The clearing of woods and forests is the process by which vegetation, such as trees and bushes, together with their roots are permanently removed. The main aim of this process is to clear areas of forest, woodland or scrub in order to use the soil for another purpose, such as pasture land, arable farming, human settlement or the construction of roads or railways. One definition of forest clearing is given in the Austrian federal law that governs the forestry industry which defines it as "the use of forest land for purposes other than forestry". Sometimes a distinction is made between forest clearing or tree clearing, whereby the trees, including the stumps are cleared, stump or root clearing where the trees are first felled and the stumps removed subsequently. Forest clearings may result in small, treeless areas or cleared corridors, for example along rivers or other linear features. Isolated clearings occur in advance of more general and large-scale deforestation. May towns and villages in Central Europe emerged during historical "clearance periods" resulting in "clearing or clearance landscapes as a form of internal colonisation.
An example of this is the settlement of people in the Central Uplands in so-called Waldhufendorf villages. The names of many towns and villages in Europe derives from their origin as clearance settlements, for example, names ending in -rode or -reuth. History of the forest in Central Europe Richard B. Hilf: Der Wald. Wald und Weidwerk in Geschichte und Gegenwart - Erster Teil. Aula, Wiebelsheim, 2003, ISBN 3-494-01331-4. Hans Hausrath: Geschichte des deutschen Waldbaus. Von seinen Anfängen bis 1850. Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Forstpolitik und Raumordnung der Universität Freiburg. Hochschulverlag, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1982, ISBN 3-8107-6803-0. Jens Lüning: Steinzeitliche Bauern in Deutschland. Die Landwirtschaft im Neolithikum, Bonn, 2000, ISBN 3-7749-2953-X, Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie.
Clearing is a guitar solo album by English guitarist and improvisor Fred Frith. It was Frith's first solo guitar recording since Live in Japan and his first solo guitar studio recording since his landmark 1974 album Guitar Solos. Clearing comprises eleven tracks of unaccompanied and improvised music played on prepared guitars by Frith. Ten of the tracks were recorded in Stuttgart, Germany in 1996 and 2000, one was recorded live at the Konstrukcja w Procesie Festival VII in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2000. In 2000, John Zorn commissioned Frith to make a guitar solo album for Tzadik Records as a follow-up to his 1974 album, Guitar Solos. Using prepared guitars, Frith recorded Clearing in Stuttgart, Germany in July 2000 in a similar vein as Guitar Solos, revisiting areas explored on that album but not developed further at the time, he included two additional tracks, "Gaifu Kaisei" and "This Earth is a Flower", recorded earlier. Frith used. On "Chains", Frith dropped a chain into the tin. An acoustic sound was achieved on "Blue" by placing microphones close to the electric guitar strings.
Chopsticks were jammed between the guitar strings on "Gaifu Kaisei". "Minimalism" was performed by striking the guitar strings with drumsticks. Frith dedicated four of the tracks on the album to: Bill Frisell – United States guitarist for the band Naked City, in which Frith played bass guitar. AllMusic said this of the album: "White" – 9:28 "Open Ocean" – 5:12 "Chains" – 2:00 "The Bow Moon" – 4:00 "Minimalism" – 5:07 "Not With Love But With Fear" – 6:03 "Theatre" – 10:09 "Gaifu Kaisei" – 2:50 "Road Movie" – 2:12 "This Earth is a Flower" – 3:52 "Blue" – 3:12 Fred Frith – prepared guitars Tracks 1-7,9,11 recorded by Peter Hardt at Jankowski Studio, Germany, July 2000 Track 8 recorded by Peter Hardt at Jankowski Studio, Germany, January 1996 Track 10 recorded live to DAT by Grzegorz Kazimierczak at the Konstrukcja w Procesie Festival VII, Poland in association with Mózg and the International Artists' Museum, June 2000 Sequenced and pre-mastered by Myles Boisen at Headless Buddha Mastering Lab, California, December 2000 Mastered by Allan Tucker at Foothill Digital, New York City Cover photo by Fred Frith.
Fred Frith discography
Deforestation, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land, converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to ranches, or urban use; the most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests. Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation; the removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War; as of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600.
Deforested regions incur significant adverse soil erosion and degrade into wasteland. Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation–both occurring and human-induced–is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests. Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres of forests around the world were cut down. As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the original 16 million square kilometres of tropical rainforest that covered the Earth. An area the size of a football pitch is cleared from the Amazon rainforest every minute, with 136 million acres of rainforest cleared for animal agriculture overall.
According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation. Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation; some argue that poor people are more to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, urbanization. Globalization is viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. In 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible", that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic and technological conditions".
The degradation of forest ecosystems has been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Many important forest functions have no markets, hence, no economic value, apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being. From the perspective of the developing world, the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services. Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world, such as the United States of America, cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited economically from this deforestation, that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities, i.e. that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem. Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years. Whereas deforestation was driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America, Java, so on, during the late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century, by the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, extensive agriculture.
Since 2001, commodity-driven deforestation, more to be permanent, has accounted for about a quarter of all forest disturbance, this loss has been concentrated in South America and Southeast Asia. Deforestation is shaping climate and geography. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, is cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon d
In the most general sense, a glade or clearing is an open area within a forest. Glades are grassy meadows under the canopy of deciduous trees such as red alder or quaking aspen in western North America, they represent openings in forests where local conditions such as avalanches, poor soils, or fire damage have created semi-permanent clearings. They are important to herbivorous animals, such as deer and elk, for forage and denning activities. Sometimes the word is used in a looser sense, as in the treeless wetlands of the Everglades. In the central United States, the term glade is used more to describe rocky, prairie-like habitats that occur in areas of shallow soil. Glades are characterized by unique plant and animal communities that are adapted to harsh and dry conditions. Gap Media related to Glades at Wikimedia Commons
In economics, market clearing is the process by which, in an economic market, the supply of whatever is traded is equated to the demand, so that there is no leftover supply or demand. The new classical economics assumes that, in any given market, assuming that all buyers and sellers have access to information and that there is not "friction" impeding price changes, prices always adjust up or down to ensure market clearing. A market-clearing price is the price of a good or service at which quantity supplied is equal to quantity demanded called the equilibrium price; the theory claims. For a one-time sale of goods, supply is fixed, so the market-clearing price is the price at which all items can be sold, but no lower. In this case, the marketplace is cleared of all goods. For a market where goods are produced and sold on an ongoing basis, the theory predicts that the market will move toward a price where the quantity supplied in a broad time period will equal the quantity demanded; this might be measured over a period like a week, month or year, to smooth out irregularities caused by manufacturing in batches, delivery schedules.
If the sale price is higher than the market-clearing price supply will exceed demand, a surplus inventory will build up over the long run. If the sale price is lower than the market-clearing price demand will exceed supply, in the long run shortages will result, where buyers sometimes find no products for sale at any price; the first version of market-clearing theory assumes that the price adjustment process occurs instantaneously. If, for example, a community is subject to an earthquake which destroys all of the houses and apartments, its members will have a sudden increased demand for new housing. After the disaster, the market for housing in the community will be temporarily out of equilibrium, suffering from an excess demand for houses and apartments, but if markets are free to operate, given enough time, prices will increase causing construction companies to build new houses in the short run and new companies to enter the house and apartment-construction market in the longer run. This increase in production brings supply into balance with the new demand.
The adjustment mechanism has established a new equilibrium. A similar mechanism is believed to operate when there is a market surplus, where prices fall until all the excess supply is sold off. An example of excess supply is Christmas decorations that are still in stores several days after Christmas. For 150 years, the vast majority of economists took the smooth operation of this market-clearing mechanism as inevitable and inviolable, based on belief in Say's law, but the Great Depression of the 1930s caused many economists, including John Maynard Keynes, to doubt their classical faith. If markets were supposed to clear, how could ruinously high rates of unemployment persist for so many painful years? Was the market mechanism not supposed to eliminate such surpluses? In one interpretation, Keynes identified imperfections in the adjustment mechanism that, if present, could introduce rigidities and make prices sticky. In another interpretation, price adjustment could make matters worse, causing what Irving Fisher called "debt deflation".
Not all economists accept these theories. They attribute what appears to be imperfect clearing to factors like labor unions or government policy, thereby exonerating the clearing mechanism. Most economists see the assumption of continuous market clearing as not realistic. However, many see the assumption of flexible prices as useful in long-run analysis, since prices are not stuck forever: market-clearing models describe the equilibrium towards which the economy gravitates. Therefore, many macroeconomists feel that price flexibility is a good assumption for studying long-run issues, such as growth in real GDP. Other economists argue that price adjustment may take so much time that the process of equilibration may change the underlying conditions that determine long-run equilibrium; that is, there may be path dependence, as when a long depression changes the nature of the "full employment" period that follows. In the short run, markets may find a temporary equilibrium at a price and quantity that does not correspond with the long term market clearing equilibrium.
For example, in the theory of "efficiency wages", a labor market can be in equilibrium above the market-clearing wage, since each employer has the incentive to pay wages above market-clearing to motivate their employees on the job. In this case, equilibrium wages would not be the same as market-clearing wages. Double auction Economic equilibrium Supply and demand
The Clearing (film)
The Clearing is a 2004 American drama film and the directorial debut of Pieter Jan Brugge, who has worked as a film producer. The film is loosely based on the real life kidnapping of Gerrit Jan Heijn that took place in the Netherlands in 1987; the screenplay was written by Justin Haythe. Wayne Hayes, his wife Eileen are living the American dream in a wealthy Pittsburgh suburb, having raised two children and built up a successful business from scratch, he is looking forward to a peaceful retirement with Eileen. Everything changes when Wayne is kidnapped in broad daylight by Arnold Mack. While Wayne tries negotiating with the kidnapper, Eileen works with the FBI to try to secure her husband's release. During the investigation, Eileen learns that Wayne has continued an extramarital affair that he promised to end months previously. Eileen is instructed to deliver the ransom to the kidnapper, but Arnold takes the money without returning her husband. Although Eileen's ordeal takes place over the course of a week, the film is edited to show Wayne's kidnapping as if it was happening at the same time.
Arnold is caught when he begins to spend the ransom money in the neighborhood where he lives. At a local grocery store, he uses a $100 bill to make a purchase; the store manager calls authorities and verifies the serial number on the $100 bill is on a watch list the FBI distributed to local businesses. During questioning Arnold is asked if he wanted to be caught, he admits that the kidnapping was to get money for his depressed wife, but it took him all day to bring himself to kill Wayne and he couldn't live with the guilt of his crime. In the end, Eileen receives a loving note written by Wayne before his death. Robert Redford – Wayne Hayes Helen Mirren – Eileen Hayes Willem Dafoe – Arnold Mack Alessandro Nivola – Tim Hayes Matt Craven – Agent Ray Fuller Melissa Sagemiller – Jill Hayes Wendy Crewson – Louise Miller Larry Pine – Tom Finch Diana Scarwid – Eva Finch The film was shot in and around Asheville, North Carolina and in downtown Pittsburgh; the film has received mixed reviews. According to Roger Ebert, writing in the Chicago Sun-Times, it "doesn't feel bound by the usual formulas of crime movies.
What happens will emerge from the personalities of the characters, not from the requirements of Hollywood endings." According to Peter Travers in Rolling Stone, The pleasures of this endeavor, directed with a keen eye for detail by Pieter Jan Brugge, come from what the actors bring to the material."Ty Burr, in the Boston Globe, felt that the film had a "lack of emotion" and "could have been more than it is". M. Torreiro, in the Spanish newspaper El País, described the film a "tense thriller and made of downtime and sensations on the limit, a strange film." The Clearing on IMDb The Clearing at Rotten Tomatoes
The Clearing (Locrian album)
The Clearing is an album from drone rock band Locrian. It was released on November 1, 2011, through Fan Death Records and re-released through Relapse Records with an additional album of material titled "The Final Epoch." The first single off the album, "Chalk Point," was released on October 3, 2011. Credits adapted from All Music. André Foisy – guitar Terence Hannum – organ, vocals Steven Hess – drums, tape Jeremy Lemos – engineer, mixing Brian Ulrich - artwork Jason Ward - Mastering The Clearing at Discogs