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Click consonant

Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the Tut-tut or Tsk! Tsk! used to express disapproval or pity, the tchick! used to spur on a horse, the clip-clop! Sound children make with their tongue to imitate a horse trotting. Technically, clicks are obstruents articulated with two closures in the mouth, one forward and one at the back; the enclosed pocket of air is rarefied by a sucking action of the tongue. The forward closure is released, producing what may be the loudest consonants in the language, but in some languages such as Hadza and Sandawe, clicks can be more subtle and may be mistaken for ejectives. Click consonants occur at six principal places of articulation; the International Phonetic Alphabet may represent a click by placing the assigned symbol for five of the places of articulation adjacent to a symbol for a non-click sound at the rear place of articulation, or the click symbol may be combined with diacritics for voicing, etc.

The IPA symbols are used in writing most Khoisan languages, but Bantu languages such as Zulu use Latin ⟨c⟩, ⟨x⟩ and ⟨q⟩ for dental and alveolar clicks respectively. The easiest clicks for English speakers are the dental clicks written with a single pipe, ǀ, they are all sharp squeaky. A simple dental click is used in English to express pity or to shame someone, sometimes to call an animal, is written tut! in British English and tsk! in American English. In Italian this sound means "no" used as an answer to a direct question, while it is used to call cats when repeated several times. Next most familiar to English speakers are the lateral clicks written with a double pipe, ǁ, they are squeaky sounds, though less sharp than ǀ, made by sucking on the molars on either side of the mouth. A simple lateral click is made in English to get a horse moving, is conventionally written tchick! There are the labial clicks, written with a bull's eye, ʘ; these are lip-smacking. The above clicks sound like affricates.

The other two families are more abrupt sounds. With the alveolar clicks, written with an exclamation mark, ǃ, the tip of the tongue is pulled down abruptly and forcefully from the roof of the mouth, sometimes using a lot of jaw motion, making a hollow pop! Like a cork being pulled from an empty bottle; these sounds can be quite loud. For most languages, the palatal clicks, ǂ, are made with a flat tongue, are sharper popping sounds than the ǃ clicks, like snapped fingers. Clicks occur in all three Khoisan language families of southern Africa, where they may be the most numerous consonants. To a lesser extent they occur in three neighbouring groups of Bantu languages—which borrowed them, directly or indirectly, from Khoisan. In the southeast, in eastern South Africa, Lesotho and southern Mozambique, they were adopted from a Tuu language or languages by the languages of the Nguni cluster, spread from them in a reduced fashion to the Zulu-based pidgin Fanagalo, Tsonga, the Mzimba dialect of Tumbuka and more to Ndau and urban varieties of Pedi, where the spread of clicks continues.

The second point of transfer was near the Caprivi Strip and the Okavango River where the Yeyi language borrowed the clicks from a West Kalahari Khoe language. These sounds occur not only in borrowed vocabulary, but have spread to native Bantu words as well, in the case of Nguni at least due to a type of word taboo called hlonipha; some creolised varieties of Afrikaans, such as Oorlams, retain clicks in Khoekhoe words. Three languages in East Africa use clicks: Sandawe and Hadza of Tanzania, Dahalo, an endangered South Cushitic language of Kenya that has clicks in only a few dozen words, it is thought. The only non-African language known to have clicks as regular speech sounds is Damin, a ritual code once used by speakers of Lardil in Australia. One of the clicks in Damin is an egressive click, using the tongue to compress the air in the mouth for an outward "spurt". Once clicks are borrowed into a language as regular speech sounds, they may spread to native words, as has happened due to hlonipa word-taboo in the Nguni languages.

In Gciriku, for example, the European loanword tomate appears as cumáte with a click c, though it begins with a t in all neighbouring languages. Scattered clicks are found in ideophones and mimesis in other languages, such as Kongo /ᵑǃ/, Mijikenda /ᵑǀ/ and Hadza /ʘ̃ʷ/. Ideophones use phonemic distinctions not found in normal vocabulary. English and many other languages may use bare clicks in interjections, without the accompaniment of vowels, such as the dental "tsk-tsk" sound used to express disapproval, or the lateral tchick used with horses. In Armenian, Greek, Levantine Arabic, Persian, Turkish in French, as well as southern Italian languages such as Sicilian, in which a bare dental click accompanied by tipping the head up

Priti Patkar

Priti Patkar is an Indian social worker and human rights activist. She is the co-founder and director of the organisation Prerana that has done pioneering work in the red-light districts of Mumbai, India to protect children vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking. Priti Patkar was born in Mumbai, her father was a government servant and her mother ran a daycare program. She is a Gold Medalist from The Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai where she completed a Masters in Social Work, she is married to social activist Pravin Patkar. Priti Patkar has been working for the protection and rescue of children and women victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation for over 30 years, she founded Prerana in 1986, after a research visit for her Masters in Social Work to the Kamathipura Red Light Area - where she witnessed three generations of women soliciting customers on the same street. She is accredited with several path-breaking social interventions for the protection and dignity of children and women victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.

Some of her pioneering interventions include: the world’s first Night Care Shelter in the midst of a red light area the world's first Institutional Placement Programme India's first comprehensive Education Support Programme for children living in red light areas the world's first Network of Anti Trafficking Organizations, India's first comprehensive programme for AIDS-affected Children. Her intervention through her Children Affected by AIDS programme was judged and documented by Washington University as one of the world’s 7 best interventions to work with those affected by AIDs. Patkar's organisation, runs three centres in the heart of Mumbai's red-light areas in Kamathipura, Falkland Road and Vashi-Turbhe. Patkar has to her credit the largest number of legal interventions and writ petitions in India to protect the rights and dignity of child and female victims of child sexual exploitation and trafficking. Ashoka Fellow of the Ashoka Foundation USA, for 1988–92. Consultant in project funding and project development policies for the VOLKART FOUNDATION, India.

Member of the First National Level committee for "Prevention and Control of AIDS" appointed by the Govt. of India. Member, Special Committee for Review of Legislation on Women, appointed by the Department of Women & Child Welfare, Govt. of India. Member of the UNICEF Team to sensitize and train members of the Judiciary on CSE&T at JOTI Nagpur since 2001, up until now. Visiting Resource Person, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, for the training of senior IPS police officers in social legislation and vertical communication. Member of Mahila Dakshata Samiti to supervise five police stations in Zone II in Mumbai in cases related to women, appointed by the Commissioner of Police, Greater Mumbai. Member: Special State Level Committee for Rehabilitation of Trafficked Victims set up by the Maharashtra State Commission for Women, Govt. of Maharashtra. Founder Member of the Forum Against Child Sexual Exploitation, Mumbai. Member Expert Group on Women & Law of the National Commission for Women India, 1999–2004.

Founder & National Convener of the Network Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation & Trafficking Co-Director of Prerana's Anti-Trafficking Center: This is one of two specialised Anti Trafficking Centres supported by US Department of State in South Asia, through the UNIFEM South Asia Regional Office. This centre specializes in research, anti-trafficking news and training, advocacy and lobbying on trafficking issues. Member: Guidance & Monitoring Committee set up by High Court of Mumbai to supervise the Special Home for Rescued Juvenile Girls Deonar Mumbai. Member: State Level Advisory Committee Govt. of Maharashtra formed under the Immoral Traffic Act 1986. 2005 up to date Invited Member of Central Advisory committee, Govt. of India, for implementation of anti-trafficking programmes. Member of a Supreme Court Panel to recommend possible amendments to the Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956. Visiting Social Work Practitioner in the Department of Social Work at Amrita University; the Government of India acknowledged her work and incorporated measures pioneered and standardised by her in the first National Plan of Action 1998 against the trafficking of children and women.

The United Nations invited her to speak before the United Nations Congress at Vienna in April 2000, as the pioneer of the Best Practice working with female victims of violence, when the optional protocol against organised crime was being finalised. Patkar was invited as a Resource Person to the World AIDS Congress in Yokohama in 1993, to the Second World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children held at Yokohama Japan in 2000. In 2017, over 12,000 children had benefited from Patkar's Night Care Centre program. Young Achiever Award, 2000 Late Kalpana Chawla Award, 2003 Outstanding Woman of the Year Award, 2003 International Excellence Award, 2005 Stars Foundation Award for Child Protection, 2009 Laxmipat Singhania Award for a'Young Leader' for Community Service and Social Upliftment, 2009 Ahilyabai Holkar Award, 2010 Hirakani Puraskar, 2013 An award from the Government of Maharashtra where she was felicitated by the Chief Minister – Shri Prithviraj Chawan in March 2013. Human Rights Award at the 2014 Vital Voices Global Leadership Awards Nari Shakti Pursakar Award, 2015.

This award is given by the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development to institutions and individuals who have made exceptional contributions towards the empowerment of women belonging to vulnerable and marginalized sectors of s

Prince William, Duke of Cumberland

Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, was the third and youngest son of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. He was Duke of Cumberland from 1726, he is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout Britain. He is referred to by the nickname given to him by his Tory opponents:'Butcher' Cumberland. Despite his triumph at Culloden, he had a unsuccessful military career. Between 1748 and 1755 he attempted to enact a series of army reforms that were resisted by the opposition and by the army itself. Following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never again held active military command and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing. William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields, London, where his parents had moved after his grandfather, George I, accepted the invitation to ascend the British throne, his godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia, but they did not take part in person and were represented by proxy.

On 27 July 1726, at only five years old, he was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead in the County of Hertford, Earl of Kennington in the County of Surrey, Viscount of Trematon in the County of Cornwall, Baron of the Isle of Alderney. The young prince was educated well. Another of his tutors was his mother's favourite Andrew Fountaine. At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent. William's elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the king's dominions. Frederick would get Britain; this proposal came to nothing. From childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, became his parents' favourite, he was made a Knight of the Bath aged four. He was intended, by the King and Queen, for the office of Lord High Admiral, and, in 1740, he sailed, as a volunteer, in the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris, but he became dissatisfied with the Navy, instead secured the post of colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards on 20 February 1741.

In December 1742, he became a major-general, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. George II and the "martial boy" shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen, where Cumberland was wounded in the leg by a musket ball. After the battle he was made a lieutenant general. In 1745, Cumberland was given the honorary title of Captain-General of the British land forces and in Flanders became Commander-in-Chief of the allied British, Hanoverian and Dutch troops despite his inexperience, he planned to take the offensive against the French, in a move he hoped would lead to the capture of Paris, but was persuaded by his advisors that this was impossible given the vast numerical superiority of the enemy. As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, besieged by Marshal Saxe. In the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, filled the nearby woods with French marksmen.

Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. Despite a concerted Anglo-Hanoverian attack on the French centre, which led many to believe the Allies had won, the failure to clear the woods and of the Dutch forces to capture Fontenoy forced Cumberland's force onto the retreat. Following the battle Cumberland was criticised for his tactics the failure to occupy the woods. In the wake of the battle, Cumberland was forced to retreat to Brussels and was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent and Ostend; as the leading British general of the day, he was chosen to put a decisive stop to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a direct descendant of James VII of Scotland and II of England, in the Jacobite rising of 1745. His appointment was popular, caused morale to soar amongst the public and troops loyal to King George. Recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart uprising.

The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise and join them. However, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, began pursuit of the enemy, as the Stuarts retreated northwards from Derby. On reaching Penrith, the advanced portion of his army was repulsed on Clifton Moor in December 1745, Cumberland became aware that an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders would be hopeless. Carlisle was retaken, he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion; the defeat of his replacement as commander, Henry Hawley, roused the fears of the English people in January 1746, under a hail of pistol fire, "eighty dragoons fell dead upon the spot" at Falkirk Muir. Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles, he made a detour to Aberdeen, where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage.

He trained his troops to hold their fire until the enemy came within effective firing range, fire once, bayonet