A clef is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. Placed on a stave, it indicates the pitch of the notes on one of the lines; this line serves as a reference point by which the names of the notes on any other line or space of the stave may be determined. There are three forms of clef used in modern music notation: F, C, G; each form assigns its reference note to a line depending on its placement on the stave. Once one of these clefs has been placed on one of the lines of the stave, the other lines and spaces are read in relation to it; the use of different clefs makes it possible to write music for all instruments and voices, regardless of differences in tessitura. Because the modern stave has only five lines, it is not possible to represent all pitches playable by the orchestra with only one clef with the use of ledger lines; the use of different clefs for various instruments and voices allows each part to be written comfortably on the stave with a minimum of ledger lines.

To this end, the G-clef is used for high parts, the C-clef for middle parts, the F-clef for low parts—with the notable exception of transposing parts, which are written at a pitch different from their sound even in a different octave. To facilitate writing for different tessituras, any of the clefs may theoretically be placed on any line of the stave; the further down on the stave a clef is positioned, the higher the tessitura. Since there are five lines on the stave, three clefs, it might seem that there would be fifteen possible clefs. Six of these, are redundant clefs; that leaves nine possible distinct clefs, all of which have been used historically: the G-clef on the two bottom lines, the F-clef on the three top lines, the C-clef on any line of the stave except the topmost, earning the name of "movable C-clef". Each of these clefs has a different name based on the tessitura. In modern music, only four clefs are used regularly: treble clef, bass clef, alto clef, tenor clef. Of these, the treble and bass clefs are by far the most common.

The tenor clef is used for the upper register of several instruments that use bass clef, while the alto is only used by the viola and a few other instruments. Here follows a complete list of the clefs, along with a list of instruments and voice parts notated with them; each clef is shown in its proper position on the stave, followed by its reference note. When the G-clef is placed on the second line of the stave, it is called the treble clef; this is the most common clef used today, the first clef that those studying music learn, the only G-clef still in use. For this reason, the terms G-clef and treble clef are seen as synonymous; the treble clef was used to mark a treble, or pre-pubescent, voice part. Among the instruments that use treble clef are the violin, oboe, cor anglais, all clarinets, all saxophones, trumpet, vibraphone, mandolin, recorder. Treble clef is the upper stave of the grand stave used for keyboard instruments, it is sometimes used, along with tenor clef, for the highest notes played by bass-clef instruments such as the cello, double bass and trombone.

The viola sometimes uses treble clef for high notes. Treble clef is used for the soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto and tenor voices; when sung, a tenor singer will sing the piece an octave lower, is written using an octave clef or double-treble clef. †In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a special clef was used for violin music that published in France. For this reason it is known as the French clef or French violin clef, although it was more used for flute music; the G-clef is placed on the first line of the stave and is identical to the bass clef transposed up two octaves. When the F-clef is placed on the fourth line, it is called the bass clef; this is the only F-clef used today so that the terms "F-clef" and "bass clef" are regarded as synonymous. This clef is used for the cello, double bass, bass guitar, contrabassoon, baritone horn and timpani, it is used for the lowest notes of the horn, for the baritone and bass voices. Tenor voice is notated in bass clef when the bass are written on the same stave.

Bass clef is the bottom clef in the grand stave for keyboard instruments. The contrabassoon, double bass, electric bass sound an octave lower than the written pitch. † When the F-clef is placed on the third line, it is called the baritone clef. This clef was used for the left hand of keyboard music as well as the baritone part in vocal music; the baritone clef has the less common variant as a C clef placed on the 5th line, equivalent. † When the F-clef is placed on the fifth line, it is called the sub-bass clef. It is identical to the treble clef transposed down 2 octaves; this clef was used

Joachim-Ernst Berendt

Joachim-Ernst Berendt was a German music journalist, book author and producer specialized on jazz. Berendt's father Ernst Berendt was a Protestant pastor belonging to the Confessing Church and was imprisoned and died in the Dachau concentration camp. J.-E. Berendt was interrupted by his enlistment to the Wehrmacht. During the Nazi Germany years Berendt took an interest in jazz, which had retreated to the underground. After World War II he helped founding the Südwestfunk radio network in the French occupation zone of Germany. From 1950 till his retirement in 1987 he was in charge of the jazz department of the SWF. In 1952 the first German edition of Berendt's Jazz Book was published, it became a definitive book on jazz translated into many languages and is still being updated and reprinted. For 40 years Berendt produced the jazz program of the Baden-Baden station of the German public radio and TV network ARD, his weekly TV show Jazztime Baden-Baden and his daily radio shows were pioneer work in advancing and popularizing jazz in post-war Germany.

Berendt focused on world music and was one of its early promoters. Berendt organized many jazz festivals, he was the producer of many records for MPS Records, supported the Jazz & Lyrik project, combining jazz performances with readings of poetry. Berendt was awarded, amongst others, the critic's award of German television, the culture award of Poland, twice the Bundesfilmpreis. Berendt died on 4 February 2000 at the age of 77 after a traffic accident which he was involved in as a pedestrian; the accident happened in Hamburg, Berendt was on his way to a book promotion for his book Es gibt keinen Weg nur Gehen. Berendt's huge collection of records, magazines and more is in the archive of the Jazzinstitut Darmstadt. In 1983 Berendt published The World Is Sound: Nada Brahma and The Third Ear: On Listening to the World. In these books Berendt investigates in listening in general, i.e. its medical, physical and philosophical aspects. This turn to philosophy saw him becoming a disciple of the controversial Indian mystic Osho.

"Jazz: A Photo History.", Schirmer Books 1979, ISBN 0-02-870290-5. Joachim-Ernst Berendt reads Rainer Maria Rilke "Seelenlandschaften", with music from Philip Catherine, Krzysztof Zgraja, Vladislav Sendecki. Berendt at the Wayback Machine Jazz & Lyrik

Leftöver Crack

Leftöver Crack is an American punk rock band formed in 1998, following the breakup of Choking Victim. The band is signed to Fat Wreck Chords for CD releases, Alternative Tentacles for vinyl releases; the band consists of Brad Logan, Alec Baillie, Donny Morris Chris Mann. Leftöver Crack spans several different music genres including hardcore punk and crust punk, they write political lyrics of a radical leftist nature, opposing religion and authority. Members of Leftöver Crack reside in the C-Squat on 155 Avenue C in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York City. Natives of New York City, band members have a well-documented history of back-and-forth conflict with the NYPD which precedes the band's formation; the name "Leftöver Crack" is explained by Stza as being "an oxymoron", based on the idea that crack cocaine addicts are known for vigorous use, are unlikely to have any "leftover" crack. Formed around the same time as the breakup of Choking Victim, Leftöver Crack was an outlet for Choking Victim frontman Scott Sturgeon a.k.a.

Stza to release songs that, for one reason or another, were never recorded by Choking Victim and which he claims are the "Leftover songs" - hence the name, Leftöver Crack. For two years following the band's formation, the band consisted solely of Stza, who recorded many of the songs that would feature on releases onto a four-track recorder whilst searching for band members; the band solidified around a line-up of Scott "Stza" Sturgeon, Brad Logan of F-Minus, Alec Baillie, Mike Trujillo of Blindsided and Amery "AWOL" Smith. Now a complete band, Leftöver Crack proceeded to record several songs with the full line-up, including songs such as "Rock The 40 Oz.", "Crack City Rockers" and "The Good, The Bad And The Leftover Crack" - the band's'theme song'. Five of these songs were included on the band's first release - the "Rock the 40 Oz." 7" EP, released by Bankshot! Records on March 8, 2000. After contributing the song "Crack City Rockers" to the second installment of Hellcat Records' Give'Em The Boot compilation series, the band were signed to the label being contracted to produce three albums for Hellcat.

The band agreed, promptly began recording songs for their first full-length - tentatively titled "Shoot The Kids At School". For the band, Hellcat Records refused to release the album, due to concerns over the album's controversial title and subject matter; the band relented and changed the album's title and track listing, under the promise that they would be released from their contract afterward as a result. The album was released under the title of Mediocre Generica, a sly attack at Hellcat Records, who Stza claimed wanted a "mediocre, generic" album in comparison to the original; the album was released on September 11, 2001. At this point, the band now consisted of Stza, Alec and Ara Babajian from NYC ska band Agent 99, The Slackers, on drums; as a result of legal disputes with Hellcat Records, the band were left in limbo for two years, unable to leave their current label, yet unable to sign to another - as well as being unable to release any new material under the name of Leftöver Crack.

However, the band did manage to bend the rules of their contract releasing a split EP with F-Minus as "The Crack Rock Steady 7" - Leftover Crack working under aliases with additional musicians. The EP was titled "Baby Jesus Sliced Up In The Manger" and was released on November 27, 2003. In February 2003, the band began to record the songs that they had written and developed over the last three years with esteemed engineer Steve Albini, a majority of which would see a release on their second album. After recording two final songs that winter, having been dropped from Hellcat Records' roster, the band opted to release the song the following the year as the "Fuck World Trade" demo for the consideration of independent punk record labels. Around the same time, the band were approached by renowned underground punk rock figure and ex-Dead Kennedys frontman Jello Biafra, as a result signed to his Alternative Tentacles record label. On August 30, 2004, Leftover Crack released their second album - Fuck World Trade on Alternative Tentacles.

The album has been banned in multiple chain-stores such as Wal-Mart, Best Buy and Music Land due to the album's controversial name and subject matter - as well as the front cover, which features George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Rudy Giuliani causing the World Trade Center attacks; the album displayed a greater degree of artistic freedom from the band, featuring longer songs, a wider range of instrumentation and a larger amount of genre experimentation - featuring elements of death metal, classical music and folk music along with the band's trademark combination of anarcho punk and ska. The album included several guest appearances, including Chris Head, Justin Sane, Chris No. 2 of Anti-Flag, as well as a collaboration with The World/Inferno Friendship Society. The band took an indefinite hiatus after the death of drummer Brandon Possible at the end of 2004. Stza spent the interim playing Leftöver Crack and Choking Victims songs by himself at a few solo acoustic shows. Ezra spent time writing songs for his band Morning Glory.

Leftöver C