United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
Grade I listed buildings in Herefordshire
There are over 9,000 Grade I listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the county of Herefordshire. Category:Grade I listed buildings in Herefordshire Grade II* listed buildings in Herefordshire English Heritage Images of England Media related to Grade I listed buildings in Herefordshire at Wikimedia Commons
Hereford is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England. It lies on the River Wye 16 miles east of the border with Wales, 24 miles southwest of Worcester, 23 miles northwest of Gloucester. With a population of 58,896, it is the largest settlement in the county; the name "Hereford" is said to come from the Anglo-Saxon "here", an army or formation of soldiers, the "ford", a place for crossing a river. If this is the origin it suggests that Hereford was a place where a body of armed men forded or crossed the Wye; the Welsh name for Hereford is Henffordd, meaning "old road", refers to the Roman road and Roman settlement at nearby Stretton Sugwas. Much of the county of Herefordshire was Welsh-speaking, as reflected in the Welsh names of many places in the county. An early town charter from 1189 granted by Richard I of England describes it as "Hereford in Wales". Hereford has been recognised as a city since time immemorial, with the status being reconfirmed as as October 2000.
It is now known chiefly as a trading centre for rural area. Products from Hereford include: cider, leather goods, nickel alloys, poultry and cattle, including the famous Hereford breed. Hereford became the seat of Putta, Bishop of Hereford, some time between AD 676 and 688, after which the settlement continued to grow due to its proximity to the border between Mercia and Wales, becoming the Saxon capital of West Mercia by the beginning of the 8th century. Hostilities between the Anglo-Saxons and the Welsh came to a head with the Battle of Hereford in 760, in which the Britons freed themselves from the influence of the English. Hereford was again targeted by the Welsh during their conflict with the Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor in AD 1056 when, supported by Viking allies, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd and Powys, marched on the town and put it to the torch before returning home in triumph. Hereford had the only mint west of the Severn in the reign of Athelstan, it was to Hereford a border town, that Athelstan summoned the leading Welsh princes.
The present Hereford Cathedral dates from the early 12th century, as does the first bridge across the Wye. Former Bishops of Hereford include Saint Thomas de Cantilupe and Lord High Treasurer of England Thomas Charlton; the city gave its name to two suburbs of Paris, France: Maisons-Alfort and Alfortville, due to a manor built there by Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, in the middle of the 13th century. Hereford, a base for successive holders of the title Earl of Hereford, was once the site of a castle, Hereford Castle, which rivalled that of Windsor in size and scale; this was a base for repelling Welsh attacks and a secure stronghold for English kings such as King Henry IV when on campaign in the Welsh Marches against Owain Glyndŵr. The castle was landscaped into Castle Green. After the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461, during the Wars of the Roses, the defeated Lancastrian leader Owen Tudor was taken to Hereford by Sir Roger Vaughan and executed in High Town. A plaque now marks the spot of the execution.
Vaughan was himself executed, under a flag of truce, by Owen's son Jasper. During the civil war the city changed hands several times. On 30 September 1642 Parliamentarians led by Sir Robert Harley and Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford occupied the city without opposition. In December they withdrew to Gloucester because of the presence in the area of a Royalist army under Lord Herbert; the city was again occupied from 23 April to 18 May 1643 by Parliamentarians commanded by Sir William Waller but it was in 1645 that the city saw most action. On 31 July 1645 a Scottish army of 14,000 under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven besieged the city but met stiff resistance from its garrison and inhabitants, they withdrew on 1 September when they received news that a force led by King Charles was approaching. The city was taken for Parliament on 18 December 1645 by Colonel Birch and Colonel Morgan. King Charles showed his gratitude to the city of Hereford on 16 September 1645 by augmenting the city's coat of arms with the three lions of Richard I of England, ten Scottish Saltires signifying the ten defeated Scottish regiments, a rare lion crest on top of the coat of arms signifying "defender of the faith" and the rarer gold-barred peer's helm, found only on the arms of one other municipal authority: those of the City of London.
Nell Gwynne and mistress of King Charles II, is said to have been born in Hereford in 1650. Another famous actor born in Hereford is David Garrick; the Bishop's Palace next to the Cathedral was continually used to the present day. Hereford Cathedral School is one of the oldest schools in England; the Harold Street Barracks were completed in 1856. During World War I, in 1916, a fire at the Garrick Theatre killed eight young girls, performing at a charity concert; the main local government body covering Hereford is Herefordshire Council. Hereford has a "City Council" but this is a parish council with city status, has only limited powers. Hereford has been the county town of Herefordshire. In 1974 Herefordshire was merged with Worcestershire to become part of the county of Hereford and Worcester, Hereford became a district of the new county. Hereford had formed a historic borough and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. On 1 April 1998 the County of Hereford and Worcester was abolish
River Frome, Herefordshire
The River Frome is a river in Herefordshire, England. It flows through Bromyard, Bishops Frome. Below the depopulated village of Stretton Grandison its tributary, the river or brook named the Lodon, joins it, it flows west, past Yarkhill and the farmstead or locality of Prior's Frome before its confluence with the Lugg at Hampton Bishop about 2 miles before the latter joins the Wye. The river gives its name to hamlets on the high ground to the east: Halmond's Frome, Fromes Hill and Castle Frome. In 2007, like many other rivers in England, the Frome burst its banks; this occurred at places including lower parts of Bromyard. A smaller scale recurrence occurred in April and July 2012. Rivers of the United Kingdom Hereford and Leominster and Ledbury, Ordnance Survey, 2007, ISBN 978-0-319-22953-8 Media related to River Frome, Herefordshire at Wikimedia Commons
A dormer is a roofed structure containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof. A dormer window is a form of roof window. Dormers are used to increase the usable space in a loft and to create window openings in a roof plane; the term "dormer" is used to refer to a "dormer window" although a dormer does not contain a window. A dormer is one of the primary elements of a loft conversion; as a prominent element of many buildings, different types of dormer have evolved to complement different styles of architecture. When the structure appears on the spires of churches and cathedrals, it is referred to as a lucarne; some of the different types of dormer are: Gable fronted dormer: Also called a gabled dormer, this is the most common type. It has a simple pitched roof of two sloping planes, supported by a frame that rises vertically to form a triangular section below the roofline, i.e. a gable. It is known as a dog-house dormer. Hip roof dormer: Also called a hipped dormer, it has a roof composed of three sloping planes that rise from each side of the dormer frame and converge at the ridge—analogous to the hip roof.
Flat roof dormer: The roof of this dormer is a single flat plane horizontal. Shed dormer: This dormer has a single flat plane roof, but in this case, it is sloped in the same direction as the principal roof, only at a shallower angle. A shed dormer can provide head room over a larger area than a gabled dormer, but as its roof pitch is shallower than the main roof, it may require a different roof covering. Wall dormer: As opposed to the dormer being set part way up the slope of the roof, this is a dormer whose face is coplanar with the face of the wall below; this means that the face of the dormer is a continuation of the wall above the level of the eaves. Eyebrow or eyelid dormer: A low and wide dormer with a curved roof and no sides. Instead, the roof covering is curved up and over the dormer in a flattened bell curve. Link dormer: This can be a dormer that houses a chimney or a dormer that joins one part of a roof to another. Bonneted dormer: This is an arched roof dormer, rounded in shape when viewed from front.
Popular in Victorian homes in certain areas, like the Southcott-style row-houses called Jellybean Row in St. John's, Newfoundland. Nantucket dormer: This is a three-in-one dormer structure composed of two gable dormers connected by a shed dormer in between. Lucarne: A dormer on the slope of a gothic spire slender and gable fronted. Blind or false dormer: A dormer, only visible externally, i.e. does not provide any extra space or light internally. These are used to make the house appear more aesthetically impressive; the word dormer is derived from the Middle French dormeor, meaning "sleeping room", as dormer windows provided light and space to attic-level bedrooms. One of the earliest uses of dormers was in the form of lucarnes, slender dormers which provided ventilation to the spires of gothic churches and cathedrals. An early example are the lucarnes of the spire of Oxford. Dormer windows have been used in domestic architecture in Britain since the 16th century. Dormer windows were popularised by French architect Francois Mansart, who used dormers extensively in the mansard roofs he designed for 17th-century Paris.
Today dormers are a widespread feature of pitched roof buildings. In some localities, permission must be sought for construction of other features. In England and Wales, the General Permitted Development Order states classes of development for which such planning permission is not required; such rights are only applicable outside conservation areas, national parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty or The Broads. Dormers may introduce imbalance in the street scene and be seen as inappropriate within the local setting of streets and buildings. Dormers are popular in Ulster. and used to create extra space when a loft is converted into a habitable room Bungalow Vernacular architecture
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council. It borders Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, the Welsh counties of Monmouthshire and Powys to the west. Hereford is the county town. Situated in the historic Welsh Marches, Herefordshire is one of the most rural and sparsely populated counties in England, with a population density of 82/km², a 2017 population of 191,000 - the fourth-smallest of any ceremonial county in England; the land use is agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, the Hereford cattle breed. From 1974 to 1998, Herefordshire was part of the former non-metropolitan county of Hereford and Worcester. Herefordshire was reconstituted both as a new district and as a new county by Statutory Instrument as defined in The Hereford and Worcester Order 1996; this Order established Herefordshire as a unitary authority on 1 April 1998, combining county and district functions into a single council.
Herefordshire is commonly called a unitary district, but this is not official nomenclature. Herefordshire is known as a unitary authority for local government purposes, it is governed by Herefordshire Council, created in 1998 with the new unitary district that absorbed the previous administrative areas of Leominster District Council, South Herefordshire District Council, Hereford City Council, parts of Hereford-Worcester County Council, parts of Malvern Hills District Council. The Lieutenancies Act 1997 made Herefordshire a ceremonial county, covering the exact area of the unitary district. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region; the River Wye, which at 135 miles is the fifth-longest in the United Kingdom, enters the county after being its border with Powys. It flows through both Ross-on-Wye before returning to Wales. Leominster is situated on a tributary of the Wye. There are two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the county.
The Wye Valley is located in the river's valleys south of Hereford, while the Malvern Hills are in the east of the county, along its border with Worcestershire. Herefordshire is one of the 39 historic counties of England. In 1974 it was merged with neighbouring Worcestershire to form the Hereford and Worcester administrative county. Within this, Herefordshire was covered by the local government districts of South Herefordshire and part of Malvern Hills and Leominster districts. However, the county was dissolved in 1998, resulting in the return of Herefordshire and Worcestershire as counties; the current ceremonial county and unitary district have broadly the same borders as the pre-1974 historic county. Herefordshire's growth rate has in recent decades been higher than the national average, with the population increasing by 14.4% between 1991 and 2011 – the population of England as a whole increased by only 10.0%. However this has been from a lower base, with only Northumberland and Cumbria having lower population densities than Herefordshire.
The population is White 98.2%, Asian 0.8%, Mixed 0.7%, Black 0.2%, Other 0.1%. Gypsies and Travellers have been Herefordshire's largest minority ethnic group, they are made up of three main groups: Romanichal or Romany "Gypsies" Irish Travellers New Travellers or New Age TravellersRomany Gypsies and Irish Travellers fall within the definition of a minority ethnic group under the Race Relations Amendment Act. They have contributed to the development of the county, for example through seasonal working in orchards. There were 400 people within this minority group in the county at the 2011 Census; the major settlements in the county include Hereford, the county town and Herefordshire's only city, as well as the towns of Leominster, Ross-on-Wye and Bromyard. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Herefordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding Many well-known cider producers are based in Herefordshire.
These include Weston's cider of Much Marcle, Bulmer's cider, from Hereford, which produces the UK market leader Strongbow. Most employment in Herefordshire is in agriculture and services. According to Herefordshire Council's online document "worklessness", 10% of people are unemployed in Herefordshire including out-of-work, homeless and disabled and their carers. Cargill Meats and H. P. Bulmers are two of the largest private sector employers, with the Council and NHS being the largest public sector employers. There are two parliamentary constituencies in Herefordshire; as of January 2017, Bill Wiggin represents North Herefordshire and Jesse Norman represents Hereford and South Herefordshire. Both politicians are members of the Conservative Party; the Council is Conservative controlled. The Chairman is Councillor Brian Wilcox and the Leader of the Council is Councillor Jonathan Lester; the Cabinet Leader is appointed yearly by the full council of 53 councillors. The Cabinet Leader picks their deputy and up to 8 other councillors to form the executive cabinet.
Ross-on-Wye is a small market town with a population of 10,700, in south eastern Herefordshire, located on the River Wye, on the northern edge of the Forest of Dean. Ross-on-Wye promotes itself as "the birthplace of British tourism". In 1745, the rector, Dr John Egerton, started taking friends on boat trips down the valley from his rectory at Ross; the Wye Valley's attraction was its river scenery, its precipitous landscapes, its castles and abbeys, which were accessible to seekers of the "Picturesque". In 1782, William Gilpin's book "Observations on the River Wye" was published, the first illustrated tour guide to be published in Britain. Once it was published, demand grew so much that by 1808 there were eight boats making regular excursions down the Wye, most of them hired from inns in Ross and Monmouth. By 1850 more than 20 visitors had published their own accounts of the Wye Tour, the area was established as a tourist area; the 700-year-old parish church of St. Mary's is the town's most prominent landmark and its tall pointed spire is visible when approaching the town from all directions.
The church holds several distinctive tombs, one of which – that of a certain William Rudhall – is one of the last great alabaster sculptures from the specialist masons of Nottingham, whose work was prized across medieval Europe. Rudhall was responsible for the repair of the almshouses, situated to the north west of the church, in 1575. Another tomb is of John Kyrle, a prominent figure in 18th century Ross, whose name is now given to the town's secondary school and after whom one of the town's notable inns, The Man Of Ross, is named; the former United Reformed Church on Gloucester Road has now been converted into homes, with the congregation now based at Christ Church, Edde Cross Street, in premises shared with the Methodist Church. Eignbrook United Reformed Church is on Eign Street. Ross Baptist Church is on Broad Street; the Plague Cross known as the Corpse Cross, was erected in the church yard of St. Mary's church in 1637 as a memorial to 315 people who died in the town of the plague in the same year.
They were buried nearby at night and without coffins. By 1896, the cross had fallen into disrepair and the top of the cross was missing, it was restored to its former state. The Prospect was created by John Kyrle and offers superb views over the Wye and to the Welsh mountains; the land was rented by John Kyrle from the Marquess of Bath in 1696 and turned into a garden and walking area. In 2008, following heavy rain, Roman remains were excavated under the site, it now contains trees, the V. E. Day Beacon and the War Memorial; the town is known for its independent shops, picturesque streets and market square with its market hall. Regular Thursday and Saturday markets are held at the red sandstone Market House building in the town centre, built between 1650 and 1654 replacing the older wooden Booth Hall; the upper storey of the Market House now houses a local Crafts centre. The town has not had a cinema since "The Roxy" in Broad Street closed its doors in 1985; the cinema site was purchased by Gateway Supermarkets for development.
Opposite the church, The Prospect is a public garden offering a view of the famous horseshoe bend in the River Wye, as well as views as far as the Black Mountains. The ruins of Wilton Castle, which lie to the west of the town, have now been restored and are open to visitors; the town has a number of sculptures created by Walenty Pytel, the left bank of the River Wye shows two of these. Despite the held belief that both depict swans, one in fact shows ducks. Most local government functions are vested in Herefordshire Council, the unitary authority covering the county. Ross Town Council, which consists of 18 Councillors, has the statutory responsibilities of a parish council; the Mayor is Councillor Nigel Gibbs. Ross Rural was merged into the civil parish in 1 April 2015; the town is part of the Hereford and South Herefordshire parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons by Conservative MP Jesse Norman. The former Ross-on-Wye railway station was a junction railway station on the Hereford and Gloucester Railway constructed to the north of the town.
It was the terminus of the Ross and Monmouth Railway, which joined the Hereford and Gloucester just south of the station. Opened on 1 June 1855, on 29 July 1862 the line was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway, in 1869 converted from broad gauge to standard gauge in a five-day period. A line to Tewkesbury was never built. Closed under the Beeching Axe, the lines to Ross closed in stages, with the final closure in 1964; the brick built station building has been demolished and the site redeveloped into an industrial estate, on which the brick built goods and engine sheds still stand. Today, although the nearest railway station is Ledbury on the Cotswold Line, Gloucester has a much better bus connection with Ross, is a major interchange on the national rail network. To the east of town is the end of the M50 "Ross Motorway" spur from the M5 motorway which links the area to the UK motorway network. Ross-on-Wye is home to ladies hockey clubs; the men's club fields two senior teams and were League champions in 2009/2010.
Ross-on-Wye men's hockey club fields two Welsh international players. Ross United F. C. and Woodville F. C. both ran senior football teams but in 1993 the clubs were disbanded, Ross Town F. C. was established. Ross Town F. C disbanded and in 2011 a senior men's team was added to Ross Juniors F. C. who had fielded only Juni