Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu. It lies 190 kilometres due north of capital Port Vila. Pentecost Island is known as Pentecôte in Pentikos in Bislama; the island was known in its native languages by names such as Vanu Aroaroa, although these names are not in common use today. Pentecost has been referred to as Raga or Araga, a tribal name that originated in the north but is now applied to the whole island. In old sources it is referred to as Whitsuntide Island. Pentecost is a mountainous island which stretches north to south over some 60 kilometres, it has an area of 490 square kilometres. The mountain range, of which the highest is Mount Vulmat, marks the dividing line between the humid, rainy eastern coast and the more temperate western coast; the coastal plains, cross-cut by small torrents, are very green and ideally suited for plantations and livestock. It was first sighted by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in April 1606.
Pentecost was again sighted on the day of 22 May 1768, by Louis Antoine de Bougainville. It was sighted by Captain James Cook, during his voyage through the New Hebrides in 1774, it was influenced by successive Christian missionaries but traditional customs there remain strong. Pentecost Island is most famous for being the spiritual birthplace of the extreme sport of bungee jumping, originating in an ages old ritual called the Gol, or land diving. Between April and June every year, men in the southern part of the island jump from tall towers with vines tied to their feet, in a ritual believed to ensure a good yam harvest; the ritual is now used to show acceptance into manhood. Land diving was first given international exposure when David Attenborough and a BBC film crew brought back footage of the ritual during the 1950s, which aired as part of The People of Paradise documentary series. Visitors to Pentecost who witnessed the ceremony include Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II; the north Pentecost village of Laone was the home of Walter Lini, who led Vanuatu to independence in 1980.
Today, the'father of the nation' is commemorated by a statue at the nearby Lini Memorial College. The Turaga indigenous movement, which rejects the Western economic system and instead promotes an alternative based on the "kastom economy", began on Pentecost and is based at Lavatmanggemu in the north-east of the island; the island has a population of 17,000 at the 2009 census. Pentecost's population centres are concentrated along the west coast, although a number of people live inland. Major settlements along the west coast include: Laone, Loltong, Nambwarangiut, Bwatnapni, Ranwadi, Baravet, Hotwata, Wali and Ranputor. Away from the coast, there are major settlements at Nazareth and Atavtabangga in the north, at Enaa, Tanbok, Naruwa and Tansip in the centre of the island. Most of these places have village telephones and one or two inhabitants who own'trucks' or'speedboats', which the villagers use for transport. A couple of these villages have small banks and post offices; the east coast is wild and inaccessible, with large uninhabited areas, although people are moving into uninhabited areas as the island's population increases.
Major villages on the eastern side of the island include Ranwas and Baie Barrier in the south-east, Renbura and Vanrasini further north. There are no real towns on Pentecost. Most islanders live in small rural villages, surviving by subsistence agriculture and growing cash crops. Taro, a root vegetable well-suited to Pentecost's wet climate, is the staple food. Manioc, bananas, coconuts, island cabbage, nakavika, sugar cane, mangoes, pineapples and European vegetables are grown for local consumption. Vegetables are grated into a paste, wrapped in large leaves, baked in an earthen oven and covered with coconut cream to create'laplap', a savoury pudding. Pigs are important in Pentecost society, not only as food but as a traditional item of value, which may be given as payment during marriage ceremonies or as compensation for transgressions. Boars with long, curved tusks are prized. Woven, red-dyed mats are used as a traditional form of currency. Traditionally, copra was Pentecost's main export, but this has now been overtaken by kava, a narcotic root used to prepare a traditional drink.
Kava is grown and drunk on many islands in the South Pacific, but Pentecost is well known for it, much of the kava drunk in Vanuatu's towns and abroad originates on Pentecost. Cattle were once exported from Pentecost to the meat-processing factory at Luganville on neighbouring Santo island. However, most are now slaughtered locally instead. Houses are traditionally constructed from local wood and bamboo, thatched with leaves of natanggura. However, wealthier islanders now build their houses instead using imported cement and corrugated metal. Pentecost Island has two airports, Lonorore Airport in the south-west and Sara Airport in the north, at which small airplanes land two or three times a week. Lonorore was upgraded in 2008-2009 with a new tarmacked airstrip capable of handling larger aircraft and operating in wet conditions. Cargo ships travelling between Port Vila and Luganville supply the island's west coast, a
Broken Bay, a semi–mature tide-dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large inlet of the Tasman Sea located about 50 kilometres north of Sydney central business district on the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Broken Bay is the first major bay north of Sydney Harbour. Broken Bay has its origin at the confluence of the Hawkesbury River and Brisbane Water and flows into the Tasman Sea; the total catchment area of the bay is 17.1 square kilometres. The entrance to Broken Bay lies between the northern Box Barrenjoey Head to the south. Barrenjoey Lighthouse was constructed in 1881 to guide ships away from the prominent headland; the bay comprises three arms, being the prominent estuary of the Hawkesbury River in the west, Pittwater to the south, Brisbane Water to the north. These three arms are flooded rivers formed at a time when the sea level was much lower than it is at the present day; the Hawkesbury River flows from the confluence of the Grose and Nepean Rivers at the base of the Blue Mountains.
Pittwater is the northernmost extent of the greater Sydney area. Pittwater's calm waters make it a popular sailing area. West Head, west of Barrenjoey Head, marks the divide between the Hawkesbury. Brisbane Water is the northern arm of Broken Bay and has the towns of Gosford and Woy Woy on its shores. Lion Island, named for its profile's resemblance to a Sphinx from some viewpoints, is located at the entrance of Broken Bay. Lion Island Nature Reserve covers the entire island, is home to a colony of fairy penguins. James Cook recorded "broken land" seen north of Port Jackson just before sunset on 7 May 1770, named it Broken Bay. However, there has been some controversy over whether what is now known as'Broken Bay' was what was sighted by Cook. Matthew Flinders, The colonists have called this place Broken Bay, but it is not what was so named by Captain Cook. Ray Parkin in his book H. M. Bark Endeavour claims that the modern'Broken Bay' was passed unremarked at night, that Cook was in fact referring to the area around Narrabeen Lagoon.
Matthew Flinders placed Cook's'Broken Bay' at 33° 42' South, near to the mouth of Narrabeen Lagoon. Whatever the case, Governor Phillip was the first to examine the present day Broken Bay in a longboat from the Sirius on 2 March 1788. On 28 November 2005, documentary film-maker Damien Lay claimed that the wreckage of M-24, a Japanese midget submarine involved in the attack on Sydney Harbour in 1942 and disappeared soon afterward, was buried under sand on the seabed, just east of Lion Island. Lay claimed to have confirmed that copper wiring found at the site was consistent with that used in similar Japanese vessels. A few weeks New South Wales Planning Minister Frank Sartor announced that sonar scans conducted by the New South Wales Heritage Office at the location specified had found no trace of the lost submarine. M-24 was found 13 kilometres south of Broken Bay, 5 kilometres off Bungan Head, proving the hypothesis that M-24 chose to not draw attention to its mother submarines to the south of Sydney Harbour and instead moved north towards Broken Bay.
Indian Head (Fraser Island)
Indian Head is a coastal headland on the eastern side of Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia. The landmark is the most easterly point on a popular tourist destination. Indian Head is located at one end of Seventy Five Mile Beach; the headland was named by Captain Cook when he passed it on the evening of 19 May 1770, for the aboriginal people he saw assembled there. The term "Indian" was used at that time for the native people of many lands; the outcrop consists of rhyolite, created by volcanic activity about 50 to 80 million years ago. Camping around the headland is not permitted. Climbing Indian Head provides 360° views as well as good wildlife spotting opportunities, Such as mantarays and whales
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is called a gulf, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with narrow entrance. A fjord is a steep bay shaped by glacial activity. A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may be nested within each other; some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing, they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea, defines a bay as a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast.
An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation. There are various ways; the largest bays have developed through plate tectonics. As the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and left large bays. Bays form through coastal erosion by rivers and glaciers. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord. Rias are characterised by more gradual slopes. Deposits of softer rocks erode more forming bays, while harder rocks erode less leaving headlands. Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
First voyage of James Cook
The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages; the aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "unknown southern land". The voyage was commissioned by King George III and commanded by Lieutenant James Cook, a junior naval officer with good skills in cartography and mathematics. Departing from Plymouth Dockyard in August 1768, the expedition crossed the Atlantic, rounded Cape Horn and reached Tahiti in time to observe the transit of Venus. Cook set sail into the uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine and Raiatea to claim them for Great Britain, unsuccessfully attempting to land at Rurutu. In September 1769 the expedition reached New Zealand, being the second Europeans to visit there, following the first European discovery by Abel Tasman 127 years earlier.
Cook and his crew spent the following six months charting the New Zealand coast, before resuming their voyage westward across open sea. In April 1770 they became the first Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia, making landfall at Point Hicks, proceeding to Botany Bay; the expedition continued northward along the Australian coastline, narrowly avoiding shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef. In October 1770 the badly damaged Endeavour came into the port of Batavia in the Dutch East Indies, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands they had discovered, they resumed their journey on 26 December, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771, reached the English port of Deal on 12 July. The voyage lasted three years; the year following his return Cook set out on a second voyage of the Pacific, which lasted from 1772 to 1775. His third and final voyage lasted from 1776 to 1779. On 16 February 1768 the Royal Society petitioned King George III to finance a scientific expedition to the Pacific to study and observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the sun to enable the measurement of the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
Royal approval was granted for the expedition, the Admiralty elected to combine the scientific voyage with a confidential mission to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated continent Terra Australis Incognita. The aims of the expedition were revealed in the press: "To-morrow morning Mr. Banks, Dr. Solano, with Mr. Green, the Astronomer, will set out for Deal, to embark on board the Endeavour, Capt. Cook, for the South Seas, under the direction of the Royal Society, to observe the Transit of Venus next summer, to make discoveries to the South and West of Cape Horn"; the London Gazetteer was more explicit when it reported on 18 August 1768: "The gentlemen, who are to sail in a few days for George's Land, the new discovered island in the Pacific ocean, with an intention to observe the Transit of Venus, are we are credibly informed, to attempt some new discoveries in that vast unknown tract, above the latitude 40". Another article reported that "the principal and sole national advantage" of the island discovered by Captain Wallace, Tahiti, was "its situation for exploring the Terra Incognita of the Southern Hemisphere", that, "The Endeavour, a North-Country Cat, is purchased by the Government, commanded by a Lieutenant of the Navy.
The Gazette de France of 20 June 1768 reported that the British Admiralty was outfitting two sloops of war to go to "the newly discovered island", from whence they would "essay the discovery of the Southern Continent". The Royal Society suggested command be given to Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple, who had urged that an expedition be sent to make contact with the estimated 50 million inhabitants of the Southern Continent with whom, he said, there was "at present no trade from Europe thither, though the scraps from this table would be sufficient to maintain the power and sovereignty of Britain, by employing all its manufacturers and ships"; as a condition of his acceptance, Dalrymple demanded a brevet commission as a captain in the Royal Navy. However, First Lord of the Admiralty Edward Hawke refused, going so far as to say he would rather cut off his right hand than give command of a Navy vessel to someone not educated as a seaman. In refusing Dalrymple's command, Hawke was influenced by previous insubordination aboard the sloop HMS Paramour in 1698, when naval officers had refused to take orders from civilian commander Dr. Edmond Halley.
The impasse was broken when the Admiralty proposed James Cook, a naval officer with a background in mathematics and cartography. Acceptable to both parties, Cook was promoted to Lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition; the vessel chosen by the Admiralty for the voyage was a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire. She was ship-rigged and sturdily built with a broad, flat bow, a square stern and a long box-like body with a deep hold. A flat-bottomed design made her well-suited to sailing in shallow waters and allowed her to be beached for loading and unloading of cargo and for basic repairs without requiring a dry dock, her length was 106 feet, with a beam of 29 feet 3 inches, measuring 36871⁄94 tons burthenEarl of Pembroke was purchased by the Admiralty in May 1768 for £2,840 10s 11d and sailed to Deptford on the River Thames to be prepared for the voyage. Her hull was sheathed and caulked, a third internal deck installed to provide cabins
Hervey Bay is a bay and a city in the Fraser Coast Region of Queensland, Australia. The city is situated 290 kilometres or 3½ hours' highway drive north of the state capital, Brisbane, it is a natural bay between nearby Fraser Island. The local economy relies on tourism, based around whale watching in Platypus Bay to the north, ferry access to Fraser Island, accessible recreational fishing and boating and the natural north facing, calm beaches with wide undeveloped foreshore zones. At June 2015, Hervey Bay had an estimated urban population of 52,288. At 1.2 percent, the 5-year average annual population growth is modest compared to 1.5 percent nationally. It has a median age of 45 higher than the national average of 37; the indigenous Butchulla people are the traditional residents of Hervey Bay. The first recorded European sighting of Hervey Bay was made by James Cook while carrying out his running survey of the east coast of Australia, on 22 May 1770. By noon Cook's ship was in a position a little over half-way across the opening of Hervey Bay heading for Bundaberg.
When Cook first discovered Hervey Bay, he did not realize that Fraser Island was separated from mainland Australia. Cook named the bay "Hervey's Bay" after Augustus John Hervey Third Earl of Bristol, a naval officer who became a Lord of the Admiralty the year Endeavour returned; until around the mid-1980s the area was serviced by a rail link from the main North Coast line that diverted from Aldershot and went through Takura, Nikenbah on to Pialba and Urangan. The line was a major freight point for the Port of Maryborough and for the sugar cane industry until road transport assumed the role. In 1984, Hervey Bay was known as the "City of Hervey Bay", it was known as a city because of its large growth in business, population and industry. Although it was now being known as a city, it still remained a small seaside village to most of the local residents; the Hervey Bay Library opened in 1997 and had a major refurbishment in 2014. Hervey Bay has a number of heritage-listed sites. Fraser Island is listed on the World Heritage List.
The Woody Island Lighthouses are listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. Hervey Bay is situated 3½ hours' drive north of Brisbane, via the Bruce Highway and 30 minutes' drive north-east of Maryborough; the city is served by the high-speed Tilt Train, which has connections from Maryborough West or nearby Howard. The city is served with direct flights from Brisbane and Sydney; the City of Hervey Bay has released an airport master plan which includes future provision of a taxiway parallel to the main runway, additional car parking and a larger terminal. The city is served by passenger ferry to Fraser Island, as well as both scheduled and unscheduled vehicular ferries. Despite Hervey Bay's growing popularity, no plans have been made for a new railway line to the city; the previous passenger and freight line branched off the North Coast main line at Colton, just north of Maryborough. Trains stopped at many stations along the line; the railway extended along the Urangan Pier. The line carried out local goods from the city.
The line was closed in 1993. The tracks from Nikenbah to Urangan were removed and the Pialba – Urangan line was converted into a mobility corridor. Traces of the railway line are still visible in Urangan. There are two semi-removed crossings near the end of Pier Street and the track's ballast is still visible from where the mobility corridor ends. Hervey Bay is the largest population centre within the Fraser Coast Region; the current mayor of the Fraser Coast Regional Council is George Seymour elected in a by-election held in May 2018. A total of ten Councillors are elected every four years; the Electoral district of Hervey Bay has Queensland's second highest share of residents aged over 60. Hervey Bay is represented in the Parliament of Queensland by LNP member Ted Sorensen, who defeated Labor's Andrew McNamara in the 2009 Queensland state elections, in the Commonwealth Parliament by the Nationals member for Hinkler, Keith Pitt. In 2008, Hervey Bay was the fastest growing statistical division in the country.
Forecasts predict the population of Hervey Bay will increase to 102,000 in 2026, a near doubling from 2006 figures. Hervey Bay has 22 °C in winter; the coast is predominantly affected by the south east trade winds throughout the summer with occasional strong northerly winds and storm swells. These winds keep the temperatures up in winter, preventing temperature extremes; as a result, Hervey Bay experiences temperatures over 35 °C in summer or under 5 °C in winter. Tropical cyclones are a threat at times with Cyclone Hamish threatening in 2009 as a Category 5; the land mass of Fraser Island affects the pattern of weather in Hervey Bay and protects the immediate marine environment from open ocean storm effects. Cyclone Oswald in 2013 caused significant damage in the area as a result of tornadoes spawned by the system; the average rainfall for the year is around 1,100 millimetres. December to March is the main rainy period, with a secondary peak in June; the months of April and from July to November are dry and sunny.
Hervey Bay began as a dispersed community spread over numerous seaside villages. As the area grew, these communities amalgamated and became suburbs of the