Town and gown
Town and gown are two distinct communities of a university town. The metaphor is historical in its connotation but continues to be used in the literature on urban higher education and in common parlance. During the Middle Ages, students admitted to European universities held minor clerical status and donned garb similar to that worn by the clergy; these vestments evolved into the academic long black gown, worn along with cap. The gown proved comfortable for studying in unheated and draughty buildings and thus became a tradition in the universities; the gown served as a social symbol, as it was impractical for physical manual work. The hood was adorned with the colours of the colleges and designated the young scholar's university affiliation, thus by their distinctive clothing, the students were set apart and distinguished from the citizens of the town. The idea of a school of higher learning as a distinct and autonomous institution within an urban setting dates back to the Academy founded by Plato c. 387 BC.
The Academy was established as a sacred sanctuary for learning outside the city walls of Athens. The Academy endured for nine centuries until it was closed, along with other pagan schools, by Emperor Justinian in 529 AD. In the 12th century, when the early medieval universities came into existence – first in Italy and across Europe – they were founded without physical campuses; the masters rented lecture halls in the host cities. Early on, there were few identifiable campus buildings. Most students took lodging in the university towns; the scholars congregated in identifiable areas of cities, most famously the Left Bank of the Seine in Paris – what became known as the Quartier Latin. Thus, the medieval institutions were more integrated into the cities than in the case of the Academy, it is no accident. The schools' existence required a permanent population and an infrastructure that included a vibrant marketplace and system of governance, but their dependence on the host towns was limited. In most instances, the endowment of the medieval universities was drawn if not from the revenues of the Catholic Church.
The universities were independent of municipal revenues and, to a great extent, of civil authority. The medieval studium remained a sanctuary in its status as beneficiary of the Catholic Church and in the scholars' exemption from civil law; such special jurisdictions were by no means uncommon in the Middle Ages. The applicable law varied by person and area: the towns themselves had legal systems different from the surrounding countryside, inside the town, every guild had its own special privileges and rights; the independent jurisdiction of the universities was part of this system. The initial relationship between the medieval universities and the host town was adversarial for various reasons, over time, the universities' growing autonomy and independence from local control led to increasing tensions with host towns; the steady encroachment of universities upon neighbouring areas created a point of contention between town and gown. The medieval universities formed as guilds of masters and/or students on the model established by the crafts guilds.
Once the scholars were able to receive a charter, they would begin negotiations with municipal authorities to secure fair rents for lecture halls and other concessions. Because they had no investment in a physical campus, they could threaten to migrate to another town if their demands were not met; this was not an empty threat. The scholars at the University of Lisbon in Portugal migrated to Coimbra, later back to Lisbon in the 14th century. Scholars would go on strike, leave the host city, not return for years; this happened at the University of Paris after a riot in 1229. The university did not return to Paris for two years. Many university students were foreigners with exotic manners and dress who spoke and wrote Latin, the lingua franca of medieval higher education in Western Europe. Students could not speak the local dialect, most uneducated townspeople spoke no Latin; the language barrier and the cultural differences did nothing to improve relations between scholars and townspeople. The tenor of town–gown relations became a matter of arrogance on the one hand and resentment on the other.
Students in the medieval universities enjoyed certain exemptions from the jurisdiction of the ordinary civil courts. These privileges were safeguarded by a conservator Apostolic a bishop or archbishop appointed by the pope. By the Papal bull Parens scientiarum, the charter of the University of Paris, Pope Gregory IX authorised the masters, in the event of an outrage committed by anyone upon a scholar and not redressed within fifteen days, to suspend their lectures; this right of cessation of lectures was made use of in conflicts between town and gown. On various occasions, the popes themselves intervened to protect the scholars against encroachments by the local civil authorities. Pope Nicholas IV in 1288 threatened to disrupt the studium at Padua unless the municipal authorities repealed within fifteen d
Thomas Green Clemson
Thomas Green Clemson, was an American politician and statesman, serving as an ambassador and the United States Superintendent of Agriculture. He served in the Confederate States Army, he founded Clemson University in South Carolina. Born in Philadelphia, Clemson was the son of Thomas Green Clemson Elizabeth Baker, he is descended from Quaker roots, his mother was Episcopalian. Because of this mixed religious background, Clemson's personal religious belief is not well documented. In 1813, his father died, his father's second cousin, John Gest, was appointed guardian over him and his five siblings. Clemson was one beneficiary of his father's $100,000 life savings, split among him and his siblings. Little is known about his home life, but his schooling started in the winter of 1814, as he, as well as the older Clemsons, attended day school at Tabernacle Presbyterian Church. There is no knowledge as to how long Thomas attended day school, but from 1823-1825, Clemson was educated at Alden Partridge's Military Academy in Vermont known as Norwich University.
Clemson's older brother, who had graduated from Princeton, sent Thomas a letter outlining the courses and subjects that he should study. He completed those studies sometime in late 1825. What is known, however, is that he went back to Philadelphia in 1825, he started studying Mineralogy. Sometime in 1826 Clemson left for France, his departure date, the ship name, where he landed in France are unknown. Among the few surviving documents of his time in Paris is a letter that he wrote to his mother. In addition, the letter states that if he were to die, all of his wealth should be left to his mother and after her death, it would be left to any of his unmarried sisters. On in 1829, Clemson wrote a letter to Benjamin Silliman, M. D. about his research of iron ore. In 1826–27, he expanded his knowledge of practical laboratory chemistry while working with chemist Gaultier de Clowbry and furthered his chemistry study by working with other Parisian chemists, he further trained at the Royal School of Mines.
He received his diploma as an assayer from the Royal Mint. Upon his return to the U. S. he co-authored significant legislation to promote agricultural education. With knowledge of both French and German, he served as U. S. Chargé d'affaires to Belgium from 1844 to 1851; because of his education, historians have called Clemson "a quintessential nineteenth-century Renaissance man." In 1843, Thomas purchased a 1000-acre plot of land in the Edgefield district in South Carolina. Named "Canebrake", the land, as well as the twenty slaves he placed there, had an estimated cost of $24,000. Though this plot of land was not profitable while Clemson was abroad in Belgium, he was furthering his studies in the field of agriculture, he translated the lengthy article "Extraction of Sugar from the Beet," written by Professor Melsens, a professor at one of Belgium's State colleges, from French to English. Upon his return from Belgium, in 1853 Clemson purchased a 100-acre plot in Maryland which he called "The Home."
Clemson chose to live in Maryland, not too far from Washington, for access to utilities and resources for his research and experiments. While there, his studies in Agricultural Chemistry led to findings that were published in scientific journals, such as The American Farmer. In addition, he attended the meetings of both the Maryland and the United States Agricultural Societies. Among other projects, he studied the cattle disease Texas Fever, demonstrating that cattle moving from the North to the South contracted the disease, whereas cattle going from the South to the North transmitted the disease, his findings and distinction as a scientist led to his invitation to speak at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington in 1858. Clemson was active in the field of agricultural research for many years to come, as more of his documents became published. On November 13, 1838, at the age of 31, Clemson married Anna Maria Calhoun, daughter of John C. Calhoun and Floride Calhoun. John C. Calhoun was the noted Senator from South Carolina and 7th Vice President of the United States.
After Calhoun's death, Floride Calhoun, Anna Calhoun Clemson, two other Calhoun children inherited the Fort Hill plantation near Pendleton, South Carolina. It was sold with 50 slaves for $49,000 to Calhoun's oldest son, Andrew Pickens Calhoun, in 1854. After the war and upon the Andrew's death in 1865, Floride Calhoun foreclosed on his heirs prior to her death in 1866. After lengthy legal procedures, Fort Hill was auctioned in 1872; the executor of her estate won the auction, divided among her surviving heirs. Her daughter, Anna Clemson, received the residence with about 814 acres and her great granddaughter, Floride Isabella Lee, received about 288 acres. Thomas Green and Anna Clemson moved into Fort Hill in 1872. After Anna's death in 1875, Thomas Green Clemson inherited Fort Hill and lived there until his death, he died on April 6, 1888, is buried in St. Paul's Episcopal churchyard in Pendleton, South Carolina. Thomas Green Clemson and his wife Anna Calhoun Clemson had four children, their first child, whose name is not known, died as an infant in 1839.
In 1841, John Calhoun Clemson was born. Shortly after in 1842, Anne Clemson gave birth to her daughter Floride Elizabeth Clemson. At age 15, John was getting treatment for a spinal condition in Massachusetts. Around this time, the Clemson
John C. Calhoun
John Caldwell Calhoun was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who served as the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He is remembered for defending slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics, which he did in the context of protecting the interests of the white South when it was outnumbered by Northerners, he began his political career as a nationalist and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs. In the late 1820s, his views changed radically and he became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government and opposition to high tariffs—he saw Northern acceptance of these policies as the only way to keep the South in the Union, his beliefs and warnings influenced the South's secession from the Union in 1860–1861. Calhoun began his political career with election to the House of Representatives in 1810; as a prominent leader of the war hawk faction, Calhoun supported the War of 1812 to defend American honor against British infractions of American independence and neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars.
He served as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, in this position reorganized and modernized the War Department. Calhoun was a candidate for the presidency in the 1824 election. After failing to gain support, he let his name be put forth as a candidate for vice president; the Electoral College elected Calhoun for vice president by an overwhelming majority. He served under John Quincy Adams and continued under Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in the election of 1828. Calhoun had a difficult relationship with Jackson due to the Nullification Crisis and the Petticoat affair. In contrast with his previous nationalism, Calhoun vigorously supported South Carolina's right to nullify federal tariff legislation he believed unfairly favored the North, putting him into conflict with unionists such as Jackson. In 1832, with only a few months remaining in his second term, he resigned as vice president and entered the Senate, he sought the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1844, but lost to surprise nominee James K. Polk, who went on to become president.
Calhoun served as Secretary of State under John Tyler from 1844 to 1845. As Secretary of State, he supported the annexation of Texas as a means to extend the slave power, helped settle the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain, he returned to the Senate, where he opposed the Mexican–American War, the Wilmot Proviso, the Compromise of 1850 before his death in 1850. Calhoun served as a virtual party-independent who variously aligned as needed with Democrats and Whigs. In life, Calhoun became known as the "cast-iron man" for his rigid defense of white Southern beliefs and practices, his concept of republicanism emphasized approval of slavery and minority rights, as embodied by the Southern states. His concept of minority rights did not extend to slaves. Calhoun asserted that slavery, rather than being a "necessary evil," was a "positive good," benefiting both slaves and slave owners. To protect minority rights against majority rule, he called for a concurrent majority whereby the minority could sometimes block proposals that it felt infringed on their liberties.
To this end, Calhoun supported states' rights and nullification, through which states could declare null and void federal laws that they viewed as unconstitutional. Calhoun was one of the "Great Triumvirate" or the "Immortal Trio" of Congressional leaders, along with his Congressional colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. In 1957, a Senate Committee headed by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Calhoun as one of the five greatest United States Senators of all time. John Caldwell Calhoun was born in Abbeville District, South Carolina on March 18, 1782, the fourth child of Patrick Calhoun and his wife Martha Caldwell. Patrick's father named Patrick Calhoun, had joined the Scotch-Irish immigration movement from County Donegal to southwestern Pennsylvania. After the death of the elder Patrick in 1741, the family moved to southwestern Virginia. Following the defeat of British General Edward Braddock at the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755, the family, fearing Indian attacks, moved to South Carolina in 1756.
Patrick Calhoun belonged to the Calhoun clan in the tight-knit Scotch-Irish community on the Southern frontier. He was known as an Indian fighter and an ambitious surveyor, farmer and politician, being a member of the South Carolina Legislature; as a Presbyterian, he stood opposed to the Anglican elite based in Charleston. He was a Patriot in the American Revolution, opposed ratification of the federal Constitution on grounds of states' rights and personal liberties. Calhoun would adopt his father's states' rights beliefs. Young Calhoun showed scholastic talent, although schools were scarce on the Carolina frontier, he was enrolled in an academy in Appling, which soon closed, he continued his studies privately. When his father died, his brothers were away starting business careers, so the 14-year-old Calhoun took over management of the family farm and five other farms. For four years he kept up his reading and his hunting and fishing; the family decided he should continue his education, so he resumed studies at the Academy after it reopened.
With financing from his brothers, he went to Yale College in Connecticut in 1802. For the first time in his life, Calhoun encountered serious, well-organized intellectual dialogue that could shape his mind. Yale was dominated by a Federalist who became his mentor. Dwight's brilliance entranced (and sometimes repell
Clemson College Sheep Barn
The Clemson College Sheep Barn is a two-story barn built in 1915 on the Clemson University campus. It is the oldest surviving building associated with agriculture on this land-grant university, it was named to the National Register of Historic Places on January 4, 1990. The Barnes Center began as the Clemson College Experimental Barn or ‘Sheep Barn.’ The barn is the oldest surviving and intact structure associated with the original Clemson College Agricultural Department and was built in 1904. The barn was significant from 1904 to 1940 when it was used for agricultural exploration and experimentation. During this time, livestock practices were changing in order to prevent diseases, improve hygiene, to increase productivity; the barn was created in order to support these goals as an agricultural education facility that investigated scientific problems that directly affected the advancement of agriculture. The barn began by researching the handling and care of cows, but became retrofitted to research sheep.
As as 1935, the barn was used for hands on class instruction including determining wool quality and sheep judging. Some of the equipment remained intact within the structure until construction on The Barnes Center began; the barn was listed in The James Way Plan Book as a research participant. In 1940, the agricultural operations ceased and the barn has been used for storage. On January 4, 1990, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of its significance. In 2014, the Barnes Family gave a gift to Clemson University and the Sheep Barn became the Barnes Center; the Barnes Center is the social destination of campus where students can come make friends and attend late night programming every Thursday and Saturday night. The Barnes Center Grand Opening was February 18, 2017; the barn is a rectangular building about two stories tall on a brick foundation. It has gabled roof; the roof has three vented cupolas with metal roofing and ball finials. The facade and about 15 feet of the side elevations are constructed of clay brick.
This native clay brick was laid in English bond. The brick is similar to that used for the Trustee House, a contributing property to the Clemson University Historic District II, the Campbell Museum of Natural History, called the Kinard Annex, on the Clemson campus; the facade has a wooden sliding door on a metal track. Above this door, there is a weatherboarded section with a window for the hayloft; the gable is weatherboard with a louvered lozenge, which appears as a decoration on several other Clemson agricultural buildings. The rear elevation's original door was replaced with a garage door. Most of the sides are weatherboarded; the northeast elevation has a single door, another doorway covered with weatherboard, nine window openings that have been covered with vertical boards. The southeast elevation has about ten window openings covered similarly. Additional pictures of the barn are available. Following a remodel starting in 2014, The Barnes Center now has space for dining and more, it now has white siding, refurbished floors and sliding door, original brick.
The building is outfitted with modern amenities such as WiFi, modern light fixtures. Additional information and construction timeline can be found on the Barnes Center website
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Lake Hartwell is a man-made reservoir bordering Georgia and South Carolina on the Savannah and Seneca Rivers. Lake Hartwell is one of the southeast's most popular recreation lakes; the lake is created by Hartwell Dam located on the Savannah River seven miles below the point at which the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers join to form the Savannah. Extending 49 miles up the Tugaloo and 45 miles up the Seneca at normal pool elevation, the lake comprises nearly 56,000 acres of water with a shoreline of 962 miles; the entire Hartwell "Project" contains 76,450 acres of water. I-85 bisects Hartwell Lake and makes the area accessible to visitors; the Flood Control Act of 17 May 1950 authorized the Hartwell Dam and Reservoir as the second unit in the comprehensive development of the Savannah River Basin. The estimated cost was $68.4 million based on preliminary designs. The original project provided for a gravity-type concrete dam 2,415 feet long with earth embankments at either end, which would be 6,050 feet long on the Georgia side and 3,935 feet long on the South Carolina side.
The 12,400 foot long dam was to be topped with a roadway 24 feet wide. The main dam was to consist of two non-overflow concrete sections on the right and left banks 887 feet and 940 feet long, respectively. Full power pool was designed to be 660 feet above mean sea level. At this elevation, the reservoir would extend 7.1 miles up the Savannah River to the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. The reservoir would cover 56,500 acres and would involve the relocation of 3 sections of railroad totaling 2 miles, the raising of 2 railroad bridges, construction of 6 sections of new state high- ways totaling 19.6 miles and 9 sections of county roads totaling 12.7 miles, the construction of 9 new bridges and the raising of 4 existing bridges, the relocation of 2 power transmission lines. Construction of the Hartwell project took place from 1955 and was completed in 1963, and construction of the dam started in 1955 and was finished in 1959. Lake Hartwell is named for the American Revolutionary War figure Nancy Hart.
Nancy Hart lived in the Georgia frontier, it was her devotion to freedom that has helped make her name commonplace in the Georgia upcountry. A county, lake, state park and highway among others, bear her name; the Droughts and water levels of Lake Hartwell: 1989 was the first year the lake hit a level 3 dropping to its lowest level during the drought that year. 2008 was the second time the lake hit a level 3. In the year of 2008, due to severe drought in the southeastern United States, the lake dropped to over 22 feet below its normal water level in December 2008; this revealed old highways that were underwater, exposed islands that are topped with buoys to warn boaters, left some boat shells sitting on dry land. The Lake reached it lowest level, 637.49 feet, on December 9, 2008. The highest lake elevation was 665.4 feet, reached on April 8, 1964. Overall the average lake elevation is 657.5 feet. As of the first of October 2010, the lake was back up to just over 654 feet; this rebound in lake level is due to releases from the lake being suspended for a month ending April 10, 2009 in an effort to return Lake Hartwell to normal elevations.
The area around Lake Hartwell has a rich history, much of the land seized from the Cherokee Indians and colonized by early settlers. Many streams and recreation areas have been named after these early settlers. Issaqueena, a young Indian maiden who rode to Fort Ninety-Six to warn settlers of an attack named some streams. Along her journey, she marked her travel by naming streams that she encountered for the number of miles she had covered. Issaqueena named Six-Mile, Twelve-Mile, Three-and-Twenty Mile and Six-and-Twenty Mile creeks, which are still a part of the lake today. Other historic figures that lived around this area were Andrew Pickens and John C. Calhoun, both statesmen from South Carolina. William Bartram traveled the area recording vegetation types and plant species; the first challenge was in August 1956 when Mrs. Eliza Brock and her daughter refused to allow workmen to come on their property to begin clearing for the reservoir area; this involved 103 acres of land that the government gained ownership of in June 1956.
Mrs. Brock never received the offer for her land therefore refusing to allow them on her property. After delaying construction and after an October 1956 federal ruling, Mrs. Brock settled on $6,850 for her property; the next challenge took place in late 1956 when Clemson College objected to the damage that would be done to its property as a result of the impounded water in the reservoir, including plans that would flood Memorial Stadium. After countless meetings Clemson settled on an agreement where two diversion dams would be built in the vicinity of Clemson College and rechannel the Seneca River. Since its construction, Hartwell Reservoir has provided good fishing habitat for many species. Bream, smallmouth bass and largemouth bass are occurring species in the lake, with quality fishing available for those species; the most popular fishing on Lake Hartwell, has become
The Princeton Review
The Princeton Review is a college admission services company offering test preparation services and admissions resources, online courses, books published by Random House. The company has more than 4,000 teachers and tutors in the United States and Canada and international franchises in 14 other countries; the company is headquartered in New York City, is held. Despite the title, it is not associated with Princeton University; the Princeton Review was founded in 1981 by John Katzman, who—shortly after leaving college—taught SAT preparation to 15 students in New York City. He served as CEO until 2007, was replaced by Michael Perik. In March 2010, Perik was replaced by John M. Connolly. In April 2010, the company sold $48 million in stock for $3 per share, a short time was accused of fraud in a class action suit filed by a Michigan retirement fund, which claimed The Princeton Review leadership exaggerated earnings to boost its stock price. In 2012, the company was acquired by a private equity fund, for $33 million.
On August 1, 2014, the Princeton Review brand name and operations were bought for an undisclosed sum by Tutor.com, an IAC company, Mandy Ginsburg became CEO. The company is no longer affiliated with Education Holdings 1, Inc.. On March 31, 2017, ST Unitas acquired the Princeton Review for an undisclosed sum; the Princeton Review offers preparation courses for various tests at the Princeton Review website: The company offers courses worldwide through company-owned and third-party franchises. Countries with Princeton Review franchises include China, Israel, Kuwait, Mexico, Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and the United Arab Emirates. Test preparation providers have been criticized in the past on the grounds that their courses claim larger score increases than they deliver. College rankings, including those published by the Princeton Review, have been criticized for failing to be accurate or comprehensive by assigning objective rankings formed from subjective opinions. Princeton Review officials counter that their rankings are unique in that they rely on student opinion and not just on statistical data.
In 2002 an American Medical Association affiliated program, A Matter of Degree, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, criticized the Princeton Review list of Best Party Schools. USA Today published an editorial titled "Sobering Statistics" in August 2002 and stated, "the doctor's group goes too far in suggesting that the rankings contribute to the problem." The editorial noted the fact that among the schools the AMA program was funding as part of its campaign against campus drinking, six of 10 of those schools calling for The Princeton Review to "drop the annual ranking...had made past top-party-school lists: many times for some. That's no coincidence." The editorial commended The Princeton Review for reporting the list, calling it "a public service" for "student applicants and their parents". Rankings for LGBT-related lists have been criticized as inaccurate due to outdated methodologies; the Princeton Review bases its LGBT-Friendly and LGBT-Unfriendly top twenty ranking lists, which asks undergraduates: "Do students and administrators at your college treat all persons regardless of their sexual orientations and gender identify/expression?"
The Princeton Review publishes The Gay & Lesbian Guide to College Life. In 2016, the company was criticized by privacy rights advocates who worry that a company that owns online dating and college preparation services could amass data and exploit it in a way that preys on unsuspecting consumers younger people. "Do parents know that when their underage kids enroll for exam prep or tutoring, personal information may be shared with hookup sites that could target their kids to become customers?" asked one critic, who concluded that the company "makes no guarantee that data sharing among its entities will not include those customers whose sole aim is to improve their grades and test scores." Indeed, another critic points out that The Princeton Review "policy states'we may collect certain information from your computer each time you visit our site'—information like data'regarding your academic and extracurricular activities and interests.' That information can be used to ` send you email offers.