Clearwater River (Alberta)
Clearwater is a river of southern Alberta, Canada. Situated in the Canadian Rockies and the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta, it is a glacier fed upper reach tributary of the North Saskatchewan River; the upper reach of the Clearwater has become popular for equestrian travelers due to the natural setting along the river. When measuring from Trident Lake, the Clearwater River has a length of 203 kilometres and descends 350 metres to its end at Rocky Mountain House; the river begins in Banff National Park on the southern slope of Mount Willingdon into the Devon Lakes at Clearwater Pass. From the Devon Lakes it descends 400 metres to Clearwater Lake. About 2 kilometres after Clearwater Lake and 50 metres down the river hits Trident Lake, where it becomes navigable by canoe. After traveling 15 kilometres east and descending 120 metres, the river exits Banff National Park; the river travels east 18 kilometres more and descends 150 metres before turning north and exiting the Ram Range in the Rocky Mountain Foothills.
About 20 kilometres further along, the river turns east again and meets its first road around Idlewild Mountain. About 70 kilometres the river turns northwest. About 30 kilometres further, the river empties into the North Saskatchewan River. List of rivers of Alberta Wild Rivers. Alberta. By Canada. Wild Rivers Survey. Clearwater River Expedition - A journal log with photos describing a hike along the Clearwater River
North Saskatchewan River
The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river that flows from the Canadian Rockies continental divide east to central Saskatchewan, where it joins with another major river to make up the Saskatchewan River. Its water flows into the Hudson Bay; the Saskatchewan River system is the largest shared between the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Its watershed includes most of Saskatchewan; the North Saskatchewan River has a length of 1,287 kilometres, a drainage area of 122,800 square kilometres. At its end point at Saskatchewan River Forks it has a mean discharge of 245 cubic metres per second; the yearly discharge at the Alberta–Saskatchewan border is more than 7 cubic kilometres. The river begins above 1,800 metres at the toe of the Saskatchewan Glacier in the Columbia Icefield, flows southeast through Banff National Park alongside the Icefields Parkway. At the junction of the David Thompson Highway, it turns northeast for 10 kilometres before switching to a more direct eastern flow for about 30 kilometres.
At this point, it turns north where it arrives at Abraham Lake. Bighorn Dam constricts the north end of Abraham Lake, where the North Saskatchewan emerges to track eastward to Rocky Mountain House. At Rocky Mountain House, the river abruptly turns north again for 100 kilometres where it switches east towards Edmonton, Alberta. In Edmonton, the river passes through the centre of the city in a northeasterly direction and out towards Smoky Lake at which point it changes to the southeast and more to the east as it makes its way to the Alberta–Saskatchewan boundary. From the border, the river flows southeast between North Battleford and Battleford and on in the direction of Saskatoon. About 40 kilometres northwest of Saskatoon, near Langham, the river veers to the northeast where it passes through the City of Prince Albert. About 30 kilometres downstream of Prince Albert, the North Saskatchewan River joins the South Saskatchewan River at Saskatchewan River Forks to become the Saskatchewan River. From there, the river flows east to Tobin Lake and into Manitoba emptying into Lake Winnipeg.
The river course can be divided into five distinct sections. The first, the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, is the smallest area geographically, although the largest in terms of run-off and contributed water flow; the glaciers and perpetual snows of the mountain peaks feed the river year-round. Mountains, with little vegetation, experience fast-melting snow cover; the second section of the river comprises the foothills region. The terrain is rough, with a deeper and more defined valley; this area is well covered with forest and muskeg, run-off into the river is much more constant and stable than in the mountains. From Edmonton to the mouth of the Vermilion River, the North Saskatchewan flows through the plains-parkland divide, with occasional stretches of prairie; the North Saskatchewan River valley parks system. Cutting across Edmonton and the Capital Region; the river runs in a well-defined valley with deep cuts in the landscape. The fourth section, from the Vermilion River to Prince Albert is principally prairie with a few small stretches of timber and secondary forest cover.
The valley of the river is much wider, the river itself spreads out across shallow water and flows over many shifting sand bars. Low-lying, flat areas, border the river for much of this section; the final section of the river, from Prince Albert to the Saskatchewan River Forks, has many rapids. The valley is more shallow than the previous sections of the river, the channel is much better defined. There is little prairie and much tree cover in this section; the Bridge River Ash is in the vicinity of the North Saskatchewan River, which erupted from the Mount Meager massif in southwestern British Columbia about 2350 years ago. The river is shown on a Hudson's Bay Company map from 1760, labeled as the Beaver River, its Cree name is kisiskâciwanisîpiy. From this name is derived the name Saskatchewan, used as well for the South Saskatchewan River and the Saskatchewan River, the province of that name, its Blackfoot name is omaka-ty. The section of the North Saskatchewan river that falls within the Banff National Park boundaries has been designated a Canadian Heritage River in 1989, for its importance in the development of western Canada.
The river demarcates the prairie–parkland divide for much of its course and acted as a natural boundary between plains Blackfoot and woodland Cree First Nations people for thousands of years. With the westward expansion of the fur trade spearheaded by the North West Company and followed by the Hudson's Bay Company, the river became an important transportation route for fur trade brigades' York boats, to which it was well suited as it follows an eastern trend toward Hudsons Bay, the entry point for the HBC into Canada. Many fur trade posts were constructed on the river, including Fort Edmonton and Rocky Mountain House, the uppermost post reached by canoe navigation; the river's importance continued after the amalgamation of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. The river was plied by a number of steamboats right up to WWI, although for everyday freight the growing web of railway lines in the western prairies replaced them; the river was used commercially for many years - to carry flatboats of settlers goods and construction materials downstream from Edmonton, to float thousands of logs in the annual log drive downstream to Edmonton prior to WWI, as a source of ice blocks for
Bighorn River (Alberta)
The Bighorn River is a short river originating in the Alberta foothills, is a tributary of the North Saskatchewan River. The river, as well as the nearby Bighorn Range and Bighorn Dam are named for the Bighorn sheep which dominate the area; the name first appeared in 1865. Flowing under Mount McGuire, Bighorn River soon takes on Littlehorn and Sunkay Creeks, before plummeting over the impressive Crescent Falls. After the falls, the Bighorn travels through a significant canyon, before passing through the Bighorn Indian Reserve; the river empties into the North Saskatchewan River after Lake Abraham. List of Alberta rivers
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Brazeau River is a river in western Alberta, Canada. It is a major tributary of the North Saskatchewan River; the river was named for a linguist associated with the Palliser Expedition. The river originates in the heights of the Canadian Rockies from Brazeau Lake and flows east through the Rocky Mountains foothills until it merges into the North Saskatchewan River between Drayton Valley and Rocky Mountain House at Brazeau Forks; the upper course runs eastwards from Jasper National Park into Brazeau Canyon Wildland Provincial Park. The O'Chiese First Nation is established at the confluence with Nordegg River; the total length of the river is 210 kilometres. The river, various other local geographic features, were named after Joseph Brazeau, a Missouri-born fur trader working for the Hudson's Bay Company in the area between 1852 and 1864; the Brazeau River has long been seen as a potential site for hydroelectric power generation. The earliest scheme to harness the power of the river was hatched in 1913 and involved a dam and storage on Brazeau Lake.
The potential power generation was estimated at 5,000 to 10,000 kVA, power would have been transmitted to Edmonton and Calgary, both 400 kilometres from the generator. The plan was scuttled after the discovery of a large underflow at Brazeau Lake, precluding its use as a storage facility; the 99 square kilometres Brazeau Reservoir was created on the lower course through the construction of the Brazeau Dam. Its hydroelectric power plant is Alberta's largest with a capacity of 355 MW and an annual production of about 394,000 MW⋅h of electrical energy. An unusual feature of this hydroelectric development commissioned in 1965 is a pump system capable of lifting water from the reservoir into the 20-kilometre long canal leading to the power plant so that it can operate at low reservoir water levels. Boulder Creek Four Point Creek Brazeau Lake John-John Creek Upper Longview Lake Job Creek Whisker Creek, Whisker Lakes, Job Lake, Leah Lake, Samson Lake Isaac Creek Race Creek Southesk River Southesk Lake Thistle Creek Chimney Creek Marshybank Creek Marshybank Lake Canyon Creek Moosehound Creek Cardinal River Blackstone River Elk River Nordegg River Geography of Alberta List of Alberta rivers
Caroline is a village in central Alberta, Canada. It is located southwest of Red Deer; the community is named after daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Langley; the family opened the community's original post office in 1908. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Village of Caroline recorded a population of 512 living in 233 of its 259 total private dwellings, a 2.2% change from its 2011 population of 501. With a land area of 2.04 km2, it had a population density of 251.0/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Village of Caroline had a population of 501 living in 201 of its 248 total dwellings, a -2.7% change from its 2006 population of 515. With a land area of 1.98 km2, it had a population density of 253.0/km2 in 2011. Kurt Browning, world champion figure skater Terry Long, former leader of Canada's Aryan Nations Kris Russell, professional ice hockey player Ryan Russell, professional ice hockey player Jim Vandermeer, professional ice hockey player Pete Vandermeer, former professional ice hockey player In the mid-1980s a large gas field valued at 10 billion dollars was discovered nearby and subsequently developed by Shell.
Caroline Curling Club List of communities in Alberta List of villages in Alberta Official website
Rocky Mountain House
Rocky Mountain House is a town in west-central Alberta, Canada located 77 km west of the City of Red Deer at the confluence of the Clearwater and North Saskatchewan Rivers, at the crossroads of Highway 22 and Highway 11. The surrounding Clearwater County's administration office is located in Rocky Mountain House; the town has a long history dating to the 18th century with the presence of British and Canadian fur traders during the westward Canadian expansion. In 1799, the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company each established the Rocky Mountain House and Acton House fur trading posts. Trade with the local aboriginal peoples continued until 1821 when the companies merged, they continued to trade until 1875 and closed the Rocky Mountain House post; the name of the settlement however remained. The Rocky Mountain House settlement served as a launching point for many explorers such as David Thompson, in search for a passage west to the Pacific Ocean. Many travellers used this location as a stop on their way further west or northwest, just as they do into the 21st century.
The next wave of adventurers entered the region at the beginning of the 20th century in search of opportunities presented by lush farmland and the abundance of natural resources. Rocky Mountain House became a established town by 1912. Settlers of Scandinavian origin made up a significant part of early 20th century settlement in the region. Rocky Mountain House and Acton House were a pair of fur trade posts from 1799 to 1876. Rocky Mountain House belonged to the North West Acton House to the Hudson's Bay Company; when the two companies merged in 1821, the name Rocky Mountain House was retained. The posts closed seven times. Rocky Mountain House was the westernmost post on the North Saskatchewan and was within sight of the Rocky Mountains; the fort facilitated trade with the Blackfeet and Piegans as well as the Kootenays across the mountains. The Kootenays were prevented from reaching Fort Edmonton by the Blackfeet and Piegans who wanted to profit as middlemen and keep them from getting guns; the fort served as a base for finding a pass across the Rocky Mountains.
The post produced pemmican and York boats. The posts were built at the confluence of the North Saskatchewan River, they were on the north bank just above the Clearwater and built for protection from the Blackfeet. During low water there were rapids near the post. Around 1980, only two stone chimneys were standing. An interpretive centre was subsequently developed at this location. Timeline1790: Peter Pangman of the North West Company marked the site for the future company fort. 1799–1802: In September 1799, a group of Nor'Westers under John McDonald of Garth travelled upstream of Fort Augustus by canoe and horseback and established Rocky Mountain House. James Bird of the HBC built Acton House. David Thompson and Duncan McGillivray of the NWC were wintering partners at their House; the Kootenays did not cross the mountains in significant attempts to find a pass failed. Therefore, both posts were closed in 1802. 1805–1807: The two posts were reopened without much success. In 1807, David Thompson of the NWC went up the North Saskatchewan, found Howse Pass and built Kootenay House on the Columbia River.
The new post made Rocky Mountain House unnecessary and the posts were closed again in 1807. 1810–1812: Reopened in 1810, Alexander Henry'The Younger' of the NWC found that the route over the mountains was blockaded by the Piegans. He and David Thompson set out overland north to the Athabasca River. After ascending it for five days, they abandoned their horses for snowshoes to cross Athabasca Pass for the first time and reached the Columbia River at Boat Encampment. Athabasca Pass was superior and attempts to reach the Columbia shifted north. In 1811, a group of Gros Ventres planned to attack the fort but were threatened away by the Piegans who preferred to trade at Rocky Mountain House rather than at Fort Edmonton near their Cree enemies; the two posts were closed to consolidate trade at Fort Edmonton. 1819–1823: Attempts to get the Blackfeet to trade at Fort Edmonton failed so the forts were reopened. With John Rowland in charge for the NWC, the two companies were merged in 1821 and the combined fort was called Rocky Mountain House.
In 1823, George Simpson decided to close the post since there were few beaver and the post was losing money. 1825–1832: The post was reopened at Piegan request, it prospered due to a new source of beaver. In the winter of 1830-31, a group of Piegans were attacked by the Crows, who killed 57 Piegans and stole all their furs. After this disaster and the opening of a closer American post, the Piegans stopped trading and the post was closed again in 1832. 1835–1861: A new post was built to the south somewhere on the Bow River in the Piegan country, which failed after two years. In 1835, J. E. Harriott built a new post down the river but in sight of the old post, where it remained as a wintering post for 26 years; the Piegan trade having been lost to the Americans, the HBC tried to concentrate the Blackfoot trade at Rocky Mountain House away from their enemies at Fort Edmonton. With the escalating violence on the frontier, the HBC decided to stop the liquor trade. In retaliation, the Blackfeet prevented buffalo hunters from leaving the fort.
With starvation a real possibility, no one was sent upriver in the fall of 1861 to trade. Finding the fort empty, the Blackfeet burnt it to the ground. 1864–1876: Gold was discovered in Montana and the American traders shifted their attention from Indians to prospectors. The HBC reasoned that this made a new opportunity for the Indian trade and a new