Baron Clifford of Chudleigh
Baron Clifford of Chudleigh, of Chudleigh in the County of Devon, is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1672 for Thomas Clifford; the title was created as "Clifford of Chudleigh" rather than "Clifford" to differentiate it from several other Clifford Baronies created for members of this ancient family, including the Barony of de Clifford, extant but now held by a branch line of the Russell family, having inherited through several female lines. Baron Clifford of Chudleigh is the senior surviving male representative of the ancient Norman family which took the name de Clifford which arrived in England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, feudal barons of Clifford, first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire, created Baron de Clifford by writ in 1299; the family seat is Ugbrooke Park, near Devon. Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 2nd Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 3rd Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 4th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Edward Henry Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Charles Clifford, 7th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Hugh Clifford, 8th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Henry Hugh Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh William Hugh Clifford, 10th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Oswald Hugh Clifford, 11th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Joseph Hugh Clifford, 12th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Hugh Clifford, 13th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Thomas Hugh Clifford, 14th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Alexander Thomas Hugh Clifford.
Clifford, The House of Clifford from Before the Conquest, Phillimore & Co, Chichester, 1987. Clifford, A. Collectanea Cliffordiana, Paris, 1817
Sir Charles Clifford, 1st Baronet
Sir Charles Clifford, 1st Baronet was a New Zealand politician. He was the first Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, serving from 1854 to 1860. Clifford was born in Mount Vernon, Lancashire, England. Related to the Barons Clifford of Chudleigh, he came from a wealthy background, his parents were well-connected. After attending Stonyhurst College, Clifford set out for New Zealand with his cousin William Vavasour, leaving in 1842. Arriving in the New Zealand Company settlement of Wellington, the two established a land and commissions agency with finance from their parents, they expanded their holdings, establishing a considerable number of farming ventures. Clifford worked in partnership with Frederick Weld, another cousin. At the same time, he was active in the Wellington militia, attaining the rank of captain, he was in charge of Clifford's Stockade in Johnsonville north of Wellington in the mid-1840s. He became a Justice of the Peace in 1844 and a magistrate in 1846. On 24 May 1854 when the 1st New Zealand Parliament convened, Clifford was unanimously elected Speaker.
He remains the youngest Speaker, having been appointed at the age of forty-one. He was Member of the New Zealand Parliament for the City of Wellington from 1853 until his retirement as its speaker in 1860; the most challenging event to arise during Clifford's speakership was the prorogation of Parliament by Robert Wynyard, the acting Governor. Wynyard, objecting to Parliament's denial that it required royal assent to establish New Zealand's self-rule, ordered Parliament to be suspended. Parliament, chose to suspend its own standing orders, allowing it to leave Wynyard's instructions "unopened" while it continued to debate; the possibility of suspending standing orders was challenged by Wynyard's supporters, but Clifford decided to allow it. Clifford allowed the proposal and passage of a motion condemning Wynyard's attempt prorogation. Clifford retired from Parliament in 1860, he did, retain a considerable interest in New Zealand's affairs, advised British authorities on a number of matters. In 1866, he presented the New Zealand Parliament with a ceremonial mace similar to the one used in the British House of Commons.
He retained considerable business interests in New Zealand. Clifford died in London on 27 February 1893. In 1854 on appointment as Speaker of the New Zealand House Representatives Clifford was granted the title of The Honourable. and became The Hon. Charles Clifford Esq. In 1858 Clifford was appointed as a Knight of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and became The Hon. Sir Charles Clifford. On 16 July 1887 Clifford was created a baronet, of Flaxbourne, New Zealand, became The Hon. Sir Charles Clifford Bt. the Clifford-baronetcy still existed as of October 2012. His great-grandfather: Hugh Clifford, 3rd Baron Clifford of Chudleigh His uncle: Thomas Hugh Clifford Constable, 1st Baronet Constable of Tixall, Staffordshire On 13 January 1847, he married Marianne Hercy, who died on 6 October 1899, daughter of John Hercy, of Crichfield House, Berkshire, they had four sons and one daughter: George Hugh Charles Clifford, 2nd Baronet Walter Lovelace Clifford, 4th Baronet Charles William Clifford, born 31 August 1854, died 21 September 1939.
He became Justice of the Peace in Market Drayton. He was married twice. On 19 January 1881, he married Mary Eliza Chichester, daughter of Charles Raleigh Chichester, of Burton Constable and Mary Josephine Balfe, of Runnamoat, Roscommon, she died on 7 December 1881 after giving birth to a son. On 2 June 1892, he married daughter of Sir Humphrey de Trafford. With her he had two daughters, his children were: Charles Aston Clifford, born on 16 November 1881, died on 23 March 1898. Capt. George Gilbert Joseph Clifford, born on 13 April 1893, fell in action on 22 May 1940 in World War II. On 12 May 1925 he married daughter of J. J. Calder, of Ardargie, Perthshire, they had one daughter: Anne Caroline Clifford, born on 21 March 1926. Lieut. Walter Francis Joseph Clifford, born on 6 September 1894, fell in action on 27 September 1915 in World War I. Lewis Arthur Joseph Clifford, 5th Baronet Roger Charles Joseph Gerrard Clifford, 6th Baronet Agnes Clifford, born on 23 March 1899, died in 1981. On 18 November 1924, she married Francis Joseph Southwell, born on 31 March 1900, died 7 January 1953, the second son of the 5th, younger brother of the 6th and father of the 7th Viscount Southwell.
They had two daughters. Rosamund Clifford, born on 10 August 1904. Francis Charles Clifford, born on 15 December 1856, died on 15 September 1931, he was married twice. He had no issue. Lucy Mary Clifford, died on 21 January 1936. On 7 February 1877, she married Arthur John Moore, of Mooresfort, who died on 5 January 1904, they had two sons and one daughter; the second son Charles, the only one to marry. He married Dorothie Feilding daughter of Rudolph Feilding, 9th Earl of Denbigh
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a
William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire
William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, was a British nobleman and politician. He was the eldest son of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, by his wife, the heiress Lady Charlotte Boyle, suo jure Baroness Clifford, who brought in considerable money and estates to the Cavendish family, he declined each offer. He was Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and Governor of Cork, Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire; the 5th Duke is best known for Duchess of Devonshire. At the age of about twenty, Devonshire toured Italy with William Fitzherbert, where they commissioned the pair of portraits by Pompeo Batoni, he was married twice: first, to Lady Georgiana Spencer daughter of 1st Earl Spencer. By his first wife, he had one son, two daughters: Lady Georgiana "Little G" Cavendish the Countess of Carlisle, Lady Harriet "Harryo" Cavendish the Countess Granville. Both daughters left the title of Clifford barony fell into abeyance between them; the dukedom and estates would pass to a grandson of a younger brother of the 5th Duke of Devonshire.
Georgiana Cavendish became a socialite who would gather around her a large circle of literary and political friends. Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds would paint her. By his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Foster, he had no legitimate issue, but the couple had two illegitimate children born before their marriage. A son, was given the surname Clifford and became Sir Augustus Clifford and rose to be an admiral in the Royal Navy and the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod in the House of Lords; the Duke's daughter by Lady Elizabeth, was given a different surname from her brother, St. Jules. Caroline St. Jules would marry a brother of the 2nd Viscount Melbourne. Caroline and George Lamb had no issue; the 5th Duke had a daughter—Charlotte, given the surname Williams—by his mistress, Charlotte Spencer, the daughter of an indigent clergyman. His first child was born shortly after his marriage to Lady Georgiana Spencer. Charlotte would marry suitably; the fifth Duke would be involved with the nearby spa town of Buxton.
He would use the profits from his copper mines to transform the town into a replica of Bath, including the Crescent Hotel and an octagonal set of stables, which would become the Devonshire Dome. In the film The Duchess, about Georgiana, the fifth Duke is played by Ralph Fiennes. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Devonshire
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Admiral Sir Augustus William James Clifford, 1st Baronet, was a British Royal Navy officer, court official, usher of the Black Rod. Clifford was born in France in 1788, the illegitimate son of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, Lady Elizabeth Foster, daughter of Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol. Not long after his birth, his mother brought him to England, to be wet-nursed by Louisa Augusta Marshall, wife of the Rev John Marshall, curate at Clewer, near Windsor, Berkshire. Clifford was educated at Harrow School, 1796-99, his parents married in 1809. He married, on 20 October 1813, Lady Elizabeth Frances Townshend, sister of John Townshend, 4th Marquess Townshend; each of his sons, Capt William RN, Robert and Charles succeeded their father in turn as the second and fourth baronets. Clifford was a patron of the arts, formed a unique collection of paintings, etchings and bijouterie, he died at his residence in the House of Lords in 1877. Clifford entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman in May 1800, was promoted to a lieutenancy in 1806.
He served at the reduction of Ste. Lucie and Tobago in 1803, throughout the operations in Egypt during 1807, he was at the capture of a convoy in the Bay of Rosas in 1809 and in the operations on the coast of Italy 1811–12. After this, as captain, he was for many years employed in naval duties, being several times mentioned in the London Gazette for his courage in cutting-out expeditions and on other occasions. For some time he was engaged in attendance on the Lord High Admiral, the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV. Clifford recommissioned HMS Herald on 27 May 1826 to carry the Duke of Devonshire on an embassy to Russia. In 1828, in another vessel, Clifford took Lord William Bentinck out to India as governor-general; this was his last service afloat. He reached the rank of rear-admiral 23 March 1848, vice-admiral 27 September 1855, Admiral of the Blue 7 November 1860, Admiral of the Red 1864, becoming retired admiral 31 March 1866, he was Member of Parliament for Bandon 1818–20. He was nominated a Commander of the Order of the Bath on 8 December 1815, knighted on 4 August 1830, created a baronet on 4 August 1838.
His half-brother, the 6th Duke of Devonshire, appointed him on 25 July 1832 Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, which office he held, much to his satisfaction, until his death. On various occasions between 1843 and 1866 he acted as deputy lord great chamberlain of England, in the absence of Lord Willoughby d'Eresby. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Clifford, Augustus William James". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Clifford, Augustus William James". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Portraits of Sir Augustus William James Clifford, 1st Bt at the National Portrait Gallery, London Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Augustus Clifford
Charlotte Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
Charlotte Elizabeth Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington, 6th Baroness Clifford was the daughter of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and Lady Dorothy Savile. From 1748 until her death she was married to William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington the 4th Duke of Devonshire and Prime Minister of Great Britain. Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Boyle was the only surviving daughter of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and Lady Dorothy Savile, her mother was the daughter of 2nd Marquess of Halifax. On 28 March 1748, she married William Cavendish the Marquess of Hartington, who became the 4th Duke of Devonshire and the Prime Minister of Great Britain; the advantageous union was happy. The marriage helped, they had four children: William, Dorothy and George. Charlotte inherited great wealth upon the death of her father in 1754; as the heir of her father, she succeeded to the title of Baroness Clifford suo jure. Through her marriage, the Cavendish family, with the main title of Duke of Devonshire, inherited the 3rd Earl of Burlington's estates.
These estates included: Burlington House, London. Charlotte was her father's sole remaining heir; the Marchioness of Hartington died on 8 December 1754 at Rutland from smallpox. The next year her husband William succeeded his father as Duke of Devonshire. Charlotte and her husband William had four children: William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire Lady Dorothy Cavendish, who married William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. Lord Richard Cavendish George Augustus Henry Cavendish, 1st Earl of Burlington The Lady Charlotte Boyle Marchioness of Hartington The Rt. Hon; the Baroness Clifford, Marchioness of Hartington Works citedSchweizer, Karl Wolfgang. "Cavendish, fourth duke of Devonshire". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4949