Buttock cleavage is minor exposure of the buttocks and the intergluteal cleft between them because of low-rise pants. The crena is another formal term for the cleft between the buttocks, the medical term is posterior rugae; when faced with indecency issues back in the 1930s, W. G. Cassidy explained in an essay titled Private Parts: A Judicial View that exposure of a buttock cleavage may come under "other private parts" in Australian law, though indecency involves exposure of the genital area. In the early 2000s it became fashionable for young women and men to expose their buttocks this way in tandem with low rise jeans; the Cincinnati Enquirer called it the "new cleavage", expressed views that "It's impossible to find jeans to cover your hipbone". In August 2001, The Sun celebrated a "bum cleavage week" claiming that "bums are the new tits". In reaction to this trend, Saturday Night Live aired a parody advertisement in their April 16, 2006 episode for a product called Neutrogena Coin Slot Cream, in which host Lindsay Lohan appeared.
British designer Alexander McQueen was mentioned as the originator of buttock cleavage-revealing jeans, known as the "bumster", in cultural critique Sheila Jeffreys' Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West. United States Patent 6473908 from 2002 registers a design for trousers with a removable buttock cleavage-revealing portion. In the mid-2000s, Good Morning America reported on a rise of popularity of the buttock cleavage among celebrities. In 2010s, media reported rise in popularity among females of ultra-short miniskirts and shorts, which publicly exposed underbuns, due to endorsement by such celebrities as Lady Gaga; the terms plumber butt or plumber's crack and builder's bum refer to the exposure of male buttock cleavage on occasions of careless bending over. The expression "builder's bum" was first recorded in 1988; the terms are based on the popular impression that work in these professions involves bending over in locations where bystanders are observing from the rear.
In the Netherlands the term bouwvakkersdecolleté and in Germany maurerdekolleté and in Poland dekolt hydraulika is used, which can be translated as "builder's/mason's/plumber's cleavage". In France, it is referred to as le sourire du plombier, which translates to "the plumber's smile". Butt crack Breast cleavage Intergluteal cleft Camel toe Wardrobe Malfunction Whale tail
A cleave in an optical fiber is a deliberate, controlled break, intended to create a flat endface, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fiber. The process of cleaving an optical fiber forms one of the steps in the preparation for a fiber splice operation regardless of the subsequent splice being a fusion splice or a mechanical splice. A good cleave is required for a successful low loss splice of an optical fiber it is the case that fibers spliced by identical methods tend to have different losses, this difference can be attributed to the quality of their initial cleaves; the general method of cleaving involves a general strategy known as the scribe-and-tension or scribe-and-break strategy. This strategy involves the introduction of a small crack into the fiber and the subsequent application of a tensile force in the vicinity of the crack that causes the fiber to cleave. A general cleaving strategy, employed is known as the scribe-and-tension strategy or the scribe-and-break strategy.
This process involves introduction of a crack in the fiber by means of cutting tool made from a material such as diamond, sapphire, or tungsten carbide, followed by the application of tensile stress in the vicinity of the crack. However, the specific implementations of the cleaving vary and result in cleaves of different qualities. Certain implementations may apply the tensile force uniformly across the cross section of the fiber whereas others might bend the fiber around a curved surface causing excessive tensile stress on the outside of the bend; the introduction of the crack in the fiber may be generated in different ways. The circumferential introduction of the crack allows fibers of large diameters to be cleaved while maintaining high quality of the cleave. Pen-shaped scribe looks like a ballpoint pen, but has a small wedge tip made of diamond or other hard material; this tool is used with the "pull" technique. First the fiber is scribed perpendicular to its length; the fiber is pulled, which breaks at the scribe.
This tool requires an experienced operator to produce good cleaves. Mechanical cleavers clamp the fiber in the correct position before a diamond wheel or blade scribes the fiber. A force is applied and the fiber gives a nice break at the scribe. Mechanical cleavers give more repeatable cleaves. Multifiber cleavers are used for ribbon fiber cables. Stripping Recoating Optical communication Fiber optic communications Federal Standard 1037C Senior, John. Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. Yablon, Andrew D. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-23104-2. Retrieved 14 April 2015
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes. These planes of relative weakness are a result of the regular locations of atoms and ions in the crystal, which create smooth repeating surfaces that are visible both in the microscope and to the naked eye. Cleavage forms parallel to crystallographic planes: Basal or pinacoidal cleavage occurs when there is only one cleavage plane. Graphite has basal cleavage. Mica has basal cleavage. Cubic cleavage occurs on. Halite has cubic cleavage, therefore, when halite crystals are broken, they will form more cubes. Octahedral cleavage occurs. Fluorite exhibits perfect octahedral cleavage. Octahedral cleavage is common for semiconductors. Diamond has octahedral cleavage. Rhombohedral cleavage occurs when there are three cleavage planes intersecting at angles that are not 90 degrees. Calcite has rhombohedral cleavage. Prismatic cleavage occurs. Spodumene exhibits prismatic cleavage. Dodecahedral cleavage occurs.
Sphalerite has dodecahedral cleavage. Crystal parting occurs when minerals break along planes of structural weakness due to external stress or along twin composition planes. Parting breaks are similar in appearance to cleavage, but only occur due to stress. Examples include magnetite which shows octahedral parting, the rhombohedral parting of corundum and basal parting in pyroxenes. Cleavage is a physical property traditionally used in mineral identification, both in hand specimen and microscopic examination of rock and mineral studies; as an example, the angles between the prismatic cleavage planes for the pyroxenes and the amphiboles are diagnostic. Crystal cleavage is of technical importance in the electronics industry and in the cutting of gemstones. Precious stones are cleaved by impact, as in diamond cutting. Synthetic single crystals of semiconductor materials are sold as thin wafers which are much easier to cleave. Pressing a silicon wafer against a soft surface and scratching its edge with a diamond scribe is enough to cause cleavage.
Elemental semiconductors are a space group for which octahedral cleavage is observed. This means. Most other commercial semiconductors can be made in the related zinc blende structure, with similar cleavage planes. Cleavage Mineral galleries: Mineral properties – Cleavage
In cell biology, the cleavage furrow is the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis, the final splitting of the membrane, in the process of cell division. The same proteins responsible for muscle contraction and myosin, begin the process of forming the cleavage furrow, creating an actomyosin ring. Other cytoskeletal proteins and actin binding proteins are involved in the procedure. Plant cells do not perform cytokinesis through this exact method but the two procedures are not different. Animal cells form an actin-myosin contractile ring within the equatorial region of the cell membrane that constricts to form the cleavage furrow. In plant cells, Golgi vesicle secretions form a cell plate or septum on the equatorial plane of the cell wall by the action of microtubules of the phragmoplast; the cleavage furrow in animal cells and the phragmoplast in plant cells are complex structures made up of microtubules and microfilaments that aide in the final separation of the cells into two identical daughter cells.
The cell cycle begins with interphase when the DNA replicates, the cell grows and prepares to enter mitosis. Mitosis includes four phases, metaphase and telophase. Prophase is the initial phase when spindle fibers appear that function to move the chromosomes toward opposite poles; this spindle apparatus consists of microtubules, microfilaments and a complex network of various proteins. During metaphase, the chromosomes line up using the spindle apparatus in the middle of the cell along the equatorial plate; the chromosomes move to opposite poles during anaphase and remain attached to the spindle fibers by their centromeres. Animal cell cleavage furrow formation is caused by a ring of actin microfilaments called the contractile ring, which forms during early anaphase. Myosin is present in the region of the contractile ring as concentrated microfilaments and actin filaments are predominant in this region; the actin filaments here are both new. Cleavage is driven by these motor proteins and myosin, which are the same proteins involved with muscle contraction.
During cellular cleavage, the contractile ring tightens around the cytoplasm of the cell until the cytoplasm is pinched into two daughter cells. During the final phase of mitosis, the furrow forms an intercellular bridge using mitotic spindle fibers. Phosphatidylethanolamine has been shown to be present during this time which indicates, may play a role in movement between the plasma membrane and contractile ring; the bridge is broken and resealed to form two identical daughter cells during cytokinesis. The breakage is formed by microtubules and the resealing is negated by Calcium dependent exocytosis using Golgi vesicles. In comparison, the plant cell septum and the animal cell mid-zone are analogous. Both require vesicular secretions by the Golgi apparatus for resealing and formation of the cytoskeletal network in addition to microtubules and microfilaments for division and movement; the cleavage furrow mechanism in animal cells is a complex network of actin and myosin filaments, Golgi vesicles and Calcium dependent channels enabling the cell to break apart and form new daughter cells with complete membranes
A diastema is a space or gap between two teeth. Many species of mammals have diastemata as a normal feature, most between the incisors and molars. Diastemata can exist in adult teeth as well. Diastemata are caused by imbalance in the relationship between the jaw and the size of teeth. If the labial frenulum pulls, it can push the teeth apart and cause a diastema between the center of the two front teeth. In humans, the term is most applied to an open space between the upper incisors, it happens when there is an unequal relationship between the size of the jaw. Diastema is sometimes caused or exacerbated by the action of a labial frenulum causing high mucosal attachment and less attached keratinized tissue, more prone to recession or by tongue thrusting, which can push the teeth apart. 1. Determining the cause of the diastema treat the cause. 2. Diastema treatment options can differ from one patient to another, but it is treated by orthodontics, or composite fillings or combination of veneers or crowns.
In The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer wrote of the "gap-toothed wife of Bath". As early as this time period, the gap between the front teeth in women, was associated with lustful characteristics. Thus, the implication in describing "the gap-toothed wife of Bath" is that she is a middle-aged woman with insatiable lust; this has no scientific basis. In Ghana and Nigeria, diastemata are regarded as being attractive and a sign of fertility, some people have had them created through cosmetic dentistry. In France, they are called "dents du bonheur"; this expression originated in Napoleon's time: when the Napoleonic army recruited, it was imperative that soldiers had incisors in perfect condition because they had to open the paper cartridges with their teeth when loading their muskets. All those who had teeth apart were classified as unfit to fight; some men broke their own teeth to avoid going to war. Les Blank's Gap-Toothed Women is a documentary film about diastematic women; some well-known people noted for having diastema include country music singer Charley Pride.
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Toe cleavage is the partial exposure of a woman's toes in shoes that are cut low enough at the vamp. Low cut shoes reveal toe cleavage similar to. Toe cleavage is considered to be fashionable by stylists such as Susan Conterno, columnist for FAMOUS magazine. Manolo Blahnik himself opined that "the secret of toe cleavage, a important part of the sexuality of the shoe" is that "You must only show the first two cracks.". In an "InStyle" magazine article, Samuel Ogden writes about the low cut angle in the bend of the shoe cover, stating that the curve creates a balance between the skin of the lower foot and the beginning of the toes. Shoe designer Christian Louboutin takes a more provocative view of toe cleavage and states, "The point is, it's more provocative to show a low toe cleavage than it is wearing sandals that reveal all. In flip-flops you see everything but, not at all sexy." He takes this further by relating, "The curved inside part of the foot, the instep, is the most sexy part so I like to close the heel and reveal the arch."
"According to fashion insiders, "toe-cleavage shoes sans stockings" are part of the "unwritten dress code" of the "Voguette", as dictated by the magazine's longtime editor in chief Anna Wintour – "even in the bitter New York winter". Fashion advice centers around the amount of appropriate toe cleavage. A pump with a "slightly low vamp for a hint of toe cleavage" should not be "too racy for a conservative office". Financial guru Suze Orman says it is "the only cleavage that should be shown around an office"; the implied sexual aspects come into play for some. Dominatrix Claudia Varrin references the attraction to "stiletto pumps with the low vamp" that allow "lots of toe cleavage", and Frederick's of Hollywood has promoted open-toe shoes as "sexually suggestive" due to the toe cleavage