The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U. S. states of Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. With its northern portion in Maryland and the southern part in Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay is a important feature for the ecology and economy of those two states, as well as others. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile drainage basin, which covers parts of six states and all of Washington, D. C; the Bay is 200 miles long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles wide at 30 miles at its widest. Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles, circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles. Average depth is 21 feet; the Bay is spanned twice, in Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge from Sandy Point to Kent Island and in Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel connecting Virginia Beach to Cape Charles.
Known for both its beauty and bounty, the Bay has become "emptier", with fewer crabs and watermen in past years. Recent restoration efforts begun in the 1990s have been ongoing and show potential for growth of the native oyster population; the health of the Chesapeake Bay improved in 2015, marking three years of gains over the past four years, according to a new report by the University of Maryland. The word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village "at a big river", it is the seventh oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, first applied as "Chesepiook" by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may refer to the Chesapeake people or the Chesepian, a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U. S. state of Virginia. They occupied an area, now the Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach areas. In 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes "helped to dispel one of the area's most held beliefs: that'Chesapeake' means something like'great shellfish bay.'
It does not, Rudes said. The name might have meant something like'great water,' or it might have just referred to a village location at the Bay's mouth." In addition, the name is always prefixed by "the" in usage by local residents: "The Chesapeake", "The Chesapeake Bay" and "The Bay". The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west, it is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River, meaning that it was the alluvial plain where the river flowed when the sea level was lower. It is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the Bay. North of Baltimore, the western shore borders the hilly Piedmont region of Maryland; the large rivers entering the Bay from the west have broad mouths and are extensions of the main ria for miles up the course of each river. The Bay's geology, its present form, its location were created by a bolide impact event at the end of the Eocene, forming the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and the Susquehanna River valley much later.
The Bay was formed starting about 10,000 years ago when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age flooded the Susquehanna River valley. Parts of the Bay the Calvert County, coastline, are lined by cliffs composed of deposits from receding waters millions of years ago; these cliffs known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils fossilized shark teeth, which are found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Scientists' Cliffs is a beach community in Calvert County named for the desire to create a retreat for scientists when the community was founded in 1935. Much of the Bay is shallow. At the point where the Susquehanna River flows into the Bay, the average depth is 30 feet, although this soon diminishes to an average of 10 feet southeast of the city of Havre de Grace, Maryland, to about 35 feet just north of Annapolis. On average, the depth of the Bay is 21 feet, including tributaries; because the Bay is an estuary, it has salt water and brackish water. Brackish water has three salinity zones: oligohaline and polyhaline.
The freshwater zone runs from the mouth of the Susquehanna River to north Baltimore. The oligohaline zone has little salt. Salinity varies from 0.5 ppt to 10 ppt, freshwater species can survive there. The north end of the oligohaline zone is north Baltimore and the south end is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge; the mesohaline zone has a medium amount of salt and runs from the Bay Bridge to the mouth of the Rappahannock River. Salinity there ranges from 10.7 ppt to 18 ppt. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, some of the water can be as salty as sea water, it runs from the mouth of the Rappahannock River to the mouth of the Bay. The salinity ranges from 18.7 ppt to 36 ppt. The climate of the area surrounding the Bay i
The Conestoga River referred to as Conestoga Creek, is a 61.6-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River flowing through the center of Lancaster County, United States. Its headwaters rise in southern Berks County; the East Branch and West Branch of the Conestoga join to form the main river just north of Morgantown, the stream flows from northeast to southwest for more than 60 miles, passing close to the center of Lancaster and ending at Safe Harbor along the Susquehanna River 16 miles north of the Pennsylvania-Maryland state line. The principal tributaries of the Conestoga River are Cocalico Creek, Mill Creek, Little Conestoga Creek; the Conestoga River and its principal tributaries comprise 114 stream miles, they drain a watershed area of 217 square miles if the main stream is alone considered, rising to 491 square miles when the Cocalico and Little Conestoga Creek watersheds are included. The stream was named after a small tribe of the indigenous Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock people, called the Susquehannocks by the English of Maryland and Virginia and the Conestoga by the English of Pennsylvania.
The village of Conestoga was reported to have two thousand inhabitants in the 17th century, up to seven thousand people or more may have lived in the watershed of the Conestoga River. By the early 18th century most of the Conestoga-Susquehannock were compelled to move to the Ohio area, where they lost their distinctiveness as a nation. In 1763 the remaining Susquehannocks at Conestoga were attacked by the Paxton Boys, a group of anti-Indian vigilantes, who killed six of them at their village of Conestoga, two weeks despite official protection, killed fourteen of the remaining sixteen at the Lancaster workhouse; the two surviving Conestoga-Susquehannock worked as servants on a local farm until they died and were buried there. The first steamboat in America floated on the stream in 1763. In the 19th century the name of the stream gained wider recognition with the spread of the Conestoga wagon, first built in and named after this valley; the wagon assisted the transportation of freight throughout the east, was adapted to help transport goods to the western frontier of the United States.
So many cigars were made in the watershed in the late 19th century that a local cigar named the Conestoga became known as the stogie throughout the US. Though the stream is hardly the size designated a river, local boosterism in the late 19th century insisted that any stream holding scheduled commercial transport should be so called; the name Conestoga has been applied to the Conestoga Rocket, a rocket produced from Minuteman I parts and launched from Matagorda Island, the ship Conestoga, a popular diving wreck in the Thousand Islands, the C-93 Conestoga cargo aircraft, and, in Star Trek, the name of the starship used in the failed first attempt at deep space colonization. Land use along the stream has been traditionally agricultural, though spreading urbanization has affected the stream with erosion problems. Though scenic, the Conestoga River is drastically impaired from nitrogen and phosphorus pollution runoff from animal waste and excessive commercial fertilizer. Other pollution sources are sediments from intense cropping and urban runoff.
The stream flows through a pastoral landscape farmed extensively by Pennsylvania German farmers and along the eastern and southern outskirts of the city of Lancaster. Many covered bridges span its banks. Northeast of Lancaster city are many Old Order Old Order Mennonite farms. Many small dams impound its waters, most of them built long ago to power mills or generate electricity. Most dams are in disrepair and have been abandoned, though there is an active movement to remove as many as possible. Seven were removed between 1996 and 1999. Covered bridgesHunsecker's Mill Covered Bridge Pinetown Bushong's Mill Covered Bridge Pool Forge Covered Bridge Kurtz's Mill Covered Bridge, spanned the Conestoga River before it was moved to a new location Zook's Mill Covered Bridge, spans Cocalico Creek just upstream from its confluence with the ConestogaOtherConestoga Creek Viaduct Bridge in West Earl Township, a concrete bridge List of crossings of the Conestoga River List of rivers of Pennsylvania Conestoga River Watershed Interim Report 2007 U.
S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations Map of old Conestoga River Aerial image of Conestoga River flowing east and south of Lancaster, PA Conestoga River near Slackwater, PA Little Conestoga Watershed Alliance Conestoga Trail map - northern section summary description of Conestoga Trail another Conestoga Trail map
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Manada Creek is a 17.0-mile-long tributary of Swatara Creek in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The watershed drains 32 sq mi; the name is derived the Lenape word "menatey", meaning "island". A variant name once included, Monody Creek; the creek is born in Blue Mountain at Fort Indiantown Gap, East Hanover Township by the confluence of several branches. It meanders southwest to flow through Manada Gap, Pennsylvania creating a water gap through Blue Mountain; the tributary Walnut Run joins Manada Creek above Interstate 81. It becomes the border of East West Hanover townships; the creek continues winding through forests and agricultural farmland before it flows into the Swatara Creek along the outskirts of the unincorporated community of Sand Beach. List of rivers of Pennsylvania Manada Conservancy Community Organizations U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gauging stations USGS 01573482 Water Data - Manada Creek at Manada Gap, PA Indian Names data chart "Chapter 4"
Mountain Creek (Yellow Breeches Creek tributary)
Mountain Creek is a 20.9-mile-long tributary of Yellow Breeches Creek in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Mountain Creek starts in the South Mountain Range and Michaux State Forest and flows through them and Pine Grove Furnace State Park. After leaving the state park, the stream runs through the Holly Gap Marsh Preserve, it flows through the borough of Mount Holly Springs and joins with Yellow Breeches Creek near the borough. Upper Mountain Creek is impounded by two dams to create mountain reservoirs, Laurel Lake and Fuller Lake. Hunters Run Tagg Run Sage Run Iron Run Toms Run Mountain Creek is a popular stocked trout stream, stocked with Brook and Rainbow trout. In the headwaters and tributaries, there is a fair population of wild Brook Trout. List of rivers of Pennsylvania South Mountain Range
Clearfield County, Pennsylvania
Clearfield County is a sixth-class county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 81,642; the county seat is Clearfield, the largest city is DuBois. The county was created in 1804 and organized in 1822. Clearfield County comprises the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the State College-DuBois, PA Combined Statistical Area. Clearfield County was formed by the Act of Assembly by the second Governor of Pennsylvania at the time, Thomas McKean on March 26, 1804; the county was created from parts of the created counties of Huntingdon and Lycoming. The name for the county was most derived from the many cleared fields of the valleys surrounding Clearfield Creek and West Branch of the Susquehanna River, formed by the bison herds and by old corn fields of prior Native Americans tribes; the first board of county commissioners to the county were Roland Curtin, James Fleming and James Smith, all appointed by Governor McKean in 1805. The first act the commissioners did was to create a local government or seat of the newly created county.
They came upon land owned at the time by Abraham Witmer at a village known as Chincleclamousche, named after the Native American chief of the Cornplanter's tribe of Senecas. Clearfield became the new name of the old village; the two major industries of the county in the mid-1800s until the early 1900s was coal. Lumber was still being floated down the West Branch of the Susquehanna up until 1917. Coal remains the main industry of the county to this day. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,154 square miles, of which 1,145 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in fourth-largest by total area; the West Branch Susquehanna River flows through the county bisecting the county seat along the way. The mountainous terrain of the county made traffic difficult for early settlers. Various Native American paths and trails crossing the area were used intermittently by settlers, invading armies, escaped slaves travelling north along the Underground Railroad.
A major feature located in Bloom Township, Pennsylvania within the county is known as Bilger's rocks and exhibits fine examples of exposed sandstone bedrock, created during the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. The shape of Clearfield County bears an amazing resemblance to that of the state of Arkansas; as of the census of 2000, there were 83,382 people, 32,785 households, 22,916 families residing in the county. The population density was 73 people per square mile. There were 37,855 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.40% White, 1.49% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.9% were of German, 13.6% American, 10.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 9.1% Italian and 6.0% Polish ancestry. There were 32,785 households out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families.
26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Clearfield County as the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census the micropolitan area ranked 6th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 65th most populous in the United States with a population of 81,642. Clearfield County is a part of the State College-DuBois, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of both Clearfield and Centre County areas, as well as the State College area.
The Combined Statistical Area ranked 9th in the State of Pennsylvania and 125th most populous in the United States with a population of 235,632. As of October 2014, there were 50,846 registered voters in Clearfield County. Democratic: 21,565 Republican: 23,497 Libertarian: 272 No Party Affiliation: 2,492 Other parties: 3,020 While the county registration tends to be evenly matched between Democrats and Republicans, the county trends Republican in statewide and federal elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, while Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton winning pluralities in the county, with the former by 88 votes. In 2006, Democrat Bob Casey Jr. received 55% of its vote when he unseated incumbent Republican US Senator Rick Santorum and Ed Rendell received 50.2% of the vote against Lynn Swann. Each of the three row-office statewide winners carried Clearfield in 2008. Clearfield County Jail Quehanna Bootcamp SCI Houtzdale Moshannon Valley Correctional Center Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania at Clearfield, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University at DuBois Clearfield County Career and Technology Center Triangle Tech Clearfield Area School District Curwensville Area School District DuBois Area School District Glendale School District Harmony Area School District Moshannon Valley School District Philipsburg-Osceo
Sherman Creek (Pennsylvania)
Sherman Creek is a 53.4-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River in Perry County, Pennsylvania in the United States. Sherman Creek joins the Susquehanna River just downstream of Duncannon. While the official name according to the United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System is "Sherman Creek", an recognized variant name is "Shermans Creek". Most locals refer to it as the latter. Book's Covered Bridge Dellville Covered Bridge List of rivers of Pennsylvania U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations