Duchy of Cleves
The Duchy of Cleves was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau. It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capital Cleves and the towns of Wesel, Xanten, Emmerich and Duisburg bordering the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster in the east and the Duchy of Brabant in the west, its history is related to that of its southern neighbours: the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, as well as Guelders and the Westphalian county of Mark. The Duchy was archaically known as Cleveland in English; the duchy's territory covered the present-day German districts of Cleves and the city of Duisburg, as well as adjacent parts of the Limburg, North Brabant and Gelderland provinces in the Netherlands. In the early 11th century Emperor Henry II entrusted the administration of the Klever Reichswald, a large forested area around the Kaiserpfalz at Nijmegen directly subordinate to the Imperial rule, to local Lower Lorrainian nobles at Geldern and Kleve.
A County of Cleves was first mentioned in the 11th century. In 1417, the county became a duchy. Upon the death of Count Johann in 1368, the fief was inherited by his nephew Adolf III of the Marck. Cleves and the Marck were ruled in personal union by the House of La Marck after Adolf's elder brother Count Engelbert III had died without issue in 1391. King Sigismund of Germany raised Count Adolph I to the status of a duke and a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1417; the Cleves-Mark territories became one of the most significant estates of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle in 1500, rivaled by the Prince-Bishops of Münster. In 1511 John III of La Marck, son of Duke John II of Cleves, by his marriage with Maria inherited the fiefs of Jülich and Berge upon the death of his father-in-law Duke William IV; when John III succeeded his father as Duke of Cleves in 1521, the states of Jülich, Berge and Mark formed the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. His daughter Anne of Cleves became Queen Consort of England for a few months in 1540, as her brother William, duke since 1539, quarrelled with Emperor Charles V over the possession of Guelders and sought support from King Henry VIII.
When the last duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berge died issueless in 1609, the War of the Jülich succession broke out. The lands were divided between the Wittelsbach dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, who gained Cleves with Mark and Ravensberg according to the 1614 Treaty of Xanten; the Hohenzollern margraves thereby got a first foothold in the Rhineland. Incorporated into Brandenburg-Prussia by the Great Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg in 1666 and part of the Kingdom of Prussia after 1701, Cleves was occupied by French forces in the Seven Years' War. In 1795 the Duchy of Cleves west of the Rhine and Wesel was occupied by France, became part of the French département of the Roer; the rest of the duchy was occupied between 1803 and 1805, became part of the département of Yssel-Supérieur and the puppet-state Grand Duchy of Berg. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the duchy became part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, which merged in the Prussian Rhine Province in 1822.
The cities Gennep and Huissen became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as a result of the 1815 Congress of Vienna. 1092–1119 Dietrich I 1119–1147 Arnold I 1147–1172 Dietrich II 1172–1188 Dietrich III 1188–1198 Dietrich IV 1198–1201 Arnold II 1201–1260 Dietrich V 1260–1275 Dietrich VI 1275–1305 Dietrich VII of Meissen 1305–1310 Otto I the Peaceable 1310–1347 Dietrich VIII the Pious 1347–1368 Johann 1368–1394 Adolf III of the Marck 1394–1448 Adolph I, son of Adolf III 1394–1448 Adolph I, Duke of Cleves 1448–1481 John I, son of Adolph I 1481–1521 John II the Pious, son of John I 1521–1539 John III the Peaceful, son of John II 1539–1592 William the Rich, son of John III 1592–1609 John William, son of William Edicts of Jülich, Berg, Grand Duchy Berg, 1475–1815 online Settlement of Dortmund between Brandenburg and Palatinate-Neuburg and the conflict of succession in Jülich, in full text Map of the Duchy of Cleves in 1789
Cleveland is a city in Bradley County, United States. The population was 41,285 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat and largest city in Bradley County, the principal city of the Cleveland, Tennessee metropolitan area, included in the Chattanooga–Cleveland–Dalton, TN–GA–AL Combined Statistical Area. Cleveland is the fourteenth-largest city in Tennessee and the fifth-largest industrially, having thirteen Fortune 500 manufacturers. Long before the time of European encounter, this area was part of a large territory occupied by the Cherokee Nation, which extended into the South to present-day western North Carolina and Alabama. During and after the American Revolutionary War, European Americans came into increasing conflict with the Cherokee by migrating west of the Appalachian Mountains and encroaching on Cherokee territory; the Cherokee had resisted settlers who tried to take over their territory. In 1819, the Cherokee Agency— the official liaison between the U. S. government and the Cherokee Nation— was moved to the Hiwassee area, a few miles north of what is now Cleveland.
The Indian agent was Colonel Return J. Meigs. Charleston and Blythe Ferry were both important sites during the Cherokee Removal in the late 1830s; the legislative act that created Bradley County in 1836 authorized the establishment of a county seat, to be named "Cleveland" after Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, a commander at the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolution. The commissioners chose "Taylor's Place," the home of Andrew Taylor, as the location for the county seat, due to the site's excellent water sources. By 1838, Cleveland had a population of 400, was home to two churches, a school for boys, the Oak Grove Academy; the city was incorporated on February 4, 1842, elections for mayor and aldermen were held shortly afterward. Cleveland grew following the arrival of the railroad in the 1850s. While bitterly divided over the issue of secession on the eve of the Civil War, like Bradley County and most of East Tennessee, voted against Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession in June 1861.
The railroad bridge over the Hiwassee River to the north was among those destroyed by the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy in November 1861. Cleveland was occupied by the Confederate Army from 1861 to 1863. During the 1870s, Cleveland had a growth spurt, became one of the first cities in Tennessee to experience the effects of the Industrial Revolution in the United States; the city's iconic Craigmiles Hall was constructed in 1878 as an opera meeting hall. Numerous factories were established, including the Hardwick Stove Company in 1879, the Cleveland Woolen Mills in 1880, the Cleveland Chair Company in 1884. By 1890, this industrialization helped the city support nine physicians, twelve attorneys, eleven general stores, fourteen grocery stores, three drug stores, three hardware stores, six butcher shops, two hatmakers, two hotels, a shoe store, seven saloons. A mule-drawn trolley system was established in 1886, the city received telephone service in 1888. In 1895 the city received public water.
During this period, Cleveland's population more than doubled from 1,812 in 1880 to 3,643 in 1900. Many of the buildings in today's downtown area, now considered the Cleveland Commercial Historic District, as well as the nearby Ocoee Street and Centenary Avenue Historic Districts, were constructed between 1880 and 1915. In 1918, the Church of God, a Christian denomination headquartered in Cleveland, established a Bible school that would develop as Lee University. Cleveland's Chamber of Commerce was established in 1925; the city had postwar growth when several major factories were constructed in the area following World War II. As a result, the city has expanded much to the north and northwest; the historic business district is now in the southern portion of the current town. Cleveland is located in southeast Tennessee in the center of Bradley County situated among a series of low hills and ridges 15 miles west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and 15 miles east of the Chickamauga Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River.
The Hiwassee River, which flows down out of the mountains and forms the northern boundary of Bradley County, empties into the Tennessee a few miles northwest of Cleveland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total land area of 26.9 square miles in 2010. The city's terrain is made up of parallel ridges, including Candies Creek Ridge, Mouse Creek/Lead Mine Ridge, Blue Springs Ridge, which are extensions of the Appalachian Mountains that run north-northeast through the city. Several streams run in the valleys between the ridges including Candies Creek, located west of Clingan Ridge, South Mouse Creek, between Mouse Creek and Lead Mine Ridge. Mouse Creek and Blue Springs Ridge have lower elevations within the city of Cleveland than elsewhere in Bradley County, which made the area easier to settle. Cleveland is unofficially referred to as consisting of five major regions: Downtown Cleveland, Northern Cleveland, Western Cleveland, East Cleveland, South Cleveland. East and South Cleveland are census-designated places within the city limits.
There are no official borders between the other divisions. Downtown Cleveland, which coexists with the Cleveland Commercial Historic District, encompasses the business district and consists of private businesses and g
Cleveland is a town in Russell County, United States. The population was 128 at the 2010 census. Jessees Mill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Cleveland is located at 36°56′37″N 82°9′8″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.1 square mile, of which 0.1 square mile is land and 0.04 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 148 people, 81 households, 43 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,251.7 people per square mile. There were 113 housing units at an average density of 955.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.97% White, 2.03% from two or more races. There were 81 households out of which 11.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.7% were non-families. 42.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.83 and the average family size was 2.45. In the town, the population was spread out with 8.8% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, 33.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 55 years. For every 100 females there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $11,346, the median income for a family was $14,688. Males had a median income of $35,833 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,263. There were 36.6% of families and 41.8% of the population living below the poverty line, including 61.5% of under eighteens and 33.3% of those over 64
Midland Highway (Tasmania)
The Midland Highway is one of Tasmania's major inter-city highways, running for 176 kilometres between Hobart and Launceston. It is part of the AusLink National Network and is a vital link for road freight to transport goods to and from the two cities, it represents a major north–south transportation corridor in Tasmania and has the route 1 designation as part of the National Highway. The highway consists of various traffic lane arrangements, the most common being two lanes – one in each direction, with overtaking options and at-grade intersections. At both the Launceston and Hobart sections of the highway there are small portions of grade-separated dual carriageway. Surveyor Grimes marked out the track from Hobart to Launceston in 1807, Governor Macquarie followed the route in 1811 when he visited the colony accompanied by his wife; the party took five and a half days to complete the journey. Macquarie again visited the colony in 1821, when the road was fit for a carriage, but his journal records many different sections, it was not until 1831 that the first regular coach service was operated by J. E. Cox.
The first mailman, Robert Taylor, was appointed in 1816, he walked, leaving Hobart and Launceston on alternate Sundays and carrying the mail in a pack. The first record of movement between the two centres was in 1821 when Governor Lachlan Macquarie selected sites for towns on the highway, it was known as the'Main Road' or'Hobart Road' for most of its history. In the 1930s it became known as the Midland Highway, in the 2000s - it had'The Heritage Highway' label applied to it; the route of the highway ran between Hobart and Launceston, passed through the localities which are now known as: Bridgewater, Pontville, Bagdad, Kempton, Melton Mowbray, Oatlands, Antill Ponds, Tunbridge, Campbell Town, Conara Junction, Epping Forest, Perth and Kings Meadows. A number of two lane bypasses of towns and villages have been constructed since the early 1980s, including the Jericho bypass, opened to traffic in January 1982. Construction of grade separated dual carriageways leading south of Launceston and north of Hobart provided new superior facilities for Midland Highway traffic and shortened the route designated the Midland Highway.
On 21 June 1983, what was referred to as the ‘Hobart Northern Outlet Road’ was opened to traffic. Now called the Brooker Highway, this completed a grade-separated dual carriageway between Claremont Interchange and Granton in the northern suburbs of Hobart. Construction of the first stage of the Launceston Southern Outlet between Glen Dhu and Strathroy commenced in February 1981 and comprised the construction of 7.4 km of dual carriageway and included three major bridges, namely the Mt Pleasant Interchange, the Westbury Road Overpass and the Glen Dhu Overpass. The highway opened to traffic between the Glen Dhu interchange and the temporary connection onto the old Midland Highway at Jinglers Creek, Strathroy; the extension of the Launceston Southern Outlet Road between Breadalbane and Strathroy opened to traffic on 28 August 1987. This extension included the construction of 3.7 km of dual carriageway and a roundabout, linking the Outlet Road with the Midland Highway and Evandale Main Road. The third and final section of the Launceston Southern Outlet opened to traffic on 24 May 1988.
The road works involved construction of 1 km of dual carriageway between Glen Dhu Overpass and the Frankland Street/Wellington Street intersection. In October 2012, the Brighton Bypass was opened, six months ahead of schedule; this bypass is a grade separated dual carriageway of the towns of Brighton and Pontville, just beyond Hobart’s northern suburbs. The total cost of the bypass was A$191 million. In 2002, a railway line underpass was constructed near Symmons Plains, south of Perth, to create a grade separated rail crossing on the highway itself. Significant numbers of overtaking lanes have been extended or created. There has been mounting pressure for the Highway to be upgraded to a four-lane carriageway for 20 years to fall in line with the Auslink network of highways such as the Hume and Pacific as it is Tasmania's most travelled stretch of long highway; the State and federal Liberal Parties have pledged $400 million to the funding of a dual-carriageway highway between Hobart and Launceston.
The Liberal Party's claim is that when taking into account the Brighton Bypass, the Southern Outlet and the 34 km of overtaking lanes, there are 120 km of single-carriageway road on the Midland Highway. The Australian Labor Party stated that the 400 million-dollar budget is grossly underfunded, could not be constructed for that price; the Liberal Party defended the accusations that the $3 million/km budget is too low by stating that they are not planning any new road alignments or bypasses, just adding new lanes to the existing alignment. They have not stated if they plan to include T-junctions and roundabouts. Should both the federal and state Liberal Parties win the next elections, they plan to upgrade this remaining stretch of road from 2014 progressively. There are several projects/proposals; the Transport study caters for the Bagdad Bypass and the replacement of the ageing Bridgewater Bridge The Perth Bypass is proposed to be constructed in 2 stages starting with the South Perth bypass which will result in a direct route to Illawarra Main Road - a vital link road to the Bass Highway.
There are plans to Duplicate the Midland Highwa
USS Cleveland (LPD-7)
USS Cleveland, an Austin-class amphibious transport dock, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the city in Ohio. Her keel was laid down at Ingalls Shipbuilding of Mississippi, she was launched on 7 May 1966, was commissioned on 21 April 1967 at Norfolk, Virginia. At the time of decommissioning, she was the third-oldest commissioned ship in the US Navy, behind USS Constitution and USS Enterprise. After commissioning, Cleveland changed homeport to San Diego, California, to become a member of the Pacific Fleet's Amphibious Force. Cleveland divided her time between operations in the Eastern Pacific and extended deployments to the Western Pacific. Cleveland was assigned as part of an Amphibious Readiness Group and, with her embarked Marines and other forces, performed a wide variety of missions. Cleveland first saw action during the Tet Offensive in 1968. After the Vietnam War cease-fire in January 1973, Cleveland joined Task Force 78 in the mine-clearing effort of Haiphong Harbor and Operation End Sweep.
Cleveland began a series of seven Western Pacific deployments between 1974 and 1985. In 1978, portions of the film Inchon was filmed during a practice amphibious assault off the coast of Korea; this is referenced in the ship's logs of 1978. Assigned duties as Third Fleet flagship from January through November 1988, Cleveland once again demonstrated the flexibility and professionalism that became her hallmark. Cleveland briefly shifted focus to environmental protection when she deployed to Prince William Sound, Alaska, in support of oil spill cleanup efforts associated with the Exxon Valdez disaster; the ship's next two deployments, in 1990 and 1991, were in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. In October 1992 and in March 1993, Cleveland deployed on short notice to Central America in support of law enforcement operations, or LEO OPS where she was the first LPD to embark an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter. During the March 1993 deployment Cleveland and the embarked Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment played a key role in what was the largest maritime cocaine seizure to date involving the motor vessel Sea Chariot.
This was the result of an unprecedented Joint Counter Drug Mission between the United States NAVY and the Columbian NAVY called Operation Emerald. These two deployments steaming over 20,000 miles. While deployed to the Western Pacific in 1994, Cleveland participated in United Nations relief efforts in Rwanda and the relocation of the United States Liaison office from Mogadishu, Somalia, to Nairobi, Kenya. Following the relocation efforts, Cleveland was ordered to steam into the North Persian Gulf to assist in deterring Iraq's massing of troops on the Kuwaiti border as part of Operation Vigilant Warrior, her next inter-deployment cycle was highlighted by Exercise "RIMPAC'96" off the coast of Hawaii, which included the first multilateral exercise involving US and Russian forces in US waters. The trip to Hawaii for the exercise culminated in a parade of ships for the 50th anniversary celebration to commemorate the end of the Pacific War. Cleveland returned to the North Persian Gulf during her deployment in 1996 and 1997, participating in coalition and bilateral exercises and achieving yet another milestone as the first Amphibious Warship to participate in Maritime Interdiction Operations in support of United Nations sanctions against Iraq.
In the summer of 1998, Cleveland once again participated in the bi-annual RIMPAC exercise. Cleveland began her sixteenth major deployment in December 1998, embarking Navy SEALs, elements of the 13th MEU – Marine Expeditionary Unit – and a detachment of unmanned aerial vehicles. During this deployment Cleveland stood off the Horn of Africa, inserting a military liaison team into Eritrea and remaining ready to conduct a non-combatant evacuation operation. Cleveland returned to the Persian Gulf to conduct MIO where she served as flagship for the commander of all MIO forces in the Persian Gulf. During this period, an embarked UAV discovered an Iraqi surface-to-surface missile site, threatening coalition forces. Aircraft from USS Enterprise destroyed this missile site while the UAV transmitted live imagery back to Cleveland. Cleveland was once again called upon to perform outside her normal realm of operations while participating in recovery and salvage efforts of Alaska Airlines flight 261 in February 2000, receiving the Coast Guard Unit Commendation with Operational Distinguishing Device.
Following a Fleet Week visit to San Francisco, Cleveland completed her training cycle and deployed for the seventeenth time in March 2001. Deployed in Jan 2003 in support of operations relevant to the beginning of the ground war, dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States and commenced on 20 Mar 2003; the invasion consisted of 21 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom and Poland invaded Iraq and deposed the Ba'athist government of Saddam Hussein. Cleveland sailed as part of the USN Magnificent Seven, consisting of the ships USS Dubuque LPD 8,USS Boxer LHD 4, USS Comstock LSD 45, USS Anchorage LSD 36, USS Bonhomme Richard LHD 6 and USS Pearl Harbor LSD 52. Embarked were USMC Amphibious Task Force West and Landing Force West w/ HMM 163 and supporting USMC elements. USS Cleveland arrived in San Diego, 4 August 2011, returning from Pacific Partnership 2011, concluding the ship's final mission prior to its decommissioning.
During the course of the ship's fin
Ford 335 engine
The Ford 335 engine family was a group of engines built by the Ford Motor Company between 1969 and 1982. The "335" designation reflected Ford management's decision to produce an engine of that size with room for expansion during its development; this engine family began production in late 1969 with a 351 cu in engine called the 351C. It expanded to include a 400 cu in engine which used a taller version of the engine block referred to as a tall deck engine block, a 351 cu in tall deck variant, called the 351M, a 302 cu in engine, exclusive to Australia; the 351C, introduced in 1969 for the 1970 model year, is referred to as the 351 Cleveland after the Brook Park, Cleveland Engine plant in which most of these engines were manufactured. This plant complex included a gray iron foundry, a stamping plant, an engine assembly plant; as newer automobile engines began incorporating aluminum blocks, Ford closed the casting plant in May 2012. The 335 series engines were used in mid- and full-sized cars and light trucks, at times concurrently with the Windsor small-block family, the 351 Windsor, in cars.
These engines were used as a replacement for the FE V8 family in both the car and truck lines. The 335 series only outlived the FE series by a half-decade, being replaced by the more compact Windsor V8s; the 335 series V8s were overhead valve pushrod V8 engines. This family of engines incorporated elements learned on the 385 big-block series the poly-angle combustion chambers with canted valves, thin-wall casting technology. All 335 series V8s had large-port canted valve heads with a rugged engine block; the 335 engines use large main-bearing caps, with four-bolt attachment on some versions. All 335 series are cast with provisions for four-bolt main bearing caps to be added through modification; the first engine in the 335 series was introduced in late 1969 as the 351C. In the third quarter of 1970, the 400 was introduced to the passenger car lines. For the 1975 model year the 351M replaced the 351C in North American markets. Ford of Australia built the 351C, similar to the American counterpart, from November 1971 to December 1981.
The 302C was produced alongside the 351C, exclusive to the Australian market. The longer stroke of the 400 required a taller deck height, it used larger main bearings than the 351C; this was similar to the changes required to convert a 302 Windsor to the 351 Windsor. As a result, the 335 series has tall deck 10.297 in heights. All 335 series engines shared the same 4.38 in bore spacing and cylinder head bolt pattern as the Windsor V8. There are a number of significant differences between the two engine families; the 335 series uses smaller, 14mm, spark plugs and a dry manifold with the radiator hose connecting vertically to the cylinder block above the cam timing chain cover. Windsors route coolant through the intake manifold via a horizontally protruding hose; the 335 has a square-shaped eight bolt rocker. All 335 series have a two-inch extension at the front of the block which forms an integrated timing cover casting, lacking on Windsor family engines. To reduce production costs, Ford eliminated one of the 335 series' main oil galleys from the block casting, leaving two compared to the Windsor family's three.
The result was an oil system similar to the 385 series V8s, adequate for street engines but falling short in high-revolution race use without modification. The two main oil galleys in the 335 series engine run along the lifter bores. Oil is fed from the filter to the number one main bearing followed by the number one cam bearing above. At the same time, it feeds the right hand oil galley, supplying the right side lifter bank, it has four galleys. After the oil feeds them, it feeds each corresponding camshaft bearing above. At the rear-most main bearing, the oil goes into the second galley, which feeds the left lifter bank; the cylinder head design for the 335 series engines is its most definitive aspect. All were two-valve that use large ports with poly-angle or'canted' valves, resulting in the intake and exhaust valves being at separate angles; this allowed for large valves to be installed, while reducing the port length and minimizing sharp turns within the port. The result was larger and freer flowing heads and ports than the Ford Windsor V8s, in some cases larger than some of the Ford FE and 385 Series V8s.
A similar cylinder head design was used to improve breathing on the Ford Boss 302 engine, after it was modified to work with the Windsor engine block. Most 335 series engines used stamped rocker arms with cast fulcrums that made for a nonadjustable valve train. Only the Boss 351 and 351 HO had an adjustable valve train, using rocker arms mounted on screw-in studs and guide plates; the 335 series engines used different cylinder heads for two and four barrel carburetors, a 2V and a 4V. The 2Vs had ports and valves that were larger than Windsor engines, while the 4Vs were larger yet; the 2Vs have proven to be better for street, while the 4Vs promote better breathing at high rpm for racing. The heads used either an open shallow hemispherical combustion chamber or a closed "quench" type; the closed chamber heads enclose the valves more reducing combustion chamber volume, but both designs have the same thermal efficiency and resistance to detonation. The closed combustion chamber promotes better swirling of incoming air fuel mixture, giving it a low-rpm torque advantage, and
Electoral district of Cleveland
Cleveland was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Queensland from 1992 to 2017. Based in the northern part of Redland City Council, the district included the suburbs of Wellington Point, Ormiston and Thornlands, it covers the entirety of North Stradbroke Island. In the 2017 electoral redistribution, the Electoral Commission of Queensland changed the name of the electorate to Oodgeroo. Electorate Profile