Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a former Iberian state as well as a member of the Council of Aragon. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power; the composite state under the rule of Savoy in this period may be called Savoy-Sardinia or Piedmont-Sardinia, or the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia had always been of secondary importance to the monarchy. The formal name of the entire Savoyard state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia", its final capital was the capital of Savoy since the mid 16th century. The kingdom consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of, claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297.
Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720, the island was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy; when the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna, which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa.
In 1847–48, through the "Perfect Fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system with their capital in Turin, granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy, the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies and the Papal States. On 17 March 1861, to more reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, its capital was moved first to Florence and to Rome; the Savoy-led Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was thus the legal predecessor of the Kingdom of Italy, which in turn is the predecessor of the present-day Italian Republic. In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with a province of the Roman Empire; the Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century, when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from Byzantium, it remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became difficult, powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.
Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times. Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī; the Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicates with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire.
Pope Benedict VIII requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs. After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church and society, to reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans; the title of "Judge" was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state, in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches. Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons or, in Latin, who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered real kings of all Sardinia though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns only two names are known: Turcoturiu and
Mondovì is a town and comune in Piedmont, northern Italy, about 80 kilometres from Turin. The area around it is known as the Monregalese; the town, located on the Monte Regale hill, is divided into several rioni: Piazza, Pian della Valle, Altipiano and Rinchiuso, next to the Ellero stream, developed from the 18th century when industries developed in Mondovì and when it was reached by the railway. The Funicolare di Mondovì, a funicular railway reopened in 2006, links Breo with Piazza, it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mondovì. It is the home of the Academia Montis Regalis orchestra led by conductor Alessandro De Marchi. Founded on a hilltop in 1198 by survivors of the destroyed village of Bredolo and by inhabitants of the neighboring villages of Vico and Carassone: an independent comune named Ël Mont ëd Vi, meaning "The Mount of Vico" in Piedmontese, was formed, their independence proved to be short-lived because the bishop of Asti and the marquis of Ceva stormed it in 1200 and destroyed it in 1231.
The commune resisted and the following year it was able to sustain another attack from Asti. In 1260 it was occupied by Charles I of Anjou. In 1290 he was however able to buy back its communal independence, under the new name of Mons Regalis due to its large privileges. In 1305 it fell again under the Angevins, followed by the Visconti, the Marquisate of Montferrat, the Acaja and, from 1418, the House of Savoy. Mondovì continued to grow until the 16th century. In 1537 it was occupied by France, under which it remained until 1559. In 1560, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy restored it to Piedmont, which held it until the Italian unification, apart from the Napoleonic period. Piedmont's first printing press was created in Mondovì in 1472. From 1560 to 1566, Mondovì was the seat of Piedmont's first university. Church of San Francesco Saverio, with works by Andrea Pozzo. Cathedral of San Donato, designed by Francesco Gallo. Santa Croce Chapel, with a Gothic fresco cycle. Medieval walls and towers. Piazza Maggiore, in Gothic style.
Church of Santa Chiara. Church of the Misericordia, designed by Francesco Gallo. Convent of Nostra Donna. Palazzo Fauzone. Chapel of San Rocco delle Carceri. Chapel of San Borgato delle Forche, with notable Gothic paintings. Nearby is the Baroque sanctuary of Vicoforte. Mondovì is the birthplace of Giovanni Battista Beccaria, physicist Teresa De Giuli Borsi, opera singer Giovanni Giolitti, five-time Prime Minister of Italy Francis Vigo, fur trader, American Revolutionary War hero Michele Baranowicz, volleyball player Roman Catholic Diocese of Mondovì Official website
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour and Leri known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was one of the leaders of the Historical Right, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy. Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his native region of Piedmont in his earlier years, founded the political newspaper Il Risorgimento. After being elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he rose in rank through the Piedmontese government, coming to dominate the Chamber of Deputies through a union of left-center and right-center politicians. After a large rail system expansion program, Cavour became prime minister in 1852; as prime minister, Cavour negotiated Piedmont's way through the Crimean War, the Second Italian War of Independence, Garibaldi's expeditions, managing to maneuver Piedmont diplomatically to become a new great power in Europe, controlling a nearly united Italy, five times as large as Piedmont had been before he came to power.
English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not democratic. Cavour was dictatorial, ignored his ministerial colleagues and parliament, interfered in parliamentary elections, he practiced trasformismo and other policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule, into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation, he was the second of two sons of Michele Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Benso, 4th Marquess of Cavour and Count of Isolabella and Leri, Lord of Corveglia, Mondonio and Ponticelli, Co-Lord of Castagnole and Menabi, Chieri, San Salvatore Monferrato and Valfenera, 1st Baron of the French Empire and his wife Adélaïde Suzanne, Marchioness of Sellon, herself of French origin. His godparents were Napoleon's sister Pauline, her husband, Prince Camillo Borghese, after whom Camillo was named. Camillo and his older brother Gustavo were educated at home.
He was sent to the Turin Military Academy. In July 1824 he was named a page to the king of Piedmont. Cavour ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline, he was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. While in the army, he studied the English language as well as the works of Jeremy Bentham and Benjamin Constant, developing liberal tendencies which made him suspect to police forces at the time, he resigned his commission in the army in November 1831, both because of boredom with military life and because of his dislike of the reactionary policies of King Charles Albert. He administered the family estate at Grinzane, some forty kilometers outside the capital, serving as mayor there from 1832 to the revolutionary upheaval of 1848.
Cavour lived for a time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva. He grew acquainted with Calvinist teachings, for a short while he converted from a form of unorthodox Catholicism, only to go back later. A Reformed pastor, Alexandre Vinet, impressed upon Cavour the need for the separation of church and state, a doctrine Cavour followed for the remainder of his life, he traveled to Paris where he was impressed by parliamentary debates those of François Guizot and Adolphe Thiers, confirming his devotion to a political career. He next went to London, where he was much more disappointed by British politics, toured the country, visiting Oxford, Birmingham, Chester and Manchester. A quick tour through the Netherlands and Switzerland landed him back in Turin. Cavour believed that economic progress had to precede political change, stressed the advantages of railroad construction in the peninsula, he was a strong supporter of transportation by steam engine, sponsoring the building of many railroads and canals.
Between 1838 and 1842 Cavour began several initiatives in attempts to solve economic problems in his area. He experimented with different agricultural techniques on his estate, such as growing sugar beets, was one of the first Italian landowners to use chemical fertilizers, he founded the Piedmontese Agricultural Society. In his spare time, he again traveled extensively in France and the United Kingdom; the first "liberal" moves of Pope Pius IX and the political upheavals of 1848 spawned a new movement of Italian liberalism, allowing Cavour to enter the political arena, no longer in fear of the police. He gave a speech in front of numerous journalists in favor of a constitution for Piedmont, granted. Cavour, unlike several other political thinkers, was not at first offered a position in the new Chamber of Deputies, as he was still a somewhat suspicious character to the nation. Cavour never planned for the establishment of a united country, later during his Premiership his
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy is a royal family, established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century; the Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed; the name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages and international diplomacy. From rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynasty's realm grew to include nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition.
The house descended from Count of Sabaudia. Humbert's family is thought to have originated near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers and Humbert. Though Sabaudia was a poor county counts were diplomatically skilled, gained control over strategic mountain passes in the Alps. Two of Humbert's sons were commendatory abbots at the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum, on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva, Saint Maurice is still the patron of the House of Savoy. Humbert's son, Otto of Savoy succeeded to the title in 1051 after the death of his elder brother Amedeo and married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, passing the Marquessate of Susa, with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, into the House of Savoy's possession; this diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France and Spain to take the counts' opinions into account. They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud, where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern.
Piedmont was joined with Sabaudia, the name evolved into "Savoy". The people of Savoy were descended from the Romans. By the time Amadeus VIII came to power in the late 14th century, the House of Savoy had gone through a series of gradual territorial expansions and he was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, which initiated the Italian War of 1494–98. During the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year. Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli; when Emmanuel Philibert came to power in 1553 most of his family's territories were in French hands, so he offered to serve France's leading enemy the House of Habsburg, in the hope of recovering his lands. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557.
He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin; the 17th century brought about economic development to the Turin area and the House of Savoy took part in and benefitted from that. Charles Emmanuel II built a road through the Alps towards France, and through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. In early 18th century in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus switched sides to assist the Habsburgs and via the Treaty of Utrecht they rewarded him with large pieces of land in northeastern Italy, a Crown in Sicily. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years; the crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance. On the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well.
Through advantageous alliances during the War of the Polish Succession and War of the Austrian Succession, Charles Emmanuel III gained new lands at the expense of the Austrian-controlled Duchy of Milan. In 1792 Piedmont-Sardinia joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic, but was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris, giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. In 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna. In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion. Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement.
In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Kingdom of I
University of Turin Department of Law
The University of Turin Department of Law is the law school of the University of Turin. It is shortened UNITO Department of Law, it traces its roots to the founding of the University of Turin, has produced or hosted some of the most outstanding jurists and scholars in Italian and European history. Among its distinguished faculty and alumni are leading writers and legal scholars. Nowadays the Department of Law continues the tradition, with particular strengths in the fields of private law, EU law, comparative law and related fields; the history of the Department of Law can be traced to the establishment of the University of Turin, in 1404, has followed its developments over the ensuing six centuries. In autumn 1404, a bull issued by Benedict XIII, the Avignon Pope, marked the actual birth of a centre of higher learning in Torino, formally ratified in 1412 by the Emperor Sigmund's certification and subsequently, in 1413, by a bull issued by antipope John XXIII, the Pisan Pope, by another issued in 1419 by Martin V, Pope of Rome, by a series of papal privileges.
The new institution, which only held courses in civil and canon law, was authorized to confer both the academic "licentia" and "doctoratus" titles which were to become a single "laurea" title. It was the Bishop, as Rector of Studies, who conferred the title on the new doctors. In 1436, ducal licenses established the three core faculties of Theology and Medicine, as well as Civil and Canon law. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the legal studies grew, giving the Department a national and international reputation. Notable academics contributed to the growth of the Department. During the years of the Resurgence, when a numerous group of patriots and intellectuals took refuge in the Savoy capital city, some of Italy's most remarkable names taught at the University and the Department of Law, like the jurist and statesman Pasquale Stanislao Mancini, the two economics professors Antonio Scialoja and Francesco Ferrara. In modern Italian history, the UNITO Department of Law was known for its central role in Italian national unification and cultural progressiveness.
For instance, in 1881, the Department of Law graduated Lidia Poët, who would become the controversial first female jurist in modern Italy. In the first half of 20th century some outstanding names in the history of the Department and the university include: Luigi Einaudi, in the field of the financial studies. Most should be mentioned at least Norberto Bobbio, in legal philosophy; the Department of Law is located in Turin, nearby the fascinating Mole Antonelliana. It is one of the leading law departments in Europe, with particular strengths in the fields of comparative law and private law. Additionally, the Department of Law has improved its physical facilities; the Department of Law coordinates the research work of more than 120 law professors in the different areas of law. The Department offers a number of degrees, starting with the laurea di giurisprudenza, laurea specialistica or laurea magistrale and several specialized LL. M. programs. The Department offers some brief degree courses. In addition, the Department offers the dottorato di ricerca or the traditional research Ph.
D. degree. As a result of the Bologna Process, all of the UNITO Law degrees are comparable and transferrable across Europe, graduates of the law department in fact practice in a number of leading jurisdictions across Europe. In addition, the Department of Law offers ] programs: Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website The UNITO Department of Law is a founding member of a number of innovative international law programs, such as the Center for Transnational Legal Studies and several independent research institutes: Center for Transnational Legal Studies Centre of Advanced Studies on Contemporary China Turin School of Development CLEI Centre List of UNITO law people Collegio Carlo Alberto Turin School of Development University of Turin - Official website Law Department - Official website University of Turin, Department of Law - Academics website ITC - ILO UNICRI
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1