A bicycle called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time; these numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions, they provide a popular form of recreation, have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design; these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.
The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels; the word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle a carriage; the design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "pedal cycle", or "cycle". In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2; the entity 🚲. The "Dandy horse" called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais.
It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner. Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel; the first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is disputed. He is associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel; this was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris; the French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing". It featured a tubular steel frame on; these bicycles were difficult to ride due to poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England, his uncle, Josiah Turner, business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive, connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry is described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon the seat tube was added. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and England. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed; this refinement led to the 1890s invention of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were developed during these years, but were only adopted by casual riders; the Svea Velocipede with vertical pedal arrangement and
Weequahic is an unincorporated community and neighborhood within the city of Newark in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Part of the South Ward, it is separated from Clinton Hill by Hawthorne Avenue on the north, bordered by the city of Irvington on the west, Newark Liberty International Airport and Dayton on the east, Hillside Township and the city of Elizabeth on the south; the name "Weequahic" is Lenni-Lenape for "head of the cove". The area was farmland until the late nineteenth century when it was developed into a middle-class, non-industrial neighborhood of detached single-family homes oriented around Weequahic Park. Many multi-unit homes were built to the west, still a few residential modernist highrises were built. Weequahic was a middle class Jewish neighborhood until the late 1960s, home to many synagogues and Jewish restaurants. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, the largest hospital in Newark, was built under auspices of the Jewish community. Author Philip Roth grew up on Summit Avenue, graduated from Weequahic High School in 1950, many of his novels are set there.
Heart of Stone, a documentary by Beth Toni Kruvant produced by Zach Braff, focuses on Weequahic High School's decline from 1950's when it graduated more PhDs than any other high school in the country, to one of Newark, NJ's most crime ridden schools. Principal Ron Stone wears a bulletproof vest and inspires the students, including gang members to graduate and go to college, he partners with the African alumni association to help the current students. The only remaining connection to the Jewish community is Bragman's Delicatessen and Restaurant at 393 Hawthorne Avenue; the post-World War II growth of suburbs and Second Great Migration of African Americans altered the demographic make-up of Newark in general and the Weequahic section in particular. The neighborhood might have stayed middle class if not for the devastating effects of real estate blockbusting and the construction of Interstate 78. I-78 separated the neighborhood from the rest of Newark; the 1967 Newark riots were devastating to the district.
The Weequahic district experienced white flight, though the focal point of the riots was in the Central Ward. The jewel of the neighborhood is the 311 acre Olmsted Brothers-designed Weequahic Park; this lovely park has a 2.2-mile rubberized jogging path around its 80-acre lake, Weequahic Golf Course the oldest public golf course in the United States. Part of the Weequahic neighborhood has been designated a historic district; the neighborhood's major streets are Lyons Avenue, Bergen Street, Chancellor Avenue. Newark Public Schools operates public schools. Weequahic High School serves the neighborhood; the Weequahic Branch Library of the Newark Public Library serves the neighborhood. The branch, which opened in May 1929, was the sixth NPL branch to open between 1923 and 1946. In 1992 the library system renovated the branch for $1 million. Newark history
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
Jon M. Bramnick is an American Republican Party politician, who has served in the New Jersey General Assembly since 2003, representing the 21st legislative district, he has served as the Assembly Republican Leader since January 2012. He was appointed to the Assembly in 2003 to fill the unexpired term of the vacancy created upon the selection of Thomas Kean Jr. to fill an unexpired New Jersey Senate term. He was elected to a full two-year term that year and was re-elected in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017. Bramnick was raised in Plainfield, New Jersey as the son of Plainfield business owners, he graduated from Plainfield High School, received a B. A. in Political Science from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University and was awarded a J. D. from the Hofstra University School of Law. Before becoming an Assemblyman, Bramnick served two terms as a City Councilman in Plainfield, New Jersey from 1984-1991, he is the Republican Municipal Chairman in Westfield.
Bramnick is a former professor at both Rutgers Rider University. Following his graduation from law school, he served as an assistant corporation counsel in New York City, he is an attorney with a private practice in Scotch Plains, New Jersey with the firm of Bramnick, Grabas, Arnold & Mangan. Following the appointment of Tom Kean, Jr. to the State Senate, a vacancy opened up in the 21st District's Assembly delegation. Bramnick won the most ballots of a vote by members of the Essex, Morris and Union county Republican committee persons of the district beating former Assemblyman James J. Barry, Jr. Millburn mayor Thomas McDermott, Warren Township Planning Board chairman Dan Gallic. In December 2005 he was appointed Assistant Minority Whip of the Assembly for the 2006-2008 term. In June 2007, Bramnick was selected as the Minority Whip. In November 2009, he was elected as the Republican Conference Leader, the second-highest leadership position in the Republican caucus. In the Assembly, he has served as Vice Chair of the Legislative Services Commission.
After the death of Assembly Republican Leader Alex DeCroce in January 2012, the Assembly Republican caucus chose Bramnick as its new leader. Bramnick has been honored with the 2013 Governor Meyner Award from the Bar Association and the 2011 Legislator of the Year award from the Chamber of Commerce, he was named 2013 Legislator of the Year by the New Jersey Conference of Mayors and was honored at Rider University for his dedication to New Jersey politics and public service. On January 3, 2017, Bramnick announced that he would not run for New Jersey gubernatorial election, 2017|New Jersey governor in 2017]], as he was seen as a potential frontrunner for the Republican gubernatorial nomination; each of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly. The other representatives from the 21st District for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Senator Thomas Kean Jr. Assemblywoman Nancy Munoz In 2018, Bramnick expressed concerns over forced desegregation busing in New Jersey resulting from Latino Action Network v. New Jersey.
In 2019, Bramnick has advocated for more municipal and legislative control over affordable housing construction under the Mount Laurel doctrine. Bramnick holds the honorary title of "Funniest Lawyer in New Jersey" after winning contests sponsored by the bar association at Rascals Comedy Club, he volunteers his services as a comedic auctioneer on behalf of non-profit organizations including Hurricane Sandy victims. Bramnick resides in Westfield, New Jersey with his wife Patricia, has two grown children and a granddaughter, he is Jewish. Assemblyman Bramnick's legislative web page, New Jersey Legislature Bramnick, [Rodriguez, Arnold & Mangan, LLC New Jersey Legislature financial disclosure forms - 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 District 21 Candidates Website Kean, Bramnick & Munoz Assembly Member Jon M. Bramnick, Project Vote Smart New Jersey Voter Information Website 2003
United Press International
United Press International is an international news agency whose newswires, news film, audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches. Formally named "United Press Associations" for incorporation and legal purposes, but publicly known and identified as United Press or UP, the news agency was created by the 1907 uniting of three smaller news syndicates by the Midwest newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps, it was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. At the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, 1,500 abroad. In 1958, it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service in May; as either UP or UPI, the agency was among the largest newswire services in the world, competing domestically for about 90 years with the Associated Press and internationally with AP, Reuters and Agence France-Presse.
At its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees. With the rising popularity of television news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category, began to fall, its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company. The E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearst's smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982. Since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus and a corresponding shrinkage of its traditional media customer base. Since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches, it no longer services media organizations in a major way.
In 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a news website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. Based on aggregation from other sources on the Web and gathered by a small editorial staff and stringers, UPI's daily content consists of a newsbrief summary service called "NewsTrack," which includes general, sports, science and entertainment reports, "Quirks in the News." It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, energy resources. UPI's content is presented in text and photo formats, in English and Arabic. UPI's main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five other countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States.
Because the recently reorganized Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, most of them evening dailies in competition with existing AP franchise holders, in 1907 Scripps merged three smaller syndicates under his ownership or control, the Publishers Press Association, the Scripps-McRae Press Association, the Scripps News Association, to form United Press Associations, with headquarters in New York City. Scripps had been a subscriber to an earlier news agency named United Press, that existed in the late 1800s in cooperation with management of the original New York-based AP and in existential competition with two Chicago-based organizations using the AP name. Drawing lessons from the battles between the earlier United Press and the various AP's, Scripps required that there be no restrictions on who could buy news from his news service, he made the new UP service available to anyone, including his competitors. Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their immediate geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, did likewise. Scripps' United Press was considered "a scrappy alternative" news source to the AP. UP reporters were called "Unipressers" and were noted for their fiercely aggressive and competitive streak. Another hallmark of the company's culture was little formal training of reporters, they were weaned on UP's famous and well-documented slogan of "Get it first, but FIRST, get it RIGHT." Despite controversy, UP became a common training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and turned down Edward R. Murrow's first offer of a CBS job to stay with UP, but who went on to anchor the CBS Evening News, once said, "I felt every Unipresser got up in the morning saying,'This is the day I'm going to be
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U. S. is based in Newark. It is a sister paper to The Jersey Journal of Jersey City, The Times of Trenton and the Staten Island Advance, all of which are owned by Advance Publications. In 2007, The Star-Ledger's daily circulation was more than the next two largest New Jersey newspapers combined and its Sunday circulation larger than the next three papers combined, it has suffered great declines in print circulation in recent years, to 180,000 daily in 2013 and 114,000 "individually paid print circulation,", the number of copies being bought by subscription or at newsstands, in 2015. In July 2013, The Ledger announced. In 2013, Advance Publications announced it was exploring cost-saving changes among its New Jersey properties, but was not considering mergers or changes in publication frequency at any of the newspapers, nor the elimination of home delivery; the Newark Daily Advertiser, founded in 1832, was Newark's first daily newspaper.
It subsequently evolved into the Newark Star-Eagle, owned by what became Block Communications. S. I. Newhouse bought the Star-Eagle from Block in 1939 and merged it with the Newark Ledger to become the Newark Star-Ledger; the paper dropped Newark from its masthead sometime in the 1970s, but is still popularly called the Newark Star-Ledger by many New Jersey residents. During the 1960s The Star-Ledger's chief competitor was the Newark Evening News, once the most popular newspaper in New Jersey. In March 1971, the Star-Ledger surpassed the Evening News in daily circulation, because the Newark News was on strike; the Evening News shut down in 1972. After the Newark Evening News moved to a high-traffic area the Star-Ledger opened a satellite plant in Piscataway; the Piscataway location offered quick access to Union, Monmouth and Middlesex counties. The Star-Ledger was the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting in 2005 for its comprehensive and clear-headed coverage of the resignation of New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey, after he confessed to adultery with a male lover.
The paper awards the Star-Ledger Trophy each year to the number one high school teams in their respective sport in New Jersey. In 2005, George Arwady became the publisher of The Star-Ledger. A graduate of Columbia University, Arwady had been the publisher of the Kalamazoo Gazette in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Having worked with the Newhouse family for years, Arwady was asked to move to Newark to financially revamp the paper. Due to financial losses, the paper's parent company Advance Publications announced on July 31, 2008, that it would sell the Star-Ledger unless 200 non-union staff voluntarily left under a buyout offer, its unionized truck drivers and mailers agreed to concessions. On September 16, publisher George Arwady sent employees an email saying that management felt progress had been made on the buyout and concessions from the mailers, but that management is "far from an agreement with the Drivers' union.". The email continued: Since it is doubtful that the Drivers will ratify an agreement by October 8, 2008, we will be sending formal notices to all employees this week, as required by both federal and New Jersey law, advising you that the Company will be sold, or, failing that, that it will close operations on January 5, 2009.
On October 24, 2008, the newspaper announced that 168 newsroom employees had offered to take the company's buyout offer, that the company had accepted 151 of them, which resulted in a 40% reduction in newsroom staff. On January 16, 2013, the newspaper announced the layoffs of 34 employees including 18 newsroom staff; the Newark headquarters of the Star-Ledger, home to the state's largest newspaper for nearly 50 years, was sold to a New York developer in July 2014, according to a news article released by the paper. The Star-Ledger, which Vezza said will continue to be published seven days a week, will retain a presence in Newark in leased office space located within the downtown Gateway Center complex, where the publisher, the newspaper's editorial board, its columnists, its magazine staff and a handful of other jobs will be based. Advance Publications, the owner of the newspaper, launched a new media company — NJ Advance Media — in 2014 to provide content and marketing services for its online presence at NJ.com, many of its New Jersey newspapers out of the offices in Woodbridge.
The sales and marketing staffs moved to Woodbridge in June 2014. Amzi Armstrong William Burnet Kinney Thomas T. Kinney James Smith, Jr. Paul Block Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr. Donald Newhouse Richard Vezza After Kevin Whitmer left in September 2015, Richard Vezza assumed the position as editor. Prior to Whitmer, James Willse manned the helm from 1995, he was appointed following the retirement of 32-year veteran editor Mort Pye. Willse was the former publisher of the New York Daily News. Prior to accepting the Ledger's editorship, Willse headed the review of electronic information options for all Newhouse newspapers, he expanded the Ledger' use of color and encouraged a more aggressive editorial team. The National Press Foundation named Willse its 1999 recipient of the George Beveridge Editor of the Year Award in recognition of Ledger's coverage of racial profiling by the New Jersey State Police; the Star-Ledger was featured prominently various times in the television series The Sopranos, an HBO drama series set in New Jersey.
Tony Soprano received home delivery of the paper, several episodes opened with him picking it up at the end of his driveway. The Sopranos creator David Chase credited a
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor