The Studebaker Champion is an automobile, produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958. It was a full-size car in its first three generations and a mid-size car in its fourth and fifth generation models; the success of the Champion in 1939 was imperative to Studebaker's survival following weak sales during the 1938 model year. Unlike most other cars, the Champion was designed from a "clean sheet", had no restrictions caused by utilizing older parts or requiring the subsequent use of its components in heavier vehicles. Market research guided the selection of features, but a key principle adhered to was the engineering watchword "weight is the enemy." For its size, it was one of the lightest cars of its era. Its compact straight-6 engine outlasted the model itself and was produced to the end of the 1964 model year, with a change to an OHV design in 1961; the Champion was one of Studebaker's best-selling models because of its low price, durable engine, styling.
The car's ponton styling was authored by industrial designer Raymond Loewy, under contract with Studebaker for the design of their automobiles. Champions won. During World War II, Champions were coveted for their high mileage at a time when gas was rationed in the United States. From 1943–1945, the Champion engine was used as the powerplant for the Studebaker M29 Weasel personnel and cargo carrier, which used four sets of the Champion's leaf springs arranged transversely for its bogie suspension; the Champion was phased out in 1958 in preparation for the introduction of the 1959 Studebaker Lark. Prior to this, Studebaker had been placed under receivership, the company was attempting to return to a profitable position; the Champion was introduced in 1939. Deluxe models came with dual wipers; the 164.3 cu in I6 engine produced 78 horsepower. In 1940, Studebaker claimed 27.25 mpg‑US. In 1941, the bodies were given a more streamlined look. In 1946, Studebaker built a limited number of cars based on their 1942 body shell in preparation for its new body and design roll out in 1947.
All Studebakers built in 1946 were designated Skyway Champion models. Only the Champion series was produced. In 1947, Studebaker redesigned the Champion and the Commander, making them the first new cars after World War II; the styling included a new rear window, flat front fenders, as well as convenience features like back light illumination for gauges and automatic courtesy lights. The Champion made up 65.08% of the total sales for the automaker in 1947. The 169.9 cu in I6 engine produced 80 hp in 1947. In 1950, output was increased to 85 hp. New styling was introduced, as well as an automatic transmission. One of the new styling features on the cars was the wraparound, "greenhouse" rear window, on 2-door cars from 1947–1951, at first just an option, in 1950 it was given its own trim line, the Starlight coupe; the "spinner" grill was introduced in 1950, similar to that of a Ford Deluxe, but was dropped again for the 1952 model year. In 1953, Studebaker was redesigned by Robert Bourke, from Raymond Loewy's design studio..
The 2-door coupe with a central pillar was called the Starlight while the more expensive hardtop coupe was called the Starliner. With regard to the 2-door coupe it is important to note that there were 2 versions of it. There was the shortened 4 door sedan version; the back side windows in the shortened 4-door sedans are noticeably bigger than the windows in the Loewy Coupe. The Loewy Coupe is more collectable than the shortened 4-door sedans. Although similar, the body pieces on the 2 cars are not interchangeable; the front end of the new Champion was lower than contemporaries. No convertible was offered in 1953. In 1954, a new 2-door station wagon called. Power of the L-head inline-six remained unchanged at 85 hp, although in 1955 this was replaced by a larger version with 101 hp. For 1955 the Starlight/Starliner labels were dropped and a wraparound windshield was introduced; the 1956 Champion sedans received different bodywork, with pronounced "eyebrows" over the headlights and large tailfins. The coupes received the new Hawk-style bodywork with a centrally placed square grille reminiscent of a period Mercedes-Benz.
In 1957, the Champion Scotsman, a stripped down Champion, was introduced in an attempt to compete with the “Big Three” and Nash in the low-price field. Shortly after its introduction, the model was renamed Studebaker Scotsman. Two engines were available, a 185 cu in 101 hp "Sweepstakes" L-head I6, or a 289 cu in 210 hp "Sweepstakes" OHV V8. Maloney, James H.. Studebaker Cars. Crestline Books. ISBN 0-87938-884-6. Langworth, Richard. Studebaker, the Postwar Years. Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-87938-058-6. Gunnell, John, ed.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3. Reminiscence from the 1985 Interview with Audrey Moore Hodges
The Conestoga wagon is a heavy covered wagon, used extensively during the late eighteenth century, the nineteenth century, in the eastern United States and Canada. It was large enough to transport loads up to 6 tons, was drawn by horses, mules, or oxen, it was designed to help keep its contents from moving about when in motion and to aid it in crossing rivers and streams, though it sometimes leaked unless caulked. The term Conestoga wagon refers to this type of vehicle; the wagons used in the westward expansion of the United States were, for the most part, ordinary farm wagons fitted with canvas covers. A true Conestoga wagon was too heavy for use on the prairies; the first known, specific mention of "Conestoga wagon" was by James Logan on December 31, 1717 in his accounting log after purchasing it from James Hendricks. It was named after the Conestoga River or Conestoga Township in Lancaster County, is thought to have been introduced by German settlers. In colonial times the Conestoga wagon was popular for migration southward through the Great Appalachian Valley along the Great Wagon Road.
After the American Revolution it was used to open up commerce to Ohio. In 1820 rates charged were one dollar per 100 pounds per 100 miles, with speeds about 15 mi per day; the Conestoga in long wagon trains, was the primary overland cargo vehicle over the Appalachian Mountains until the development of the railroad. The wagon was pulled by a team of up to eight horses or a dozen oxen. In Canada, the Conestoga wagons were used by Pennsylvania German migrants who left the United States for Southern Ontario, settling various communities in Niagara Region, Kitchener-Waterloo area and York Region; the Conestoga wagon was built with its floor curved upward to prevent the contents from tipping and shifting. Including its tongue, the average Conestoga wagon was 18 feet long, 11 feet high, 4 feet in width, it could carry up to 12,000 pounds of cargo. The seams in the body of the wagon were caulked with tar to protect them from leaking while crossing rivers. For protection against bad weather, stretched across the wagon was a tough white canvas cover.
The frame and suspension were made of wood, the wheels were iron rimmed for greater durability. Water barrels were built on the side of the wagon, toolboxes held tools needed for repair, a feed box on the back of the wagon was used to feed the horses; the early freight wagon was not intended to be ridden upon. The wagon had a brake handle on the left side between the two wheels and a teamster either walked beside the wagon or could ride standing on a pull-out board, called a lazy board, that provided access to the brake handle; the left horse near the wagon was sometimes ridden. The Conestoga wagon began the custom of "driving" on the right-hand side of the road. For pulling the heavy freight wagons the Conestoga horse, a special breed of medium to heavy draft horses was developed; the Conestoga was never an established breed, they could be of several different colors. The beginnings were from the same Conestoga Valley as the wagon being Lancaster County; the horses were not bred by necessity. Samuel Gist, a prominent landowner, slave owner, banker, as well as a partner with George Washington, contributed to the eventual breeding of what became known as the Conestoga.
Gist became famous by founding the Gist settlements, including one southwest of Leesburg and freeing his slaves through his will after dying. The lineage of the Conestoga is not clear and there is more than one possibility. In 1774 there were 30 mares imported into Virginia; these either came from the Darley Arabian, or the Godolphin Arabian. Gist imported a Darley Arabian stud named Bulle Rock from England in 1732. Breeding this horse and descendants with Virginia mares led to larger size horses; these mares, bred with studs of Flemish ancestry, were brought to the United States by William Penn, but this has been asserted as lore. The demise of the Conestoga was predicted in 1864, relegated to oblivion by "modern inventions and recent innovations", through a Congressional printing and historical contribution by John Strohm. A few miles south of Conestoga, in Martic, Pennsylvania, a John Eshelman owned a sleek solid black Conestoga pictured as plate XXIV in the publication. "Conestoga Wagon Time-Lapse".
National Museum of American History. YouTube
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team
Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk
The Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk, a sporty coupe sold between 1962 and 1964, was the final development of the Studebaker Hawk series that began with the Golden Hawk of 1956. The GT Hawk's styling was a radical facelift by designer Brooks Stevens of the older Hawk shape; the hood from the older Hawk was retained, but was given a more pronounced radiator frame to more resemble the cars of Mercedes-Benz, which at the time were distributed by Studebaker. The grille inside the radiator frame was patterned after the Mercedes as well. Despite the European influence, the Gran Turismo Hawk drew on American influences, too. A chrome edge running from front to rear highlighted the top of the bodywork in similar fashion to that on the contemporary Lincoln Continental; the taillights were fashioned after the Lincoln's, the trunk lid was given a faux brightwork "grille" overlay that resembled the Lincoln as well. Stevens's extensive yet inexpensive modifications to the body rid the car of the 1950s-style tailfins and bodyside trim of previous models.
The rear window was nearly flat and recessed, reducing the cost of an ordinarily expensive piece of glass. Overall, the exterior look kept the smooth, aerodynamic style of previous Studebakers but moved up to date. Stevens cleaned up the interior with a modern instrument panel that could be ordered with a full complement of large, easy-to-read instruments within close range of the driver's line of sight; the top of the instrument panel was padded to serve as a crash pad. This dashboard would prove to be another Studebaker trendsetter; the GT featured bucket seats and a console in the front, befitting a grand-touring car, all seats were upholstered in either cloth and vinyl or all-pleated vinyl. The pleated vinyl was of poor quality during the 1962 production run and deteriorated rapidly; the problem was solved with the change to US Royal Naugahyde vinyl in 1963, but with sales faltering, the reputation of the shoddy 1962 upholstery didn't help matters. Because of Studebaker's poor financial shape, the underpinnings of the car remained similar to previous Hawks.
For that matter, there wasn't much difference, chassis-wise, between a 1962 Hawk and a 1953 Starliner/Starlight. This thriftiness has turned out to be a boon for owners of today, as Studebaker's limited use of custom-engineered parts has translated into wide availability of replacement parts 50+ years after the firm's demise. For 1962, a Hawk buyer could choose from either two- or four-barrel carbureted versions of Studebaker's 289-cubic-inch V8 engine teamed with standard three-speed manual, overdrive four-speed or Flight-O-Matic automatic transmission; the stock engine was low compression which lowered its power output while providing longer engine life. Beginning with the 1963 model year, the "Jet Thrust" R-series V-8 engines designed for the Avanti could be ordered throughout the Studebaker line, with the aspirated R1 delivering 240 bhp, the supercharged R2 giving 289 bhp and the limited-production supercharged 304.5 in³ R3 powerplant issuing forth a full 335 bhp. Handling and braking improvements were made to match the high-performance engines, with front and rear anti-roll bars, rear radius rods, heavy-duty springs, front disc brakes all available ala carte or in a "Super Hawk" package with an R1 or R2 engine.
Avanti engines that were factory installed in Hawks had serial numbers beginning with "JT" and "JTS", rather than the "R" and "RS" prefixes used in Avantis. At over 3,000 pounds, the GT Hawk was a bit heavier than GM and Ford cars of its class and era, any of these engines made it a sound performer; the blown R-engines amplified the Hawk's performance capabilities, making those cars far more collectable. Despite the fact that Studebaker's V8 was a heavy engine for its size, the Hawk was, with the Super Hawk package, a car with good handling for a contemporary American car. In restoring the suspension systems, it is essential to avoid using gas-filled shock absorbers. For 1963 the car was restyled, with refinements to the front and rear. Round parking lights below the headlights replaced the previous rectangular ones, set into the corners of the newly closed side grilles that bore a squared pattern of lines over fine mesh; this same squared mesh pattern was carried over onto the main grille, replacing the simple fine mesh of the 1962 models.
Early in 1963 production the parking light bezels were changed and the right side of the dash became woodgrain, matching the area around the instruments. The doors had red and blue emblems added next to the Gran Turismo emblems, at the rear, the aluminum overlay's colors were reversed and red and blue were added to the Hawk emblem on the top of the trunk lid. Inside, 1963 Hawks have vertical pleats in the seat upholstery, replacing the 1962's horizontal pleats, have far superior vinyl. For the 1964 model year, the GT saw some extensive design changes. Tooling money was appropriated to eliminate the grooved trunk lid that had required the 1962-63 Hawks' faux rear "gri
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Illinois Terminal Railroad
The Illinois Terminal Railroad Company, known as the Illinois Traction System until 1937, was a heavy duty interurban electric railroad with extensive passenger and freight business in central and southern Illinois from 1896 to 1982. When Depression era Illinois Traction was in financial distress and had to reorganize, the Illinois Terminal name was adopted to reflect the line's primary money making role as a freight interchange link to major steam railroads at its terminal ends, Danville, St. Louis. Interurban passenger service was reduced, it ended in 1956. Freight operation continued but was hobbled by tight street running in some towns requiring sharp radius turns. In 1956, ITC was absorbed by a consortium of connecting railroads. ITC was a successor in interest to a series of interurban railroads that were consolidated in the early 1900s by businessman William B. McKinley into the Illinois Traction System, an affiliate of the Illinois Power and Light Company; the Illinois Traction System, at its height, provided electric passenger rail service to 550 miles of tracks in central and southern Illinois.
The system's Y-shaped main line stretched from St. Louis to Springfield, with branches onward from Springfield northwest to Peoria and eastward to Danville. A series of affiliated street-level city trolley lines provided local passenger service in many of the cities served by the main line; the longest-lived segment was at East St. Louis area of the line descended from an Edwardsville-Alton interurban line bought by the Illinois Traction System in 1928; because the Illinois Traction/Illinois Terminal traversed some towns on street trackage with tight turns, freight operation required the use of short trains and special hardware. New bypass trackage was constructed around some towns for freight operation to solve this problem. Springfield was an example of this. In a few other towns, arrangements were made with a parallel steam railroad for trackage rights in order to provide a bypass. An example of difficult town running was at Morton, just east of Peoria, where a heavy duty well maintained track with trolley catenary found itself running down the center of the town's brick paved main street.
1 Danville-Ridge Farm 2 Danville-Catlin 3 Homer Branch 4 Danville-Champaign 5 Champaign-Decatur 6 Decatur-Springfield 7 Decatur-Bloomington 8 Bloomington-Peoria 9 Peoria-Springfield 10 Springfield-Granite City 11 Granite City-St. Louis 12 Staunton-Hillsboro With the Great Depression, the Illinois Traction System staggered; the ITS relinquished many of its city streetcar lines in the 1930s, due to the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 it was forced to cut its ties with an affiliated firm that provided electrical utility services. The passenger railroad reorganized in 1937 as the Illinois Terminal Railroad and continued to provide electric-powered interurban, long-distance multiple car passenger train service Peoria/Danville to St. Louis for another two decades. United States postal contracts helped provide revenue to make this service viable. In the 1950s, with the final dominance of the automobile, ITC's passenger service became hopelessly unprofitable; this was after IT had purchased three expensive electric multiple car streamlined train sets from St. Louis Car Company.
These were capable of decent speeds on ITC's well-maintained open country roadbed, but had to negotiate tight streetcar-style curves in the numerous towns along the line. Worst of all, this new equipment failed to attract passengers on the St. Louis-Peoria runs which had no railroad or direct highway competition, despite having parlor-observation and dining facilities. On March 3, 1956, ITC's interurban passenger service ended, followed by its last passenger service, the St. Louis-Granite City suburban cars, in 1958; because the ITR had some valuable trackage and lineside freight customers, it was acquired in June 1956 by nine Class I railroads. These collectively continued to operate ITR as a diesel-powered short line to carry freight to the acquiring railroads; the co-owned reorganized Illinois Terminal Railroad took down its trolley wire and abandoned much of its trackage the interurban street running in towns and villages. At various points ITC track was connected to trackage of adjacent lines and was available for optional routing.
For the following 25 years the ITC continued to operate diesel-powered trackage north and east of St. Louis, providing freight business for the railroads that owned it; the Norfolk and Western Railway purchased its partners' interests in the Illinois Terminal Railroad on September 1, 1981, ITC merged into the N&W on May 8, 1982. In 1989, IT's successor Norfolk Southern sold IT's remaining active trackage in St. Louis, Missouri from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch Headquarters building at 900 North Tucker Boulevard to the Branch Street Yard located to the south of the McKinley Bridge to Ironhorse Resources, Inc. of O'Fallon, IL. Ironhorse formed a subsidiary for its St. Louis operation known as the Railroad Switching Service of Missouri. RSM existed to provide freight service to the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, which received boxcars loaded with newsprint spools that were delivered to an underground freight dock in the basement of its St. Louis headquarters building; the spools were used by the Post-Dispatch in the production of its daily circulation newspaper.
RSM's locomotive was an EMD SW-8 owned by the United States Army
Studebaker M-series truck
The M-series truck was a truck designed in the late 1930s by the Studebaker Corporation. The M-series Studebaker trucks came in several versions both pre and post WW II; the M-5 was a 1/2 ton PU. The M15 was the 3/4 ton version; the M15A was 1-1/2 ton version. The M5, M15, M15A all came with the Champion 169 ci. engine, only. The M16 1-1/2 & 2 ton versions came with the more powerful Commander 226 ci. engine. The Studebaker US6 version was produced during the war to government specifications. In early 1945, Studebaker was given permission to produce some M Series trucks for civilian use; these early post war civilian trucks used the Studebaker US6 cab with the government style swing out windshield. Like most truck lines, the Studebaker M Series trucks could be had in any number of body styles. Only pickup beds were offered on M15A versions from the factory. While the M16 version used the larger Commander 226 ci. engine, through the use of a different fire wall on these cabs, all the other front sheet metal stayed the same.
However, a spacer was used in the front fenders to accommodate the larger front wheel track of the M16. First put into production in November 1940, it saw extensive action during the Second World War in the South East Asian theatre against Japan. In particular, these Studebaker US6 version of the M-series Studebaker trucks were used in the construction of the Burma road. A large number of these trucks served in the Russian forces as part of aid given to the country by the U. S; the M series sported a more aerodynamic shape than most trucks of the time, with recognisable "wind wing" vents on the driver and passenger windows, a feature not found on any other make of American truck during World War II. When Studebaker introduced the M-series pickup truck in 1941, the company used the Coupe Express name in advertising for a time.