queen Anne Street and joined the BDA where he remained an active member for 22 years.

He wrote extensively for the British Dental Journal from 1908 to 1919 and became chairman of its editorial board from 1914. In 1899, Wallis was appointed dental assistant at KCH and subsequently took over from Professor Swayne Underwood as dental surgeon in 1911. In 1905, Wallis was appointed assistant medical officer to the London County Council. Wallis was responsible for the formation of its school dental service. Prior to the advent of local anaesthesia, Wallis would perform the bilateral molar extraction by pulling out the two teeth whilst an assistant held the head; this avoided experiencing pain twice. In addition to his concern with dental health, as an assistant medical officer to the London County Council, Wallis maintained his overall interest in child welfare. Wallis was interested in history. Writing extensively on the history of dentistry and sitting next to Lilian Lindsay at meetings, Wallis spent a considerable time with activities related to the history of medicine section at the Royal Society of Medicine in Wimpole Street, London.

He was considered expert in the histories of Paris and London and published on dentistry in ancient times. Wallis died at the age of 59 years in King’s College hospital on Tuesday 4 January 1927 from bronchopneumonia, he left with his writing an unfinished history of Harley Street. His brother, Ferdinand bestowed a C. E Wallis prize in preventive dentistry for undergraduates at King’s. Ferdinand Wallis presented the RSM with £100 to establish a ‘CE Wallis Lecture’ on the history of dentistry in memory of his brother; this is jointly arranged by the odontology section of the RSM and the history of medicine society and is given every 5 years. It was emphasised that the lecturer must be a fluent and interesting speaker and should provide “illustrations such as lantern slides”; the first person given the honour of presenting the memorial lecture was Lilian Lindsay. She remembered Wallis as a personal friend who sat next to her at meetings of the History of Medicine Section at the RSM. Other notable speakers have included W. Fraser-Moodie in 1971, J. R. Garrett in 1975, Frank Colyer, Zachary Cope and Stanley Gelbier.

Tributes have continued through to 2017 with Malcolm Bishop recalling how Wallis was a model mover and shaker of his time. John Davy Rolleston had prepared a special reference to Wallis in Philadelphia in 1926, at the 7th International Dental Congress called'Recollections of Lister'. Following Wallis's death, Dr E Graham Little MP, honoured a lecture on the'Art of War' which Wallis had centred on the Latin text De Re Militari. Lilian Lindsay commented how "his retentive memory provided material for his entertainment of children whom he delighted with his stories and recitations"; the most important legacy he leaves is the formation of the school dental service. Past lectures and speakers include: An atlas of dental extractions with notes on the causes and relief of dental pain: designed for the use of medical students and practitioners. J. & A. Churchill, London, 1909

Naval Aircraft Factory TDN

The Naval Aircraft Factory TDN was an early unmanned combat aerial vehicle - referred to at the time as an "assault drone" - developed by the United States Navy's Naval Aircraft Factory during the Second World War. Developed and tested during 1942 and 1943, the design proved moderately successful, but development of improved drones saw the TDN-1 relegated to second-line duties, none were used in operational service; the development of the radar altimeter and television in the early 1940s made remotely guided bomb- or torpedo-carrying aircraft a practical proposition. In January 1942, the Naval Aircraft Factory was instructed to initiate the development of such an aircraft, with a go-ahead for prototype construction being given in February. A production contract for 100 aircraft was issued in March, with John S. Kean being assigned as TDN-1 project manager, with the aircraft being designed to be capable of using either television or radar guidance. Constructed from wood, the TDN-1 had a fixed tricycle landing gear, could be fitted with a conventional cockpit in place of its guidance equipment for test flights.

In an example of the use of companies traditionally uninvolved in the aviation industry to reduce interference with higher priority projects, production of the final thirty aircraft was licensed to the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, a Michigan-based manufacturer of bowling balls and billiard tables. One hundred production TDN-1 aircraft were ordered in March 1942. Despite being designed to be a simple, low-performance aircraft, despite proving promising in testing, the type was considered to be too complicated and expensive for use operationally; the improved Interstate TDR was selected for development as an alternative, the majority of TDN-1s being used in the test and training roles, with some being expended as aerial targets. The TDN-1 is credited as the first US drone to take off from an aircraft carrier freely. An Airspeed Queen Wasp had been catapulted from HMS Pegasus in 1937. United States Navy XTDN-1 Four prototype aircraft powered by Franklin O-300 engines. TDN-1 Production version of XTDN-1.

Data from General characteristics Crew: 0-1 Length: 37 ft Wingspan: 48 ft Powerplant: 2 × Lycoming O-435-2 horizontally-opposed six-cylinder piston engines, 220 hp each Cruise speed: 145 mph Armament one 2,000-pound bomb or aerial torpedo. History of unmanned aerial vehicles Aircraft of comparable role and era Gorgon Interstate TDR LTV-N-2 Loon McDonnell LBD Gargoyle Related lists List of unmanned aerial vehicles List of military aircraft of the United States Further reading

Kirkwood Observatory

Kirkwood Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Indiana University. It is located in Bloomington, United States, it is named for Daniel Kirkwood an astronomer and professor of mathematics at Indiana University who discovered the divisions of the asteroid belt known as the Kirkwood Gaps. Built in 1900 and dedicated on May 15, 1901, the observatory was renovated during the 2001–02 academic year. Although the facility is no longer used for research, its original refracting telescope, built by Warner & Swasey Company with a 12-inch Brashear objective lens received a complete restoration; the telescope is now used for outreach events and undergraduate-level classes. Kirkwood Observatory has an instructional solar telescope. John A. Miller Wilbur A. Cogshall Frank K. Edmondson 1764 Cogshall, asteroid named after W. A. Cogshall List of observatories Topographical map from TopoQuest Bloomington Clear Sky Clock Forecasts of observing conditions covering Kirkwood Observatory

Koi no Cute Beat/Mister U.S.A.

"Koi no Cute Beat"/"Mister U. S. A." is the debut single from the Super Monkey's released under the Toshiba-EMI label. It is the only single by the group to be released under their original moniker. Three months after the release, their eldest member, Anna Makino, left the group. Although fans had copies of the music videos for the group's final three singles, the existence of music videos for the group's earliest singles were unquestionable until a low quality digital rip of "Mister U. S. A." surfaced on the internet from a Japanese website serving video files related to the group, MAX. The music video appears to have been shot entirely in bluescreen except for one scene where the group performs a dance routine together; the remaining scenes of the video portrays the members of the group around the world in such locations as China and Egypt. Namie Amuro first appeared on Downtown's Hey! Hey! Hey! Music Champ in March 1995. However, her first on-air meeting with the comedic duo was during one of their earlier TV programs in 1992 where she performed "Mister U.

S. A." with the rest of the group. "Koi no Cute Beat" was featured as the ending theme to the variety program, Kuizu Sekai wa Show by Shobbai!! and "Mister U. S. A." was used in a commercial for Lotte cereal ice. The group showed in the commercials in, they would go on to do subsequent commercials for the company. "Koi no Cute Beat" - 4:59 "Mister U. S. A." - 4:31 "Koi no Cute Beat" - 4:59 "Mister U. S. A." - 4:27 Namie Amuro - vocals, background vocals Anna Makino - vocals, background vocals Hisako Arakaki - background vocals Minako Ameku - background vocals Nanako Takushi - background vocals Oricon Sales Chart