The Portaferry–Strangford ferry service crosses Strangford Lough at its narrowest point, close to where the lough joins the Irish Sea. The ferry links the two disconnected sections of the A2 road, Muff to Portaferry and Strangford to Newry. There has been a ferry service between Strangford for four centuries without a break; the alternative road journey is 47 miles, while the ferry crosses the 0.6 nautical miles in 8 minutes. In 1611 James I granted land on either side of the Lough to Peirce Tumolton in order to maintain and crew a ferry boat. In 1835 a group of local people formed the "Portaferry and Strangford Steamboat Company" and commissioned the building of the Lady of the Lake, the first steam ferry in Ireland; this venture was not commercially successful and the ferry was sold in 1839. In 1913 three passengers were lost. In 1946 two converted World War II landing craft were introduced, capable of accommodating about 36 passengers and two motor cars, but the following year one of these capsized with the loss of one life.
Various vessels were in use until 1969 when the Down District Council took over operation of a ferry capable of carrying vehicles and passengers. To operate the service, MV Strangford was built by the Verolme Shipyard in Cork. In 1975 the Welsh ferry Cleddau King was purchased and used as reserve ferry under the name MV Portaferry Ferry. In 2001, a new vessel named MV Portaferry II was brought into service, relegating MV Strangford to a support role and releasing the MV Portaferry Ferry for disposal. A second new vessel, MV Strangford II, was delivered in 2016 but her introduction was delayed until February of the following year when it was discovered that she was unable to discharge cars at high tide. Transport NI, an executive agency of the Northern Ireland Department for Infrastructure, operates the ferry service. Ferries convey about 500,000 passengers per annum. Vehicles and their drivers are carried for a fee with additional vehicle passengers or foot passengers charged. Senior citizens resident in either Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland with the appropriate documentation are permitted free passage.
The subsidised public service operates at a loss of more than £1m per year but is viewed as an important transport link to the Ards Peninsula. Ferry timetable Ferry fares Ferry accessibility
Box girder bridge
A box girder bridge is a bridge in which the main beams comprise girders in the shape of a hollow box. The box girder comprises either prestressed concrete, structural steel, or a composite of steel and reinforced concrete; the box is rectangular or trapezoidal in cross-section. Box girder bridges are used for highway flyovers and for modern elevated structures of light rail transport. Although the box girder bridge is a form of beam bridge, box girders may be used on cable-stayed bridges and other forms. In 1919, Major Gifford Martel was appointed head of the Experimental Bridging Establishment at Christchurch, which researched the possibilities of using tanks for battlefield engineering purposes such as bridge-laying and mine-clearing. Here he continued trials on modified Mark V tanks; the bridging component involved an assault bridge, designed by Major Charles Inglis RE, the Canal Lock Bridge, which had sufficient length to span a canal lock. Major Martel mated the bridge with the tank and used hydraulic power generated by the tank's engine to manoeuvre the bridge into place.
For mine clearance the tanks were equipped with 2-ton rollers. Martel developed his new bridging concept at the EBE, the Martel bridge, a modular box girder bridge suitable for military applications; the Martel bridge was adopted by the British Army in 1925 as the Large Box Girder Bridge. A scaled down version of this design, the Small Box Girder Bridge, was formally adopted by the Army in 1932; this latter design was copied by many countries, including Germany, who called their version the Kastenträger-Gerät. The United States was another country whose army created their own copy, designating it the H-20. In addition, the modular construction of the basic Martel bridge would during WWII become part of the basis of the Bailey bridge. In 1954, the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors awarded Martel £500 for infringement on the design of his bridge by the designer of the Bailey bridge, Donald Bailey. Both the Large Box and Small Box designs would go on to see much service in World War II in the case of the latter.
The box girder bridge was a popular choice during the roadbuilding expansion of the 1960s in the West, many new bridge projects were in progress simultaneously. A serious blow to this use was a sequence of three serious disasters, when new bridges collapsed in 1970 and 1971. Fifty-one people were killed in these failures, leading in the UK to the formation of the Merrison Committee and considerable investment in new research into steel box girder behaviour. Most of the bridges still under construction at this time were delayed for investigation of the basic design principle; some were rebuilt as a different form of bridge altogether. Most of those that remained as box girder bridges, such as Erskine Bridge, were either redesigned, or had additional stiffening added later; some bridges were strengthened a few years after opening and further strengthened years although this was due to increased traffic load as much as better design standards. The Irwell Valley bridge of 1970 was strengthened in 1970 and again in 2000.
If made of concrete, box girder bridges may be cast in place using falsework supports, removed after completion, or in sections if a segmental bridge. Box girders may be prefabricated in a fabrication yard transported and emplaced using cranes. For steel box girders, the girders are fabricated off site and lifted into place by crane, with sections connected by bolting or welding. If a composite concrete bridge deck is used, it is cast in-place using temporary falsework supported by the steel girder. Either form of bridge may be installed using the technique of incremental launching. Under this method, gantry cranes are used to place new segments onto the completed portions of the bridge until the bridge superstructure is completed. Reduces the slab thickness and self-weight of bridge Cost effective Greater strength per unit area of concrete Quality assurance, as precast girders are made off-site Structural steel girders are costly Logistical inefficiencies and transportation cost Small Box Girder
Harland and Wolff
Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries is a heavy industrial company, specialising in ship repair and offshore construction, located in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Harland & Wolff is famous for having built the majority of the ships intended for the White Star Line. Well known ships built by Harland & Wolff include the Olympic-class trio: RMS Titanic, RMS Olympic and RMS Britannic, the Royal Navy's HMS Belfast, Royal Mail Line's Andes, Shaw Savill's Southern Cross, Union-Castle's RMS Pendennis Castle, P&O's Canberra. Harland and Wolff's official history, Shipbuilders to the World, was published in 1986; as of 2011, the expanding offshore wind power industry has been the prime focus, 75% of the company's work is based on offshore renewable energy. Harland & Wolff was formed in 1861 by Hamburg-born Gustav Wilhelm Wolff. In 1858 Harland general manager, bought the small shipyard on Queen's Island from his employer Robert Hickson. After buying Hickson's shipyard, Harland made his assistant Wolff a partner in the company.
Wolff was the nephew of Gustav Schwabe, invested in the Bibby Line, the first three ships that the newly incorporated shipyard built were for that line. Harland made a success of the business through several innovations, notably replacing the wooden upper decks with iron ones which increased the strength of the ships. Walter Henry Wilson became a partner of the company in 1874; when Harland died in 1895, William James Pirrie became the chairman of the company until his death in 1924. Thomas Andrews became the general manager and head of the draughting department in 1907, it was in this period that the company built Olympic and the two other ships in her class Titanic and Britannic between 1909 and 1914, commissioning Sir William Arrol & Co. to construct a massive twin gantry and slipway structure for the project. In 1912, due to increasing political instability in Ireland, the company acquired another shipyard at Govan in Glasgow, Scotland, it bought the former London & Glasgow Engineering & Iron Shipbuilding Co's Middleton and Govan New shipyards in Govan and Mackie & Thomson's Govan Old yard, owned by William Beardmore and Company.
The three neighbouring yards were amalgamated and redeveloped to provide a total of seven building berths, a fitting-out basin and extensive workshops. Harland & Wolff specialised in building tankers and cargo ships at Govan; the nearby shipyard of A. & J. Inglis was purchased by Harland & Wolff in 1919, along with a stake in the company's primary steel supplier, David Colville & Sons. Harland & Wolff established shipyards at Bootle in Liverpool, North Woolwich in London and Southampton. However, these shipyards were all closed from the early 1960s when the company opted to consolidate its operations in Belfast. In the First World War and Wolff built monitors and cruisers, including the 15-inch gun armed "large light cruiser" HMS Glorious. In 1918, the company opened a new shipyard on the eastern side of the Musgrave Channel, named the East Yard; this yard specialised in mass-produced ships of standard design developed in the First World War. During the 1920s, Catholic workers were expelled from working in the shipyard.
The company started an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary with Short Brothers, called Short & Harland Limited in 1936. Its first order was for 189 Handley Page Hereford bombers built under licence from Handley Page for the Royal Air Force. In the Second World War, this factory built Short Stirling bombers as the Hereford was removed from service; the shipyard was busy in the Second World War, building six aircraft carriers, two cruisers and 131 other naval ships. It manufactured tanks and artillery components, it was in this period. However, many of the vessels built in this era were commissioned right at the end of World War II, as Harland and Wolff were focused on ship repair in the first three years of the war; the yard on Queen's Island was bombed by the Luftwaffe in April and May 1941 causing considerable damage to the shipbuilding facilities and destroying the aircraft factory. With the rise of the jet-powered airliner in the late 1950s, the demand for ocean liners declined. This, coupled with competition from Japan, led to difficulties for the British shipbuilding industry.
The last liner that the company launched was MV Arlanza for Royal Mail Line in 1960, whilst the last liner completed was SS Canberra for P&O in 1961. In the 1960s, notable achievements for the yard included the tanker Myrina, the first supertanker built in the UK and the largest vessel launched down a slipway, as it was in the September of 1967. In the same period the yard built the semi-submersible drilling rig Sea Quest which, due to its three-legged design, was launched down three parallel slipways; this was a first and only time this was done. In the mid-1960s, the British government started advancing loans and subsidies to British shipyards to preserve jobs; some of this money was used to finance the modernisation of the yard, allowing it to build the much larger post-war merchant ships including one of 333,000 tonnes. The shipyard had a reputation as a protestant factory, in 1970, during the Troubles, 500 Catholic workers were expelled from their role. Continuing problems led to the company's nationalisation, though not as part of British Shipbuilders, in 1977.
In 1971, the Arrol Gantry complex, within which many ships were built until the early 1960s, was demolished. The nationalised c
Pembrokeshire County Council
Pembrokeshire County Council is the governing body for Pembrokeshire, one of the Principal Areas of Wales. Cllr David Simpson was elected as the new council leader on 25 May 2017, after the previous leader Jamie Adams had withdrawn from the contest; the council had been controlled by the Independent Plus Political Group, of which Cllr Adams was a member, but their numbers were slashed from 33 to 13 at the May 2017 election. Cllr Adams blamed the IPPG's close connections to the discredited former chief executive. Cllr Simpson is unaffiliated to any group. Cllr Simpson leads a cross party Democratic Coalition of moderates. Elections take place every five years; the last elections were on 4 May 2017. The county is divided into each returning one councillor; some of these divisions are coterminous with communities of the same name. Most communities have their own elected council. There are ten town councils and 52 community councils in the county; the following table lists council divisions and associated geographical areas.
Communities with a community council are indicated with a'*': The council received criticism for having leased a Porsche sports car for its former chief executive, Bryn Parry-Jones, paid £192,000 a year and received a £277,000 pay-off when he left the post in 2014. Pembrokeshire County Council election, 1995 Pembrokeshire County Council election, 1999 Pembrokeshire County Council election, 2004 Pembrokeshire County Council election, 2008 Pembrokeshire County Council election, 2012 Pembrokeshire County Council
Milford Haven Waterway
Milford Haven Waterway is a natural harbour in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The Haven is a ria or drowned valley flooded at the end of the last Ice Age; the Daugleddau estuary winds west to the sea. As one of the deepest natural harbours in the world, it is a busy shipping channel, trafficked by ferries from Pembroke Dock to Ireland, oil tankers and pleasure craft. Admiral Horatio Nelson, visiting the harbour with the Hamiltons, described it as the next best natural harbour to Trincomalee in Sri Lanka and "the finest port in Christendom". From the 790s until the Norman Invasion in 1066, the waterway was used by Vikings looking for shelter. During one visit in 854, the Viking Chieftain Hubba wintered in the Haven with 23 ships lending his name to the district of Hubberston. Evidence of metal working in the area was excavated, suggesting a level of industrialisation in the period 750–1100. A Benedictine priory was established at the head of Hubberston Pill in 1170, as a daughter house of St Dogmaels Abbey.
Built on virgin land, it stood alongside the priory on Caldey Island as part of the Tironian Order in West Wales, was dedicated to St Budoc. Founded by Adam de Rupe, it stood until the Dissolution under Henry VIII. In 1171 Henry II designated the area the rendezvous for his Irish expedition. An army of 400 warships, 500 knights and 4,000 men-at-arms gathered in the haven before sailing to Waterford, on to Dublin, which marked the first time an English king had stood on Irish soil, the beginning of Henry's invasion of Ireland. St Thomas a Becket chapel was dedicated in 1180, a structure which looked out over the Haven from the north shore of the town. In years it was used as a beacon for sailors in foul weather, as a pig sty, until it was reconsecrated in the 20th century. In his play Cymbeline Act 3, Scene 2, Shakespeare remarks that Milford is a haven:... how far it is to this same blessed Milford: and by the way tell me how Wales was made so happy as to inherit such a haven... By 1590, two forts had been constructed to defend the entrance to the harbour.
George Owen of Henllys, in his Description of Penbrokshire, claimed in 1603 that Milford Haven was the most famous port of Christendom. The area however was a source of anxiety for the Tudor monarchy. Due to its location, it was exposed to attacks from Ireland, a convenient base from which England could be invaded via Wales. In 1405, the French landed in force having left Brest in July with more than twenty-eight hundred knights and men-at-arms led by Jean II de Rieux, the Marshal of France, to support Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion. In April 1603, Martin Pring used the Haven as his departure point for his exploratory voyage to Virginia; the land comprising the site of Milford, the Manor of Hubberston and Pill, was acquired by the Barlow family following the dissolution of the monasteries in the mid-16th century. It acquired an additional strategic importance in the 17th century as a Royalist military base. Charles I ordered a fort to be built at Pill by Royalist forces and completed in 1643 to prevent Parliamentarian forces from landing at Pembroke Castle and to protect Royalist forces landing from Ireland.
On 23 February 1644, a Parliamentarian force led by Rowland Laugharne crossed the Haven and landed at Pill. The fort was gunned from both land and water, a garrison was placed in Steynton church to prevent a Royalist attack from the garrison at Haverfordwest; the fort was surrendered, taken, along with St Thomas a Becket chapel. Just five years in 1649 Milford Haven was again the site of Parliamentarian interest when it was chosen as the disembarkation site for Oliver Cromwell's Invasion of Ireland. Cromwell arrived in the Haven on 4 August, meeting George Monck, before Cromwell and over a hundred crafts left for Dublin on 15 August. By the late 18th century, the two creeks which would delimit the future town of Milford's boundaries to the east and west, namely Hakin and Castle Pill, were being used as harbours for ships to load and unload coal and limestone. A ferry service to Ireland operated from Hakin around the start of the 19th century, although this ceased in the early 19th century. Although surrounding settlements at Steynton, Priory and Hubberston/Hakin were established, they were little more than hamlets.
The only man-made structures on the future site of Milford were the medieval chapel, Summer Hill Farm, its accompanying cottages. Parts of the Haven are within the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park; the northern side is within the Preseli Environmentally Sensitive Area. The area includes: Angle Bay and Cresswell Rivers, Cosheston Pill, Gann Estuary, Pembroke River, Pwllcrochan Flats and West Williamston Quarries; the littoral landscape of Milford Haven shows evidence of maritime conquest, commerce and defence from the 11th century to the 20th century. Iron Age promontory forts are sited on several of the headlands at the entrance and along the course of the Haven and the Daugleddau. Early medieval and Viking sites are evidenced by place-names and epigraphic evidence, such as Early Christian Inscribed Stone monuments; the Norman conquest, achieved by coastally sited castle boroughs, is still obvious at Pembroke, at Haverfordwest, at Carew. Carew did not develop into a borough, but excavations have shown that a Dark Age stronghold and possible Romano-British site preceded the Norman castle.
Around the start of the 19th century, two new towns were constructed: Milford in 1790 by Sir W
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
The River Cleddau consists of the Eastern and Western Cleddau rivers in Pembrokeshire, west Wales. They unite to form the important harbour of Milford Haven; the name of the combined estuary – the Daugleddau – means “the two Cleddaus”. The name Cleddau, whilst seeming to be a plural comes from the Welsh word cleddyf meaning'sword' and refers to the manner in which both rivers are incised into the landscape of Pembrokeshire; the Eastern Cleddau rises in the foothills of Mynydd Preseli at Blaencleddau 51.9638°N 4.6713°W / 51.9638. It flows southwest through a broad moorland valley to Gelli Hill, it flows south through a deep valley past Llawhaden and becomes tidal at Canaston Bridge, the lowest crossing point. The estuary joins that of the Western Cleddau at Picton Point 51.768°N 4.896°W / 51.768. Length about 34 km of which about 7 km is tidal; the Western Cleddau has two branches: the eastern branch rises at Llygad Cleddau 51.9752°N 4.9434°W / 51.9752. It flows southwest past Scleddau, meets the western branch at Priskilly 51.9370°N 5.0257°W / 51.9370.
The western branch rises at Penysgwarne 51.9315°N 5.1373°W / 51.9315. The combined stream flows through Wolf’s Castle, where it enters the spectacular 90 m deep Treffgarne gorge, cutting through the hard volcanic rocks of Treffgarne Mountain, it flows south to Haverfordwest, where it becomes tidal, this being the lowest bridge crossing. The tidal estuary expands into a deep ria, unites with the Eastern Cleddau estuary at Picton Point, to form the Daugleddau estuary. Length about 40 km, of which about 9 km is tidal; the Western Cleddau is an example of a misfit stream: the valley is deep spectacularly so, although the stream that flows in it is small. The valley was formed at the end of the last Ice Age, when the River Teifi, swollen with melt waters, was prevented from flowing into the Irish Sea by an ice dam, flowed instead westward through the valleys of the Nyfer and Gwaun south along the course of the Western Cleddau; the tidal estuary enabled sea traffic to reach Haverfordwest. It was important for the export of anthracite, mined on its west bank and shipped from Hook.
The combined estuary – the Daugleddau - from Picton Point to the Blockhouses guarding the harbour entrance, is a massive ria, deep and wide, but sufficiently serpentine to be sheltered from high winds and rough seas, is thus an excellent natural harbour. Because it can accommodate supertankers of 300,000 tonnes and more, it became from 1957 an important centre of the oil industry, with Esso, BP, Gulf Oil and Amoco operating terminals and oil refineries. In the mid-1970s, it became the UK’s second biggest port in terms of tonnage; the Daugleddau and its several tributary tidal reaches are known collectively as Milford Haven. Length about 27 km; the estuary gave seaborne access to castles such as Pembroke and Carew, allowing these to be used as depots in the Norman invasion of Ireland. It was important in the early Industrial Revolution, shipping anthracite from Llangwm and Crescelly, limestone from Lawrenny and West Williamston. A small fishing industry operated from harbours such as Pill and Dale, but in 1790 the building of the new town of Milford commenced, a large herring fishery grew up based on its docks.
In its heyday, it became the UK’s seventh largest fishing port, operating several hundred fishing trawlers, but with exhaustion of inshore fishing grounds, the docks were too small for large ocean-going trawlers, fishing is now totally non-existent. Milford was built for a naval dockyard, but this project was transferred in 1814 to Pembroke Dock on the opposite side of the estuary, where it operated until closure in 1926; the town of Neyland known as New Milford, was purpose-built, this time by the Great Western Railway as a transatlantic shipping terminal. Its functions were transferred to Fishguard in the early 20th century. Both branches of the Cleddau are noteworthy for their diverse aquatic ecology, untouched by man's activities; the rivers support a wide variety of fish species including Lampreys. Stretches of both rivers have been designated as SSSIs because they are of special interest for important populations of otter Lutra lutra, bullhead Cottus gobio, river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis and brook lamprey Lampetra planeri.
They are of special interest for sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. The Cleddau rivers are a Special Area of Conservation designated for the European bullhead, European river lamprey, Brook lamprey, Sea lamprey. Additionally, land around a north-eastern tributary of the Eastern Cleddau, Gweunydd Blaencleddau, is d