Charles I of Hungary
Charles I known as Charles Robert was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death. He was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou and the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, his father was the eldest son of Charles II of Mary of Hungary. She laid claim to Hungary after her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, died in 1290, but the Hungarian prelates and lords elected her cousin, Andrew III, king. Instead of abandoning her claim to Hungary, she transferred it to her son, Charles Martel, after his death in 1295, to her grandson, Charles. On the other hand, her husband, Charles II of Naples, made their third son, heir to the Kingdom of Naples, thus disinheriting Charles. Charles came to the Kingdom of Hungary upon the invitation of an influential Croatian lord, Paul Šubić, in August 1300. Andrew III died on 14 January 1301, within four months Charles was crowned king, but with a provisional crown instead of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Most Hungarian noblemen elected Wenceslaus of Bohemia king.
Charles withdrew to the southern regions of the kingdom. Pope Boniface VIII acknowledged Charles as the lawful king in 1303, but Charles was unable to strengthen his position against his opponent. Wenceslaus abdicated in favor of Otto of Bavaria in 1305; because it had no central government, the Kingdom of Hungary had disintegrated into a dozen provinces, each headed by a powerful nobleman, or oligarch. One of those oligarchs, Ladislaus III Kán, captured and imprisoned Otto of Bavaria in 1307. Charles was elected king in Pest on 27 November 1308, but his rule remained nominal in most parts of his kingdom after he was crowned with the Holy Crown on 27 August 1310. Charles won his first decisive victory in the Battle of Rozgony on 15 June 1312. After that his troops seized most fortresses of the powerful Aba family. During the next decade, Charles restored royal power with the assistance of the prelates and lesser noblemen in most regions of the kingdom. After the death of the most powerful oligarch, Matthew Csák, in 1321, Charles became the undisputed ruler of the whole kingdom, with the exception of Croatia where local noblemen were able to preserve their autonomous status.
He was not able to hinder the development of Wallachia into an independent principality after his defeat in the Battle of Posada in 1330. Charles's contemporaries described his defeat in that battle as a punishment from God for his cruel revenge against the family of Felician Záh who had attempted to slaughter the royal family. Charles made perpetual land grants, instead introducing a system of "office fiefs", whereby his officials enjoyed significant revenues, but only for the time they held a royal office, which ensured their loyalty. In the second half of his reign, Charles did not hold Diets and administered his kingdom with absolute power, he established the Order of Saint George, the first secular order of knights. He promoted the opening of new gold mines, which made Hungary the largest producer of gold in Europe; the first Hungarian gold coins were minted during his reign. At the congress of Visegrád in 1335, he mediated a reconciliation between two neighboring monarchs, John of Bohemia and Casimir III of Poland.
Treaties signed at the same congress contributed to the development of new commercial routes linking Hungary with Western Europe. Charles's efforts to reunite Hungary, together with his administrative and economic reforms, established the basis for the achievements of his successor, Louis the Great. Charles was the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, his wife, Clemence of Austria, he was born in 1288. Charles Martel was the firstborn son of Charles II of Naples and Charles II's wife, a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. After the death of her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, in 1290, Queen Mary announced her claim to Hungary, stating that the House of Árpád had become extinct with Ladislaus's death. However, her father's cousin, Andrew laid claim to the throne, although his father, Stephen the Posthumous, had been regarded a bastard by all other members of the royal family. For all that, the Hungarian lords and prelates preferred Andrew against Mary and he was crowned king of Hungary on 23 July 1290.
She transferred her claim to Hungary to Charles Martel in January 1292. The Babonići, Frankopans, Šubići and other Croatian and Slavonian noble families acknowledged Charles Martel's claim, but in fact their loyalty vacillated between Charles Martel and Andrew III. Charles Martel died in autumn 1295, his seven-year-old son, inherited his claim to Hungary. Charles would have been the lawful heir to his grandfather, Charles II of Naples, in accordance with the principles of primogeniture. However, Charles II, who preferred his third son, Robert, to his grandson, bestowed the rights of a firstborn son upon Robert on 13 February 1296. Pope Boniface VIII confirmed Charles II's decision on 27 February 1296, excluding the child Charles from succeeding his grandfather in the Kingdom of Naples. Dante Alighieri wrote of "the schemes and frauds that would attack" Charles Martel's family in reference to Robert's alleged manoeuvres to acquire the right to inherit Naples; the 14th-century historian Giovanni Villani noted that his contemporaries were of the opinion that Robert's claim to Naples was weaker than his nephew's.
The jurist Baldus de Ubaldis refrained from setting out his position on the legitimacy of Robert's rule. Andrew III of Hungary made his maternal uncle, Albertino Morosini, Duke of Slavonia, in July 1299, stirring up the Slavonian and Croatian n
Louis X of France
Louis X, called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn, was King of France from 1314 until his death, succeeding his father Philip IV. After the death of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, he was King of Navarre as Louis I from 1305 until his death in 1316, his short reign in France was marked by tensions with the nobility, due to fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father. Louis' uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny. Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom, abolished slavery, readmitted French Jews into the kingdom. In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with. Margaret was convicted of adultery and died in prison murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the king's death. John's untimely death led to a disputed succession. Louis was born in the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre.
He inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305 being crowned 1 October 1307. On 21 September 1305, at age 15, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan. Louis was known as "the Quarreler" as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns. Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philip's reign. In 1314, Margaret and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis' brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity. Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament that year and found guilty, their alleged lovers were executed, the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Philip stood by his wife Joan, found innocent and released. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard. On the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Margaret of Burgundy died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days on 19 August to Clementia of Hungary, the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois.
Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims in August 1315. Louis was king of king of France for less than two years, his reign was dominated by continual feuding with the noble factions within the kingdom, major reforms designed to increase royal revenues, such as the freeing of the French serfs and the readmittance of the Jews. In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed; this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. His Ordonnances des Roi de France, V, p.1311 declared that "as soon as a slave breathes the air of France, he breathes freedom" By the end of Philip IV's reign opposition to the fiscal reforms was growing. With Philip's death and the accession of Louis, this opposition developed in more open revolt, some authors citing Louis' relative youth as one of the reasons behind the timing of the rebellions. Leagues of regional nobles began demanding changes.
Charles of Valois took advantage of this movement to turn against his old enemy, Philip IV's former minister and chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny and convinced Louis to bring corruption charges against him. When these failed, Charles convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marigny's execution at Vincennes in April 1315. Other former ministers were prosecuted. This, combined with the halting of Philip's reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights and a reversion to more traditional rule assuaged the regional leagues. In practical terms, Louis X abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. Louis continued to require revenues and alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this. Arguing that all men are born free, Louis declared in 1315 that French serfs would therefore be freed, although each serf would have to purchase his freedom. A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium, or value, of each serf.
For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown – for serfs owned by subjects of the King, the amount would be divided between the Crown and the owner. In the event, not all serfs were prepared to pay in this fashion and in due course Louis declared that the goods of these serfs would be seized anyway, with the proceeds going to pay for the war in Flanders. Louis was responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews. In 1306, his father, Philip IV, had expelled the Jewish minority from across France, a "shattering" event for most of these communities. Louis began to reconsider this policy, motivated by the additional revenues that might be forthcoming to the Crown if the Jews were allowed to return. Accordingly, Louis issued a charter in 1315; the Jews would only be admitted back into France for twelve years, after which the agreement might be terminated. This was the first time that French Jews had been covered by such a charter, Louis was careful to
Ladislaus IV of Hungary
Ladislaus the Cuman known as Ladislas the Cuman, was king of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, was the daughter of a chieftain from the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of seven, he married a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily. Ladislaus was only 10 when a rebellious lord, Joachim Gutkeled and imprisoned him. Ladislaus was still a prisoner when his father Stephen V died on 6 August 1272. During his minority, many groupings of barons — the Abas, Csáks, Kőszegis, Gutkeleds — fought against each other for supreme power. Ladislaus was declared to be of age at an assembly of the prelates, barons and Cumans in 1277, he allied himself with Rudolf I of Germany against Ottokar II of Bohemia. His forces had a preeminent role in Rudolf's victory over Ottokar in the Battle on the Marchfeld on 26 August 1278. However, Ladislaus could not restore royal power in Hungary. A papal legate, bishop of Fermo, came to Hungary to help Ladislaus consolidate his authority, but the prelate was shocked at the presence of thousands of pagan Cumans in Hungary.
Ladislaus promised that he would force them to adopt a Christian lifestyle, but they refused to obey the legate's demands. Ladislaus decided to support the Cumans; the Cumans imprisoned the legate, the legate's partisans captured Ladislaus. In early 1280, Ladislaus agreed to persuade the Cumans to submit to the legate, but many Cumans preferred to leave Hungary. Ladislaus vanquished a Cuman army that invaded Hungary in 1282. Hungary survived a Mongol invasion in 1285. Ladislaus had, by that time, become so unpopular that many of his subjects accused him of inciting the Mongols to invade Hungary. After he imprisoned his wife in 1286, he lived with his Cuman mistresses. During the last years of his life, he wandered throughout the country with his Cuman allies, but he was unable to control the most powerful lords and bishops any more. Pope Nicholas IV planned to declare a crusade against him, but three Cuman assassins murdered Ladislaus. Ladislaus was the elder son of Stephen V, son of Béla IV of Hungary, Stephen's wife Elizabeth the Cuman.
Elizabeth was the daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans. She was baptized before her marriage to Stephen. Ladislaus was born under the sign of Mars in 1262, according to Simon of Kéza, his chaplain in the 1270s. Conflicts between Ladislaus's father and grandfather developed into a civil war in 1264. Béla IV's troops, which were under the command of Ladislaus's aunt, captured the castle of Sárospatak, where Ladislaus and his mother were staying, imprisoned them. Ladislaus was kept in the Turóc Castle, but two months he was sent to the court of Boleslaw the Chaste, Duke of Cracow, Béla IV's son-in-law. After his grandfather and father made peace in March 1265, Ladislaus was set free and returned to his father. Ladislaus's father made an alliance with Charles I, king of Sicily, in September 1269. According to the treaty, Charles I's daughter, about four years old at that time, was engaged to the seven-year-old Ladislaus; the children's marriage took place in 1270. Béla IV died on 3 May 1270, Ladislaus's father was crowned king two weeks later.
Béla IV's closest advisors — Duchess Anna, Béla IV's former palatine, Henry Kőszegi — left Hungary and sought assistance from Anna's son-in-law, King Ottokar II of Bohemia. The newly appointed Ban of Slavonia, Joachim Gutkeled turned against Stephen V and kidnapped Ladislaus in the summer of 1272. Gutkeled held Ladislaus in captivity in the fortress of Koprivnica in Slavonia. Historian Pál Engel suggests that Joachim Gutkeled planned to force Stephen V to divide Hungary with Ladislaus. Stephen V could not take it. Stephen fell ill and died on 6 August. Joachim Gutkeled departed for Székesfehérvár as soon as he was informed of Stephen V's death, because he wanted to arrange the boy–king's coronation. Ladislaus's mother joined him, infuriating Stephen V's partisans who accused her of having conspired against her husband. Stephen V's master of the treasury, Egyed Monoszló, laid siege to her palace in Székesfehérvár, but Gutkeled's supporters routed him. Monoszló fled to Pressburg. Archbishop Philip of Esztergom crowned Ladislaus king in Székesfehérvár on about 3 September.
In theory, the 10-year-old Ladislaus ruled under his mother's regency, but in fact, baronial parties administered the kingdom. In November of that year, Henry Kőszegi returned from Bohemia and assassinated Ladislaus's cousin, Béla of Macsó. Duke Béla's extensive domains, which were located along the southern borders, were divided among Henry Kőszegi and his supporters. In retaliation for Hungarian incursions into Austria and Moravia and Moravian troops invaded the borderlands of Hungary in April 1273, they captured Szombathely, plundering the western counties. Joachim Gutkeled recaptured the two forts two months but Ottokar II of Bohemia invaded Hungary and seized many fortresses, including Győr and Sopron in the autumn. Peter Csák and his allies removed Joachim Gutkeled and Henry Kőszegi from power, but Gutkeled and Kőszegi seized Ladislaus and his mother in June 1274. Although Peter Csák liberated the king and his mother, Gutkeled and Kőszegi captured Ladislaus's younger brother and took him to Slavonia.
They demanded Slavonia in Duke Andrew's name, but Peter Csák defeated their united forces
John I of France
John I, called the Posthumous, was King of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316. John is the thirteenth French king from the House of Capet, he is the youngest person to be King of France, the only one to have borne that title from birth, the only one to hold the title for his entire life. His reign is the shortest of any French king. Although considered a king today, his status was not recognized until chroniclers and historians in centuries began numbering John II, thereby acknowledging John I's brief reign. John reigned for five days under the regency of his uncle, Philip the Tall, until his death on 20 November 1316, his death ended the three centuries of father-to-son succession to the French throne. The infant king was buried in Saint Denis Basilica, he was succeeded by his uncle, whose contested legitimacy led to the re-affirmation of the Salic law, which excluded women from the line of succession to the French throne. The child mortality rate was high in medieval Europe and John may have died from any number of causes, but rumours of poisoning spread after his death, as many people benefited from it, as John's father died in strange circumstances.
The cause of his death is still not known today. The premature death of John brought the first issue of succession of the Capetian dynasty; when Louis X, his father, died without a son to succeed him, it was the first time since Hugh Capet that the succession from father to son of the kings of France was interrupted. It was decided to wait until his pregnant widow, Clementia of Hungary, delivered the child; the king's brother, Philip the Tall, was in charge of the regency of the kingdom against his uncle Charles of Valois. The birth of a male child was expected to give France its king; the problem of succession returned. Philip ascended the throne at the expense of John's four-year-old half-sister, daughter of Louis X and Margaret of Burgundy. Various legends circulated about this royal child. First, it was claimed that Philip the Tall, had him poisoned. A strange story a few decades started the rumor that the little King John was not dead. During the captivity of John the Good, a man named Giannino Baglioni claimed to be John I and thus the heir to the throne.
He tried to assert his rights, but was captured in Provence and died in captivity in 1363. In The Man Who Believed He Was King of France, Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri suggests that Cola di Rienzo manufactured false evidence that Baglioni was John the Posthumous in order to strengthen his own power in Rome by placing Baglioni on the French throne. Shortly after they met in 1354, di Rienzo was assassinated, Baglioni waited two years to report his claims, he went to the Hungarian court where Louis I of Hungary, nephew of Clementia of Hungary, recognized him as the son of Louis and Clementia. In 1360, Baglioni went to Avignon. After several attempts to gain recognition, he was arrested and imprisoned in Naples, where he died in 1363. Maurice Druon's historical novel series Les Rois maudits dramatises this theory. In La Loi des mâles, the infant John is temporarily switched with the child of Guccio Baglioni and Marie de Cressay as a decoy, he is subsequently poisoned by Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in order to place John's uncle, Count of Poitiers, on the throne.
Marie is coerced into secretly raising John as her own son, named Giannino Baglioni. An adult Giannino was portrayed by Jean-Gérard Sandoz in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, by Lorans Stoica in the 2005 adaptation. List of shortest reigning monarchs of all time "Summaries of Foreign Reviews: Natura ed Arte - Giannino Baglioni"; the Scottish Review. 28. July 1896. Pp. 160–61
Anton Boys called Anton Waiss was a Flemish painter and printmaker who after training in Antwerp had an international career, which brought him to Italy, Prague and Landshut. He was court painter to Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria for whom he realised a series of contemporary and historical portraits of members of the imperial House of Habsburg. Many of these portraits are in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Boys was an important witness and illustrator of key events in the life of the Habsburgs: he made the engravings for a book describing celebrations on the occasion of the grant of the Order of the Golden Fleece to leading Imperial court members and created an life-size depiction of a wedding banquet of a powerful aristocratic family in the service of the Imperial family; the artist was born in Antwerp, at the time located in the Habsburg Netherlands. The date of his birth is not known and estimates vary from c. 1530 to c. 1550. In 1572, he became a free master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke.
In the period from 1574 to 1576 he is believed to have traveled to Spain. Around 1575 the artist was employed by Count Jakob Hannibal I von Hohenems as a court painter. In the period from 1579 to 1593 the artist is recorded as being active in Prague and Landshut, he was appointed in 1579 as court painter to Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria and at the same time received 320 guilders for one of his works. It is around this time that the artist starts using the Germanised form of his name'Anthoni Waiss'. In 1580 Boys received a grant of arms, which conferred on him the right to bear a coat of arms or armorial bearings, he is mentioned twice as court painter in Innsbruck. In particular it is recorded that in 1584 he received the large sum of 1060 florins, which points to a significant activity of the artist, he married in 1587 with Barbara Geiger from Innsbruck and established a foundation for the poor in 1589 with a donation of 100 guilders. A record from 1589 refers to the deterioration of the health of Anton Boys and the need to find a new court painter.
It is not known where the artist died. Estimates place his time of death between 1593 and 1603. Anton Boys' role as a court painter appears to have been to paint portraits of historical and living members of branches of the imperial family and their consorts. Many of these miniature portraits are now in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Anton Boys first worked on a series of Ahnenbilder for Count Jakob Hannibal I, his portraits were made after older originals, which explains the rather archaic style of these works. He made a similar series of ancestor portraits for Archduke Ferdinand II. Boys is believed to have been the author of the engravings illustrating a book that appeared in 1587 in Dillingen an der Donau; the full title of the book is Ordentliche Beschreibung mit was stattlichen Ceremonien und Zierlichheiten die Röm. Kay. May. Unser aller gnedigster Herr sampt etlich andlern Erzherzogen, Fürsten und Herrn, den Orden dess Guldin Flüss in disem 85. Jahr zu Prag und Landshüt empfangen und angenommen: neben vorgehender Summarischer Außführung vnd Erinnerung, was von disem Orden, auch dessen vrsprung vnd bedeutung fürnemlich züwissen.
Dabey dann auch ettliche zu diser Beschreibung dienstliche fine Figuren zu sehen. The book was written by Paul Zehendter von Zehendtgrueb, the secretary of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, it provides a detailed description of the ceremonies and festivities held in Prague and Landshut on the occasion of the grant of the Order of the Golden Fleece to Emperor Rudolph II, the Archdukes Karl and Ernst, some other princes and noblemen. For the purpose of the grant of the Order, the whole court went on a journey from Innsbruck over Prague and Landshut and to Munich and back; the book does not only describe each stop on the trip, but all the members of the great entourage, including the author Zehendter von Zehendtgrueb and the artist Anton Boys. Anton Boys had been commissioned to illustrate the volume with folding plates of the events; these folding plates show cavalry battles, ritual ceremonies, celebrations of mass, banquets, table decorations, gun practice and fireworks. In some copies these plates are coloured.
Boys made the single-page plates, which depict the insignia of the order, a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in full regalia and a series of armorial crests. Of the known copies of this book, some contain 17 plates. A copy in the Ornamentstichsammlung Berlin has only 12 plates. Only a few copies of the book are known to exist. In 1578 count Jakob Hannibal I von Hohenems commissioned Anton Boys to paint the so-called Banquet of the Hohenems family; the occasion of the banquet was the wedding of Duchess Margaretha von Hohenems with Fortunat Freiherr zu Madruz. Though the painting purports to represent an historical dinner party, it includes members of several generations of the family some of whom had passed away at the time of the wedding, its meaning and purpose therefore extend beyond the recording of an actual event. Rather, the arrangeme
Gertrude of Hohenberg
Gertrude Anne of Hohenberg was German queen from 1273 until her death, by her marriage with King Rudolf I of Germany. As queen consort, she became progenitor of the Austrian House of Habsburg. Gertrude was born in Deilingen, Swabia to Count Burkhard V of Hohenberg and his wife Matilda, daughter of Count Palatine Rudolf II of Tübingen; the comital Hohenberg dynasty, a cadet branch of the Swabian House of Hohenzollern ruled over extended estates in southwestern Germany. Citing contemporary sources, Gertrude's descent was questioned by the Swiss historian Aegidius Tschudi, who postulated a Frohburg lineage. About 1251 in Alsace, Gertrude married Rudolf, son of Count Albert IV of Habsburg and Heilwig of Kyburg, she went on to live with her husband as a comital couple in Rheinfelden. They had eleven children: Matilda, married 1273 in Aachen to Louis II, Duke of Bavaria and became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Albert I of Germany, Duke of Austria and of Styria.
Catherine, married 1279 in Vienna to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria who became the disputed King Bela V of Hungary and left no surviving issue. Agnes, married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxony and became the mother of Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg. Hedwig, married 1270 in Vienna to Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel and left no issue. Clementia, married 1281 in Vienna to Charles Martel of Anjou, the Papal claimant to the throne of Hungary and mother of king Charles I of Hungary, as well as of queen Clementia of France, herself the mother of the baby king John I of France. Hartmann, drowned in Rheinau. Rudolf II, Duke of Austria and Styria, titular Duke of Swabia, father of John the Patricide of Austria. Judith of Habsburg, married 24 January 1285 to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and became the mother of king Wenceslaus III of Bohemia and Hungary, of queen Anne of Bohemia, duchess of Carinthia, of queen Elisabeth of Bohemia, countess of Luxembourg. Samson. Charles. Gertrude's husband was elected King of the Romans in Frankfurt on 29 September 1273.
The election was due to the efforts of her cousin Burgrave Frederick III of Nuremberg. Rudolf was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273; as "Queen Anne" she served as his consort for the following eight years. Reluctant to interfere in politics, she witnessed Rudolf's struggles to secure his rule against the rivalling King Ottokar II of Bohemia, as well as his fruitless efforts to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Gertrude died early in 1281 at her husband's residence in Vienna after a short severe illness. According to her will, she was buried alongside her youngest son Charles. King Rudolf, though he had engaged in lengthy conflicts with the Prince-Bishops of Basel, gave his consent to the funeral which took place on March 20. Centuries her mortal remains were solemnly transferred to Saint Blaise Abbey in 1770. King Rudolf proceeded to marry Isabella of Burgundy. Cawley, Charles, A listing of Swabian nobility, including the Dukes of Hohenberg, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Her profile at Royalty Pages A listing of descendants of Rudolph I of Germany
John II of Viennois
Jean II de la Tour du Pin succeeded his father Humbert I as dauphin of Viennois from 1306 to 1318. His mother was Anne of dauphine du Viennois. In 1296 he married Beatrice of Hungary, daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou, titular king of Hungary, his wife Klementia of Habsburg, they had two children: Guigues dauphin of Viennois. Humbert II, dauphin of Viennois. Georgiou, Constantinos. "Ordinavi armatam sancte unionis: Clement VI's Sermon on the Dauphin Humbert II of Viennois's Leadership of the Christian Armada against the Turks, 1345". In Kedar, Benjamin Z.. Vol.15. Routledge