The St'at'imc known as the Lillooet, St̓át̓imc, Stl'atl'imx, etc. are an Interior Salish people located in the southern Coast Mountains and Fraser Canyon region of the Interior of the Canadian province of British Columbia. St'at'imc culture displayed many features typical of Northwest Coast peoples: the potlatch, clan names, prestige afforded the wealthy and generous, totem poles in some communities in the Lil'wat First Nation, whose tribal lands and trade routes in the Whistler Valley and Green River Vally overlapped with those of the Squamish First Nation, a Coast Salish people. Today they total about 6259; the St'at'imc are divided linguistically and geographically into two main tribes or First Nations. The Upper St ` at ` living near the present city of Lillooet on the Fraser River, they refer to themselves as STLA ` speak St ` at ` imcets dialect. The Lower St'at'imc, living in the vicinity of today's Mount Currie in the Pemberton Valley and south to Skookumchuk, they refer to themselves as LEEL'-wat-OOL -'The true People','The true Lillooet' and speak Ucwalmícwts dialect.
The Lakes Lillooet, a group only sporadically recognized, living between the territories of Upper St'at'imc and Lower St'at'imc around Seton Lake and Anderson Lake - whose descendants are today's N'quatqua First Nation and Seton Lake First Nation a group at the foot of Seton Lake, near Lillooet, known as the Skimka'imx were included in this group. The Lil'wat First Nation, their traditional territory extended south to Rubble Creek in the Cheakamus River drainage, near Garibaldi townsite, north to just below Anderson Lake, east to the Upper Stein Valley and west to the Toba Inlet of the Pacific Ocean, in total 780,000 ha, the current community Mount Currie is the heart of the Lil’wat Nation territory the Xa'xtsa First Nation, Xa’xtsa is made up of two communities: Port Douglas at the northern end of Little Harrison Lake, about 90 km northeast of Vancouver, their main community Tipella, on the west side of the Lillooet River, southernmost of the In-SHUCK-ch communities, of the entire St’atl’imx linguistic group the Skatin First Nations, at Skookumchuck Hot Springs on the Lillooet River, the community is located on the east side of the Lillooet River, on the 19-Mile Post of the old Harrison-Lillooet wagon road, before the arrival of European settlers, this community was considered to be the largest on the lower Lillooet River, comparable in size to the pre-contact village of present-day Mount Currie of the Lil'wat First Nation the Samahquam First Nation, returned to their reservation lands in the early 1990s and constructed the Baptiste Smith community, at the southwest end of Little Lillooet Lake on the Lillooet River system.
They once occupied both sides of Little Lillooet Lake. The tiny and remote communities of Samahquam, Xa'xtsa and Ska'tin Bands collectively, including the Tenas Lake Band, seceded from the larger Lillooet Tribal Council at the same time to join the N'quatqua First Nation at to form the In-SHUCK-ch Nation. Since the 1980s these First Nations called themselves Nsvq’tsmc, derived from Nsvq’ts -'split like a crutch', the name of the holy mountain, now called In-SHUCK-ch Mountain; the tribal territory of the different groups of the Upper St'át'imc extended west of the Fraser River from the mouth of the Pavilion Creek to the Texas Creek in the mountains above the Bridge River and westward through the valleys of Seton Lake and Anderson Lake to Duffey Lake. The territory of the Upper St'át'imc east of the Fraser River included the Three Lake Valley and the adjacent mountains and stretched towards the Hat Creek, a tributary of the Bonaparte River; the Upper St'át'imc settled in several main settlements on the banks above the Fraser River and on the banks of the Seton and Anderson Lake — the word'St'át'imc' is derived from a former village T'at'lh on Keatley Creek.
Previous there were the following communities: Sk'ámqain on the shore of Seton Lake, Sat' at the site of present-day city of, Nxwísten at the mouth of the Bridge River, Xáxlip, Slha7äs and Tsal'álh along Seton Lake and Nk'wátkwa on the western shore of Lake Anderson. Beside those significant settlements there have been several smaller villages. In Pavilion, a ethnically and linguistically Secwepemc settlement in the 19th century, since the beginning of the 20th century this community speaks St'at'imcets, but their particular dialect is a hybrid of St'at'imcets and Secwepemctsin, because there had been many mixed marriages between Secwepemc and St'át'imc, know forming the Tsk'weylecw'mc or Pavilion Indian Band. N'quatqua in D'Arcy. Known as the Anderson Lake Band and one of the original members of the breakaway In-SHUCK-ch Nation, although now on its own from that organization and from the Lillooet Tribal Council, despite close family ties to the various bands of that organization. Located at the head of Anderson Lake, northeast of Pemberton.
The N'Quatqua and Tsalalh band
Rodents are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents, they are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments. Species can be fossorial, or semiaquatic. Well-known rodents include mice, squirrels, prairie dogs, chinchillas, beavers, guinea pigs, hamsters and capybaras. Other animals such as rabbits and pikas, whose incisors grow continually, were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, the Lagomorpha. Nonetheless and Lagomorpha are sister groups, sharing a most recent common ancestor and forming the clade of Glires. Most rodents are small animals with robust bodies, short limbs, long tails, they use their sharp incisors to gnaw food, excavate burrows, defend themselves. Most eat seeds or other plant material, they tend to be social animals and many species live in societies with complex ways of communicating with each other.
Mating among rodents can vary from monogamy, to polygyny, to promiscuity. Many have litters of altricial young, while others are precocial at birth; the rodent fossil record dates back to the Paleocene on the supercontinent of Laurasia. Rodents diversified in the Eocene, as they spread across continents, sometimes crossing oceans. Rodents reached both South America and Madagascar from Africa and were the only terrestrial placental mammals to reach and colonize Australia. Rodents have been used as food, for clothing, as pets, as laboratory animals in research; some species, in particular, the brown rat, the black rat, the house mouse, are serious pests and spoiling food stored by humans and spreading diseases. Accidentally introduced species of rodents are considered to be invasive and have caused the extinction of numerous species, such as island birds isolated from land-based predators; the distinguishing feature of the rodents is their pairs of continuously growing, razor-sharp, open-rooted incisors.
These incisors little enamel on the back. Because they do not stop growing, the animal must continue to wear them down so that they do not reach and pierce the skull; as the incisors grind against each other, the softer dentine on the rear of the teeth wears away, leaving the sharp enamel edge shaped like the blade of a chisel. Most species have up to 22 teeth with no canines or anterior premolars. A gap, or diastema, occurs between the cheek teeth in most species; this allows rodents to suck in their cheeks or lips to shield their mouth and throat from wood shavings and other inedible material, discarding this waste from the sides of their mouths. Chinchillas and guinea pigs have a high-fiber diet. In many species, the molars are large, intricately structured, cusped or ridged. Rodent molars are well equipped to grind food into small particles; the jaw musculature is strong. The lower jaw is pulled backwards during chewing. Rodent groups differ in the arrangement of the jaw muscles and associated skull structures, both from other mammals and amongst themselves.
The Sciuromorpha, such as the eastern grey squirrel, have a large deep masseter, making them efficient at biting with the incisors. The Myomorpha, such as the brown rat, have enlarged temporalis muscles, making them able to chew powerfully with their molars; the Hystricomorpha, such as the guinea pig, have larger superficial masseter muscles and smaller deep masseter muscles than rats or squirrels making them less efficient at biting with the incisors, but their enlarged internal pterygoid muscles may allow them to move the jaw further sideways when chewing. The cheek pouch is a specific morphological feature used for storing food and is evident in particular subgroups of rodents like kangaroo rats, hamsters and gophers which have two bags that may range from the mouth to the front of the shoulders. True mice and rats do not contain this structure but their cheeks are elastic due to a high degree of musculature and innervation in the region. While the largest species, the capybara, can weigh as much as 66 kg, most rodents weigh less than 100 g.
The smallest rodent is the Baluchistan pygmy jerboa, which averages only 4.4 cm in head and body length, with adult females weighing only 3.75 g. Rodents have wide-ranging morphologies, but have squat bodies and short limbs; the fore limbs have five digits, including an opposable thumb, while the hind limbs have three to five digits. The elbow gives the forearms great flexibility; the majority of species are plantigrade, walking on both the palms and soles of their feet, have claw-like nails. The nails of burrowing species tend to be long and strong, while arboreal rodents have shorter, sharper nails. Rodent species use a wide variety of methods of locomotion including quadrupedal walking, burrowing, bipedal hopping and gliding. Scaly-tailed squirrels and flying squirrels, although not related, can both glide from tree to tree using parachute-like membranes that stretch from the fore to the hind limbs; the agouti is antelope-like, being digitigrade and having hoof-like nails. The majority of rodents have tails, which can be of many shapes and siz
The grizzly bear is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America. Scientists do not use the name grizzly bear but call it the North American brown bear. Multiple morphological forms sometimes recognized as subspecies exist, including the mainland grizzly, Kodiak bear, peninsular grizzly, the extinct California grizzly and Mexican grizzly bear. On average bears near the coast tend to be larger; the Ussuri brown bear inhabiting Russia, Northern China and Korea is sometimes referred to as the black grizzly, although it is a different subspecies from the bears in America. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark first described it as grisley, which could be interpreted as either "grizzly" or "grisly"; the modern spelling supposes the former meaning. Classification has been revised along genetic lines. There are two morphological forms of Ursus arctos, the grizzly and the coastal brown bears, but these morphological forms do not have distinct mtDNA lineages. Brown bears originated in Eurasia and traveled to North America 50,000 years ago, spreading into the contiguous United States about 13,000 years ago.
In the 19th century, the grizzly was classified as 86 distinct species. However, by 1928 only seven grizzlies remained and by 1953 only one species remained globally. However, modern genetic testing reveals the grizzly to be a subspecies of the brown bear. Rausch found. Therefore, everywhere it is the "brown bear". In 1963 Rausch reduced the number of North American subspecies to one, Ursus arctos middendorffiFurther testing of Y-chromosomes is required to yield an accurate new taxonomy with different subspecies. Coastal grizzlies referred to by the popular but geographically redundant synonym of "brown bear" or "Alaskan brown bear" are larger and darker than inland grizzlies, why they, were considered a different species from grizzlies. Kodiak grizzly bears were at one time considered distinct. Therefore, at one time there were five different "species" of brown bear, including three in North America. Most adult female grizzlies weigh 130 -- 180 kg. Average total length in this subspecies is 198 cm, with an average shoulder height of 102 cm and hindfoot length of 28 cm.
Newborn bears may weigh less than 500 grams. In the Yukon River area, mature female grizzlies can weigh as little as 100 kg. One study found that the average weight for an inland male grizzly was around 272 kilograms and the average weight for a coastal male was around 408 kilograms. For a female, these average weights would be 136 kilograms inland and 227 kilograms coastal, respectively. On the other hand, an occasional huge male grizzly has been recorded which exceeds ordinary size, with weights reported up to 680 kg. A large coastal male of this size may stand up to 3 metres tall on its hind legs and be up to 1.5 metres at the shoulder. Although variable in color from blond to nearly black, grizzly bear fur is brown with darker legs and white or blond tipped fur on the flank and back. A pronounced hump appears on their shoulders. Aside from the distinguishing hump a grizzly bear can be identified by a "dished in" profile of their face with short, rounded ears, whereas a black bear has a straight face profile and longer ears.
A grizzly bear can be identified by its rump, lower than its shoulders, while a black bear's rump is higher. A grizzly bear's front claws measure about 2–4 inches in length and a black bear's measure about 1–2 inches in length. Brown bears are found in Asia and North America, giving them the widest ranges of bear species, they inhabited North Africa and the Middle East. In North America, grizzly bears ranged from Alaska down to Mexico and as far east as the western shores of Hudson Bay, it is most found in Canada. In Canada, there are 25,000 grizzly bears occupying British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the northern part of Manitoba. An article published in 1954 suggested they may be present in the tundra areas of the Ungava Peninsula and the northern tip of Labrador-Quebec. In British Columbia, grizzly bears inhabit 90% of their original territory. There were 25,000 grizzly bears in British Columbia when the European settlers arrived. However, population size has since decreased due to hunting and habitat loss.
In 2003, researchers from the University of Alberta spotted a grizzly on Melville Island in the high Arctic, the most northerly sighting documented. In 2008, it was estimated. Population estimates for British Columbia are based on hair-snagging, DNA-based inventories, mark-and-recapture, a refined multiple regression
Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest are subspecies of the mule deer. They have sometimes been treated as a species, but all recent authorities maintain they are subspecies; the Columbian black-tailed deer is found in western North America, from Northern California into the Pacific Northwest and coastal British Columbia. The Sitka deer is found coastally in British Columbia, southeast Alaska, southcentral Alaska. Black-tailed deer once lived at least as far east as Wyoming. In Francis Parkman's The Oregon Trail, an eyewitness account of his 1846 trek across the early West, while within a 2-day ride from Fort Laramie, Parkman writes of shooting what he believes to be an elk, only to discover he has killed a black-tailed deer; the black-tailed deer is common in California, western Oregon, Washington, in coastal and interior British Columbia, north into the Alaskan panhandle. It is a popular game animal. Though the black-tailed deer arguably is a species all recent authorities maintain it as a subspecies of the mule deer.
Speaking, the black-tailed deer group consists of two subspecies, as it includes O. h. sitkensis. The black-tailed deer group and the mule deer group hybridize, mule deer appear to have evolved from the black-tailed deer group. Despite this, the mtDNA of the white-tailed deer and mule deer are similar, but differ from that of the black-tailed deer; this may be the result of introgression, although hybrids between the mule deer and white-tailed deer are rare in the wild, the hybrid survival rate is low in captivity. These two subspecies thrive on the edge of the forest, as the dark forest lacks the underbrush and grasslands the deer prefer as food, open areas lack the hiding spots and cover they prefer for harsh weather. One of the plants that black-tailed deer browse is western poison oak, despite its irritant content; this deer is most active at dawn and dusk, is involved in collisions with automobiles. Deer are browsers. During the winter and early spring, they feed on Douglas fir, western red cedar, red huckleberry, deer fern, lichens growing on trees.
Late spring to fall, they consume grasses, apples, pearly everlasting, salmonberry and maple. The mating or ` rutting' season occurs during early December. Bucks can be observed running forth across the roads in the pursuit of does. After the rut, the bucks tend to hide and rest nursing wounds, they suffer broken antlers, have lost weight. They drop their antlers between March. Antlers on the forest floor provide a source of calcium and other nutrients to other forest inhabitants. Bucks regrow their antlers beginning in April through to August; the gestation period for does is 6 -- 7 months, with fawns being born into June. Twins are the rule, although young does have only single fawns. Triplets can occur. Fawns have no scent for the first week or so; this enables the mother to leave the fawn hidden while she goes off to browse and replenish her body after giving birth. She must eat enough to produce enough milk to feed her fawns. Although does are excellent mothers, fawn mortality rate is 45 to 70%.
Does are protective of their young and humans are viewed as predators. Deer communicate with the aid of scent and pheromones from several glands located on the lower legs; the metatarsal produces an alarm scent, the tarsal serves for mutual recognition and the interdigital leave a scent trail when deer travel. Deer have excellent smell, their large ears can move independently of each other and pick up any unusual sounds that may signal danger. At dawn and moonlit nights, deer are seen browsing on the roadside. Wooded areas with forests on both sides of the road and open, grassy areas, i.e. golf courses, attract deer. Caution when driving is prudent because as one deer crosses, another one or two follow. In Southeast Alaska, the Sitka deer is the primary prey of the rare Alexander Archipelago wolf, endemic to the region. In the mid-1990s, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service evaluated a petition to list this wolf subspecies as threatened, decided a listing was not warranted in August 1997 on the basis of provisions the Forest Service had included to protect the viability of the wolf subspecies in its Forest Plan for the Tongass National Forest, adopted three months earlier.
The Tongass NF is important in wolf conservation because it includes about 80% of the region's land area. The protections for the wolf included a standard and guideline intended to retain, in the face of logging losses, enough habitat carrying capacity for deer in winter to assure the viability of the Alexander Archipelago wolf and an adequate supply of deer for hunters; the needed carrying capacity was specified as 13 deer per square mile, but was corrected in 2000 to 18. Use of a deer model is specified for determining carrying capacity, is the only tool available for the purpose. However, the Forest Service's implementation of the deer provision in the Tongass wolf standard and guideline has been controversial for many years, led to a lawsuit by Greenpeace and Cascadia Wildlands in 2008, over four logging projects; the data set the Forest Service was using in the deer model was known through the agency's own study to overestimate the carrying capacity for deer and underestimate
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com