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Clear Grits

Clear Grits were reformers in the Canada West district of the Province of United Canada, a British colony, now the Province of Ontario, Canada. Their name is said to have been given by David Christie, who said that only those were wanted in the party who were "all sand and no dirt, clear grit all the way through", their support was concentrated among southwestern Canada West farmers, who were frustrated and disillusioned by the 1849 Reform government of Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine's lack of democratic enthusiasm. The Clear Grits advocated universal male suffrage, representation by population, democratic institutions, reductions in government expenditure, abolition of the Clergy Reserves and free trade with the United States. Clear Grits from Upper Canada shared many ideas with Thomas Jefferson; the Clear Grit platform was first laid out at a convention held at Markham in March 1850, which included the following planks: The abrogation of the rectories, the secularization of the Clergy Reserves.

Retrenchment in provincial expenditure. Abolition of the pensioning system; the appointment of all local officials by local municipal councils. Thorough judicial reform the abolition of the court of chancery. A great extension of the elective franchise, vote by ballot. Repeal of the law of primogeniture. Abolition of copyright; the right of the people to discuss peacefully any question affecting the government or constitution of the colony. Election of the three branches of the legislature by the people. Led by Peter Perry, they came under the leadership of Toronto newspaper editor George Brown, in 1857 joined with the Reform Party, a loose alliance of liberal minded reformers that became the Ontario Liberal Party and Liberal Party of Canada; the "Clear Grits" were one of a long series of farmer-based radical reform movements. Examples were the United Farmers and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, the direct ancestor of the modern New Democratic Party; the word "Grit" is used as a neutral reference to members of the Liberal Party in English Canada.

It is used far more in print than spoken. "Grit" has a conveniently small number of letters, for use in headlines. "Clear Grits". Canadian Encyclopedia. Bélanger, Claude. "Clear Grit Party". Marianopolis College


The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa and Phoronida, which collectively constitute the protostome group Lophophorata. All lophophores are found in aquatic organisms. Lophophore is derived from - phore, - phoros, a derivative of phérein; the lophophore can most be described as a ring of ciliated tentacles surrounding the mouth, but it is horseshoe-shaped or coiled. Phoronids have their lophophores in plain view, but the valves of brachiopods must be opened wide to get a good view of their lophophore; the lophophore is an upstream collecting system for suspension feeding. Its tentacles are hollow with extensions of a coelomic space thought to be a mesocoel; the gut is U-shaped with the anterior mouth at the center of the lophophore. The anus, where present, is anterior, but is dorsal to the mouth. In the Bryozoa it is outside the ring of the lophophore; some brachiopods do not have an anus. Groups with lophophores are called lophophorates.

In the old view of metazoan phylogeny, the lophophorates were placed within the Deuterostomia. Now they have been reassessed and placed in a new superphylum known as the Lophotrochozoa in the Protostomia, which includes the Mollusca and Annelida; the extinct hederelloids, microconchids and tentaculitids were lophophorates based on their biomineralization. The position of the Hyolitha has long been disputed, but as of 2017 has been assigned to the Lophophorata, as finely-preserved specimens in the Burgess Shale can be seen to carry lophophores. Lophophorates did appear paraphyletic but, contested

Kil'ayim (prohibition)

Kil'ayim are the prohibitions in Jewish law about planting certain mixtures of seeds, mixtures of plants in vineyards, crossbreeding animals, working a team of different kinds of animals together, mixing wool and linen in garments. The prohibitions are derived from the Torah in Lev. 19:9 and Deuteronomy 22:9-11, the Mishnah in tractate Kilayim, which has a Gemara in the Jerusalem Talmud, further elaborates on the applicable circumstances. The Torah lists several different examples of mixtures; the halakha classifies the prohibitions under the following categories: interbreeding of animals of different species planting mixed seeds grafting of different species of trees shatnez - mixing wool and linen in garments planting grain or seed-crop in a vineyard ploughing or doing other work with two different species of animal. Although Torah law forbids Kil'ayim – "intertying" sheep wool and linen together, the two exceptions are garments of kohanim and tzitzit. Concerning tzitzit, the Sages of Israel permit using wool and linen strings in tandem only when genuine blue dye tchelet is available, whereas kabbalist sources take it a step further by encouraging its practice.

The Torah forbids only linen to be worn together. Camel's wool, Cashmere wool, Yak fiber, the like of such fibres, are not prohibited to be worn with linen. According to Maimonides, if a Jew had purchased an all-woolen product from a gentile and wanted to ascertain whether or not it was, pure wool – without the admixture of flax-linen, its fabric could be tested by dyeing. A dye-solution applied to the fabric would reveal whether or not it was of pure wool, as wool and linen products do not retain the same shades in a dye solution; the prohibition of sowing together diverse seedlings is derived from the biblical verse, "You shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed", which prohibition has been explained to mean planting or sowing two or more diverse seed-crops within a radius of three-handbreadths, ca. 27 centimetres, from one another, although any distance of 27 cm. or more that separates the diverse seeds is permitted if their foliage were to grow and intermix. The prohibition applies only to seed-crops planted in the Land of Israel, but not to seed-crops planted outside of the Land of Israel.

The Mishnah explicitly permits seeds of White mustard and of Egyptian mustard to be planted together, despite being two different genera. However, White mustard and Charlock mustard, though similar in appearance, may not be planted together. Cucumbers and muskmelons, although two different species, are not considered "diverse kinds" with respect to each other and may be planted together. Rabbi Yehudah, says that they are considered "diverse kinds" with respect to each other and cannot be planted together. Although two different species, the Mishnah permits planting together turnips with rape. Cauliflower and kohlrabi, although different species, are permitted to be planted together. Maimonides, in his commentary on the same Mishnah, explained the word karūb as having the Judeo-Arabic connotation of כרנב, meaning either cabbage or kale. Diverse seed-plantings or vegetables that grew together in violation of the biblical command are permitted to be eaten, although the crop itself must be uprooted.

If two diverse grain seeds were inadvertently mixed together, they must be separated before they can be sown. If, there were 24 parts more of one grain than the other, the lesser grain is considered cancelled by the other, may still be sown together; the prohibition of grafting of trees is treated on in the Mishnah. Among trees, while it is permissible to grow two different kinds of trees in close proximity to each other, it is forbidden for an Israelite to graft the branch of one tree onto the stump of another tree to produce thereby a hybrid fruit if the trees are not one and the same kind. Quinces are named as an exception, for if a branch taken from it were grafted onto a stump belonging to hawthorns, although they are two different species, it is permitted unto Israel to benefit therefrom, since they are considered related. To graft the branch of Krustemelin onto the rootstock of an ordinary pear is permitted. However, apple trees grafted onto medlars, or peach trees grafted onto almond trees, or jujubes grafted onto Christ's thorn jujubes, although similar in appearance, are "diverse kinds."

The fruit produced by grafting the bud of one dissimilar tree onto the rootstock of the other are permitted to be consumed by Israel, although the trees themselves, according to some authorities, are not permitted to be maintained. The Chazon-Ish, uncertain about the identity of the trees mentioned in the Mishnah owing to conflicting opinions, made it a rule to be s

Chontal Maya

The Chontal Maya are a Maya people of the Mexican state of Tabasco. "Chontal", from the Nahuatl word for chontalli, which means "foreigner", has been applied to various ethnic groups in Mexico. The Chontal refer to themselves as the Yokot'anob or the Yokot'an, meaning "the speakers of Yoko ochoco", but writers about them refer to them as the Chontal of Centla, the Tabasco Chontal, or in Spanish, Chontales, they consider themselves the descendants of the Olmecs, are not related to the Oaxacan Chontal. The Yokot'an inhabit 21 towns in a large area known as "la Chontalpa" that extends across five municipalities of Tabasco: Centla, El Centro, Jonuta and Nacajuca. In Nacajuca, they form a majority of the population; the terrain is varied — no single landform dominates — and it has many bodies of water. The land is traversed by seasonally-flooding rivers, there are numerous lakes and wetlands; the climate is humid and tropical, the fauna was typical of tropical regions until the environment was altered by human industrialization.

The mangrove is the predominant form of vegetation. The territory of the Yokot'an was the cradle of the Olmec civilization, which lived there from about 1400 BCE until about 400 BCE; the Maya civilization reached its height in about the year 300 of the Common Era. At this time, the Yokot'an were at their cultural apex, they had begun to decline by the time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, are mentioned in the narratives of Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Hernán Cortés. In 1518, Juan de Grijalva arrived in Yokot'an lands, was greeted with hostility; the next year, Cortés's expedition reached Tabasco, he met with Tabscoob and other chiefs, who supplied him the translator who became known as Doña Marina or La Malinche. According to Díaz, "Before we left, Cortés won the chiefs by his many kind words, telling them how our master, the Emperor, had many grand lords who gave him obedience and that they should obey him. All the chiefs thanked him much and declared themselves vassals of our great emperor, the first in New Spain to give obedience to His Majesty.

In 1614, the first church was built in Nacajuca considered the center of the Yokot'an world. Nacajuca was the only urban center to survive the colonial period due to the introduction of animal husbandry, which limited the range of cultivation; the traditional economy is based on agriculture, the raising of livestock, the hunting of small game. Another source of income is palm-wood artisanry. In the past, the manufacture of oyster-shell lime for mortar was an important economic activity, but the availability of mass-produced building materials has reduced demand to the point where its production is no longer profitable; the agriculture of the Yokot'an has been studied extensively and has been shown to be related to ancient Maya agrarian methods. They cultivate high-altitude lands; the principal crop is maize. Agriculture has been in decline since the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when animal husbandry was introduced. Maize and squash are planted seasonally. While fishing may have been as an important part of the Yokot'an economy as agriculture in Pre-Columbian times, due to environmental degradation, it doesn't have the same importance.

The people continue, however, to fish during periods of abundance. There are three main groups of fishermen; the "libre" fishermen use simple "hoop and basket" technology and work in small groups led by an elected "boss". Members of official cooperatives enjoy the benefits of official organization, but are underpaid; the third group consists of well-equipped business owners. The raising of livestock, unlike fishing, is a growing sector of the economy at the expense of agriculture. Many shallow lagoons used for fishing have been drained for use as pastureland; the Yoko ` tan hunt game such as the White-tailed deer. Hats are woven from palm and sleeping mats called petates are woven from the fibers of cañita, the Cyperus giganteus, but the primary craft of the Yoko'tan people is the dugout canoe and its smaller counterpart, the cayuco, used for fishing and to reach the many islands used for planting. Traditional houses are rectangular in shape, made of palm and are supported by six to eight posts.

The roofs are steep to minimize the effect of the heavy rains, are built by hired professionals. Houses tend to be surrounded by overhangs for outdoor work. Kitchen work is done in under one of these awnings. One modern element of house construction, incorporated is the use of nails; the Yoko'tan family is nuclear and cohesive. There is a tendency to marry young, gender roles are defined. Nonetheless, women are accorded more respect in traditional villages than in villages with high mestizo populations; the original mythology and cosmogony of the Yokot'an is only beginning to be studied. Their myths are filled with supernatural water- and mangrove-creatures, the story of La Llorona is told. Public religious displays center around feast days, which points to the importance of syncretism in the adoption of the Catholic faith; as the traditional religion was inextricably entwined with the economy and culture, the "Christianization" of seasonal celebrations became an effective way of imposing the Spanish faith and culture.

The most important feasts are of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, the former patroness of fishermen associated with Ix Bolom, the goddess of the sea, the Immaculate Conception, the Archangel Michael. April 29 is celebrated for the flood

Mecodema longicolle

Mecodema longicolle is an endemic New Zealand ground beetle, one of the few Mecodema species found in both the North Island and South Island. Distinguished from other North Island Mecodema species by having: stipes with 3 basal setae seta. Length 15.5–20 mm, pronotal width 3.9–5 mm, elytral width 4.7–6 mm. Colour of entire body dark reddish-brown to glossy black, coxae reddish-brown, legs black. Mecodema longicolle is found in the North Island native forests from Taranaki to Hawke's Bay south to Wellington, it shares this range with another similar sized species, M. florae, but they are separated by altitude

1st AACTA Awards

The Inaugural Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards, known more as the AACTA Awards, presented by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, honoured the best Australian and foreign films of 2011 took place on two separate events, in Sydney, New South Wales: the AACTA Awards Luncheon, on 15 January 2012, at the Westin Hotel, the AACTA Awards Ceremony, on 31 January 2012, at the Sydney Opera House. Following the establishment of the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, by the Australian Film Institute, these awards marked the inauguration of the AACTA Awards, but served as a continuum to the AFI Awards, which were presented by the AFI since 1958; the ceremony was televised on the Nine Network. The nominees for the non-feature award categories were announced on 30 August 2011, all other non-feature film, feature film and television nominees were announced at the National Institute of Dramatic Art on 30 November; the Academy presented awards for achievements in foreign film, announced the nominees at the AACTA Awards Luncheon.

On 18 August 2011, the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts was established by the Australian Film Institute, to raise the profile of Australian film and television in Australia and abroad, to change the way it rewards talent from its previous jury system, to the more recognised and understood elements of foreign film organisations. These awards will serve as a continuum to the Australian Film Institute Awards, which were presented by the Australian Film Institute. A gold statuette was created by Australian sculptor Ron Gomboc, which depicts "a human silhouette based on the shape of the Southern Cross constellation." The nominees and winners were determined by the Academy's fifteen Chapters, which comprise screen professionals from industry guilds and organisations including actors, directors and screenwriters, who each decide the nominees in their individual fields and vote for the winners of each category. The president of the awards is Australian actor Geoffrey Rush. Works entered between 7 October 2010 and 2 November 2011 for films, 5 May 2010 and 24 May 2011 for short films and documentaries were eligible for awards.

The films in competition for the inaugural awards were revealed at the announcement of the Academy, with twenty-three Australian feature films slated to compete for awards, but it was brought down to twenty-one, when two of the films, Burning Man and The Dragon Pearl, could no longer compete due to a change in their release dates. The films were showcased at the inaugural Festival of Film from 6 October – 14 November in Sydney and Melbourne, for the general public, for Academy and AFI members to view and judge; the first nominees were announced on 30 August 2011, for non-feature film categories: Best Feature Length Documentary, Best Short Animation and Best Short Fiction Film. Round one voting for feature film categories ended on 16 November. Following the announcement of the nominees on 30 November, round two voting commenced to determine the winners in each category, ended on 14 December 2011; the first award to be announced was the Longford Lyell Award, presented to cinematographer Don McAlpine, at the AACTA awards luncheon, marked the first award presented by the Academy since its inception.

On 30 November 2011, the rest of the non-feature films, along with the entire feature film and television nominees, were announced at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney, was hosted by Adam Elliot. Foreign films were recognised at the AACTA International Awards ceremony, which handed out awards for Best Film, Best Direction, Best Screenplay, Best Actor and Best Actress; the nominees were announced at the AACTA Awards Luncheon on 15 January 2011, in conjunction with the Australia Week Black Tie Gala, the winners were determined by a jury. The awards were presented over three separate events: the AACTA Awards Luncheon, at the Westin Hotel on 15 January 2012 and the AACTA Awards Ceremony, at the Sydney Opera House, in Sydney, New South Wales on 31 January 2012; the luncheon presented awards in film production, all non-feature film categories and the Longford Lyell Award. This marks the first time in ten years since the awards have been presented in Sydney, held in Melbourne previously.

The awards date has been shifted from its usual November/December date, to January 2012, to align them with the international film awards season. The awards ceremony was broadcast by the Nine Network. During the AACTA Awards luncheon, special non-competitive awards were handed out to individuals for their contribution to the Australian screen industry; the Longford Lyell Award, a lifetime achievement award, was presented to Don McAlpine, for his contributions to cinematography in feature film. Ivan Sen received the Byron Kennedy Award, an award given to a person in their early career, for: "his unique artistic vision and for showing us, by his resourceful multidisciplinary filmmaking, that telling stories on screen is in reach of all who have something consequential to say." The Outstanding Achievement in Television Screen Craft award was given to production designer Herbert Pinter, for his work on the television series Cloudstreet. Winners are highlighted in boldface. Fourteen: The Hunter Twelve: The Eye of the Storm Ten: Snowtown Eight: Red Dog Seven: Oranges and Sunshine Five: Mad Bastards Three: Legend of the Guardians