Spanish moss is an epiphytic flowering plant that grows upon larger trees in tropical and subtropical climates, native to much of Mexico, the Bahamas, Central America, South America, the southern United States, the West Indies and is naturalized in Queensland. It is known as "grandpas beard" in French Polynesia. In the United States from where it is most known, it is found on the southern live oak and bald-cypress in the lowlands and savannas of the southeastern United States from southeast Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas; this plant's specific name usneoides means "resembling Usnea", it indeed superficially resembles its namesake Usnea known as beard lichen, but in fact Spanish moss is neither a moss nor a lichen. Instead, it is a flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae which grows hanging from tree branches in full sun through partial shade; this plant has been placed in the genera Anoplophytum and Renealmia. The northern limit of its natural range is Northampton County, with colonial-era reports in southern Maryland where no populations are now known to be extant.
The primary range is in the southeastern United States, through Argentina, growing where the climate is warm enough and has a high average humidity. It has been introduced to similar locations including Hawaii and Australia; the plant consists of one or more slender stems bearing alternate thin, curved or curly scaled leaves 0.8–2.4 in long and 0.04 in broad, that grow vegetatively in chain-like fashion, forming hanging structures up to 240 in in length. The plant has no aerial roots and its brown, yellow, or grey flowers are tiny and inconspicuous, it propagates both by seed and vegetatively by fragments that blow on the wind and stick to tree limbs, or are carried by birds as nesting material. Spanish-moss is an epiphyte which absorbs nutrients and water through its leaves from the air and rainfall. While it kills the tree upon which it grows, it can become so thick that it shades the tree's leaves and lowers its growth rate. In the southern U. S. the plant seems to show a preference for growth on southern live oak and bald cypress because of these trees' high rates of foliar mineral leaching providing an abundant supply of nutrients to the plant, but it can colonize other tree species such as sweetgum, crepe-myrtles, other oaks, pines.
Spanish-moss shelters a number of creatures, including three species of bats. One species of jumping spider, has been found only on Spanish-moss. Chiggers, though assumed to infest Spanish-moss, were not present among thousands of other arthropods identified in one study. Due to its propensity for growing in subtropical humid southern locales like Florida, South Carolina, Mississippi, North Carolina, extreme southern Virginia and south Texas, Alabama, the plant is associated with Southern Gothic imagery and Deep South culture. One story of the origin of Spanish moss is called "The Meanest Man Who Ever Lived"; the man's white hair grew long and got caught on trees. Spanish moss was introduced to Hawaii in the 19th century, became a popular ornamental and lei plant. On Hawai'i it is called "Pele's hair" after Pele the Hawaiian goddess; the term "Pele's hair" is used to refer to a type of filamentous volcanic glass. Spanish-moss has been used for various purposes, including building insulation, packing material, mattress stuffing, fiber.
In the early 1900s it was used commercially in the padding of car seats. In 1939 over 10,000 tons of processed Spanish-moss was produced, it is still collected today in smaller quantities for use in arts and crafts, or for beddings for flower gardens, as an ingredient in the traditional wall covering material bousillage. In some parts of Latin America and Louisiana Spanish moss is used in Nativity scenes. In the desert regions of the southwestern United States, dried Spanish-moss plants are used in the manufacture of evaporative coolers, colloquially known as swamp coolers; these are used to cool offices much less expensively than using air conditioners. A pump squirts water onto a pad made of Spanish-moss plants. A fan pulls air through the pad and into the building. Evaporation of the water on the pads serves to reduce the air temperature, thus cooling the building. Tillandsia'Maurice's Robusta' Tillandsia'Munro's Filiformis' Tillandsia'Odin's Genuina' Tillandsia'Spanish Gold' Tillandsia'Tight and Curly' Tillandsia'Nezley' Tillandsia'Kimberly' Tillandsia'Old Man's Gold' Mabberley, D.
J. 1987. The Plant Book. A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-34060-8. Spanish Moss: Its History and Uses -- Beaufort County Library Florida Forest Plants Florida Spanish Moss: Theory - Does Spanish Moss kill trees
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed upturned snout, a long bushy tail. Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox with about 47 recognized subspecies; the global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World; the word fox comes from Old English. This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning ’thick-haired. Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes.
Vixen is one of few words in modern English that retains the Middle English southern dialect "v" pronunciation instead of "f". A group of foxes is referred to leash, or earth. Within the Canidae, the results of DNA analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions: The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox, red fox, Cape fox, Arctic fox, fennec fox; the wolf-like canids, including the dog, gray wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, golden jackal, Ethiopian wolf, black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal and African wild dog. The South American canids, including hoary fox, crab-eating fox and maned wolf. Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox, gray fox, raccoon dog. Foxes are smaller than some other members of the family Canidae such as wolves and jackals, while they may be larger than some within the family, such as Raccoon dogs. In the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kg, while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg. Fox-like features include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, a bushy tail.
Foxes are digitigrade, thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have retractable claws. Fox vibrissae, or whiskers, are black; the whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average 100–110 mm long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers are on the forelimbs and average 40 mm long, pointing downward and backward. Other physical characteristics vary according to adaptive significance. Fox species differ in fur color and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black and white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes, for example, have short fur to aid in keeping the body cool. Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm. Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail ending with white marking. A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April.
Coat color may change as the individual ages. A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, characteristic of a carnivore; these pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced characteristic of a carnivore, are excellent in gripping prey. In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals, they live in small family groups, but some are known to be solitary. Foxes are omnivores; the diet of foxes is made up of invertebrates such as insects, small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds, can include eggs and plants. Many species are generalist predators. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for consumption under leaves, snow, or soil. Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain using their hind legs, leap up with great force to land on top of their targeted prey.
Using their pronounced canine te
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud, a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals quartz and calcite. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility, it is the most common sedimentary rock. Shale exhibits varying degrees of fissility, breaking into thin layers splintery and parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of the parallel orientation of clay mineral flakes. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones or claystones. Rocks with similar particle sizes but with less clay and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shales are composed of clay minerals and quartz grain, are grey. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment.
Black shale can be referred to as black metal. Red and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide, iron hydroxide, or micaceous minerals. Clays are the major constituent of other mudrocks; the clay minerals represented are kaolinite and illite. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate; the transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, calcium, magnesium and water. These released elements form authigenic quartz, calcite, ankerite and albite, all trace to minor minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. Black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron and sulfur. Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration; the process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction.
The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are deposited in slow moving water and are found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains and offshore from beach sands, they can be deposited in sedimentary basins and on the continental shelf, in deep, quiet water.'Black shales' are dark, as a result of being rich in unoxidized carbon. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, black shales were deposited in anoxic, reducing environments, such as in stagnant water columns; some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as molybdenum, uranium and zinc. The enriched values are of controversial origin, having been alternatively attributed to input from hydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Fossils, animal tracks/burrows and raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces.
Shales may contain concretions consisting of pyrite, apatite, or various carbonate minerals. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard, metamorphic rock known as slate. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite schist and gneiss. Before the mid-19th century, the terms slate and schist were not distinguished. In the context of underground coal mining, shale was referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Bakken Formation Barnett Shale Bearpaw Formation Burgess Shale Marcellus Formation Mazon Creek fossil beds Oil shale – Organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen Shale gas Shale gas in the United States Wheeler Shale Wianamatta Shale Media related to Shale at Wikimedia Commons
North American river otter
The North American river otter known as the northern river otter or the common otter, is a semiaquatic mammal endemic to the North American continent found in and along its waterways and coasts. An adult North American river otter can weigh between 14 kg; the river otter is insulated by a thick, water-repellent coat of fur. The North American river otter, a member of the subfamily Lutrinae in the weasel family, is versatile in the water and on land, it establishes a burrow close to the water's edge in river, swamp, coastal shoreline, tidal flat, or estuary ecosystems. The den has many tunnel openings, one of which allows the otter to enter and exit the body of water. Female North American river otters give birth in these underground burrows, producing litters of one to six young. North American river otters, like most predators, prey upon the most accessible species. Fish is a favored food among the otters, but they consume various amphibians, freshwater clams, snails, small turtles and crayfish.
The most common fish consumed are perch and catfish. Instances of North American river otters eating small mammals, such as mice and squirrels, birds have been reported as well. There have been some reports of river otters attacking and drowning dogs; the range of the North American river otter has been reduced by habitat loss, beginning with the European colonization of North America. In some regions, their population is controlled to allow the trapping and harvesting of otters for their pelts. North American river otters are susceptible to the effects of environmental pollution, a factor in the continued decline of their numbers. A number of reintroduction projects have been initiated to help halt the reduction in the overall population; the North American river otter was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777. The mammal was identified as a species of otter and has a variety of common names, including North American river otter, northern river otter, common otter and river otter.
Other documented common names are American otter, Canada otter, Canadian otter, fish otter, land otter, nearctic river otter, Prince of Wales otter. The North American river otter was first classified in the genus Lutra; the species name was Lutra canadensis. The species epithet canadensis means "of Canada". In a new classification, the species is called Lontra canadensis, where the genus Lontra includes all the New World river otters. Molecular biological techniques have been used to determine when the river otter and the giant otter of South America diverged; these analyses suggest they diverged in the Miocene epoch 23.03 to 5.33 million years ago, "much earlier" than indicated in the fossil record. Fossils of a giant river otter dating back 3.5 Mya have been found in the US Midwest. The earliest known fossil of Lontra canadensis, found in the US Midwest, is from the Irvingtonian stage; the oldest fossil record of an Old World river otter comes from the late Pliocene epoch. The New World river otters originated from the Old World river otters after a migration across the Bering Land Bridge, which existed off and on between 1.8 million and 10,000 years ago.
The otters migrated to North America and southwards again across the Panamanian Land Bridge, which formed 3 Mya. Listed alphabetically L. c. canadensis – L. c. kodiacensis – L. c. lataxina – L. c. mira – L. c. pacifica – L. c. periclyzomae – L. c. sonora – The North American river otter is a stocky animal of 5 to 14 kilograms, with short legs, a muscular neck no smaller than the head, an elongated body, broadest at the hips. They have long bodies, long whiskers that are used to detect prey in dark waters. An average adult male weighs about 11.3 kilograms against the female's average of 8.3 kilograms. Its body length ranges from 66 to 107 centimetres. About one-third of the animal's total length consists of a long, tapered tail. Tail lengths range from 30 to 50 centimetres. Large male North American river otters can exceed a weight of 15 kilograms, it differs from the European otter by its longer neck, narrower visage, the smaller space between the ears and its shorter tail. A broad muzzle is found on the North American river otter's flat head, the ears are round and inconspicuous.
The rhinarium is bare, with an triangular projection. Eyes placed anteriorly. A short, broad rostrum for exhaling and a long, broad cranium define the flat skull; the North American river otter's nostrils and ears close during submersion, keeping water from entering them. Its vibrissae are thick, enhancing sensory perception underwater and on land; the fur of the species is short, with a density of about 57,800 hairs/cm2 in the midback section. The pelage varies from light brown to black; the throat and lips are grayer than the rest of the body. Fur of senescent river otters may become white-tipped, rare albinos may
The Neuse River is a river rising in the Piedmont of North Carolina and emptying into Pamlico Sound below New Bern. Its total length is 275 miles, making it the longest river contained in North Carolina; the Trent River joins the Neuse at New Bern. Its drainage basin, measuring 5,630 square miles in area lies inside North Carolina, it is formed by the confluence of the Flat and Eno rivers prior to entering the manmade, artificial Falls Lake reservoir in northern Wake County. Its fall line shoals, known as the Falls of the Neuse, lie submerged under the waters of Falls Lake; the Neuse begins at the confluence of the Flat and Eno rivers near North Carolina. The river enters Pamlico Sound just east of Maw Point Shoal near Hobucken, North Carolina while en route to the Atlantic Ocean. Typical of rivers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the Neuse enters a basin of chocolate intermittent bottomland swamp on its journey towards its outlet. One interesting exception is the "Cliffs of the Neuse" area near Goldsboro, where the river cuts a narrow 30 m gorge through limestone and sandstone bluffs.
The Neuse is prone to extremes in its flow carriage escaping its banks during wet periods reducing to a trickle that can be forded on foot during prolonged drought conditions. The Neuse flows through parts of seven counties. Major cities and towns in proximity to the Neuse are Durham. For thousands of years before the Europeans arrived, different civilizations of indigenous peoples lived along the river. Many artifacts found along its banks have been traced to ancient prehistoric Native American settlements. Archaeological studies have shown waves of habitation; the river has one of the three oldest surviving English-applied placenames in the U. S. Colonists named the Neuse River after its name by the American Indian tribe known as Neusiok, with whom the early Raleigh expeditions made contact, they identified the region as the "Neusick". Two English captains, Arthur Barlowe and Phillip Armadas, were commissioned by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584 to explore the New World, they landed on North Carolina's coast July 1584 to begin their research.
In their 1585 report to Raleigh, they wrote favorably of the Indian population in "…the country Neusiok, situated upon a goodly river called Neuse…", as it was called by the local population. In 1865 during the American Civil War, the Confederates burned one of the last ironclad warships which they had built, the Ram Neuse, to prevent its capture by Union troops; the level of the river had fallen. Nearly a century during another period of low water, the remains of the ship were discovered, it was raised in 1963. The ship was installed beside the river at the Governor Caswell Memorial in Kinston; the low-head Quaker Neck Dam was built in 1952 at Neuse River kilometer 225 to impound cooling water for a steam electric plant. A fish ladder was included; the dam was removed in May 1998, opening up access for anadromous fish to 127 kilometres of the mainstem Neuse River. The Neuse has been plagued in recent years with environmental and public health problems related to municipal and agricultural waste water discharge, storm runoff, other sources of pollution.
Pollution was bad in the aftermath of hurricanes Fran and Floyd in the late 1990s. The dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida is present in the river, has a bloom in growth when nutrient levels are increased due to too much runoff; this organism may be connected to fish kills as well as adverse health effects in grapes. Eno River Flat River Little River Stoney Creek Crabtree Creek West Bear Creek Bear Creek Contentnea Creek Lefferts' Creek Trent River South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Neuse Riverkeeper Foundation NCDENR: Neuse River Basin NCSU: Neuse River Basin USGS: Neuse River Current Conditions Upper Neuse River Basin Association Neuse River Compliance Association and Lower Neuse Basin Association The Neuse, River of Peace Events and Happening Along the Neuse River
The prothonotary warbler is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. It is the only member of the genus Protonotaria. Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert described the prothonotary warbler in 1783; this bird was named after certain prelates in the Roman Catholic Church known as protonotaries, due to its golden plumage. It was once known as the golden swamp warbler; the prothonotary warbler weighs 12.5 g. It has an olive back with blue-grey wings and tail, yellow underparts, a long pointed bill, black legs; the adult male has a bright orange-yellow head. Females and immature birds have a yellow head. In flight from below, the short, wide tail has a distinctive two-toned pattern, white at the base and dark at the tip, it breeds in hardwood swamps in eastern United States. It winters in Central America and northern South America, it is a rare vagrant to western states, most notably California. It is the only eastern warbler that nests in natural or artificial cavities, sometimes using old downy woodpecker holes.
The male builds several incomplete, unused nests in his territory. It lays 3–7 eggs; the preferred foraging habitat is dense, woody streams, where the prothonotary warbler forages in low foliage for insects and snails. The song of this bird is a simple, ringing sweet-sweet-sweet-sweet-sweet; the call is a dry chip, like that of a hooded warbler. Its flight call is a loud seeep; these birds are declining in numbers due to loss of habitat. They are parasitized by the brown-headed cowbird, or outcompeted for nest sites by the house wren, it is listed as endangered in Canada. The species persists in protected environments such as South Carolina's Francis Beidler Forest, home to more than 2,000 pairs, the densest known population; the prothonotary warbler became known in the 1940s as the bird that, in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee, established a connection between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss. Chambers had testified that Hiss enjoyed bird-watching, once bragged about seeing a prothonotary warbler.
Hiss testified to the same incident, causing many members to become convinced of the pair's acquaintance. This bird is mentioned in A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold as the "ewel of my disease-ridden woodlot", "as proof that dead trees are transmuted into living animals, vice versa; when you doubt the wisdom of this arrangement, take a look at the prothonotary." John James Audubon's painting of a prothonotary warbler is the third plate in his Birds of America. Kurt Vonneguts' novel Jailbird: A Novel describes the warbler as "the only birds that are housebroken in captivity". "Prothonotary warbler media". Internet Bird Collection. Prothonotary warbler Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology Prothonotary warbler - Protonotaria citrea - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter Prothonotary Warbler "The Swamp Songster" by Lisa Petit – Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center Prothonotary warbler recording at Florida Museum of Natural History Prothonotary warbler photo gallery at VIREO Prothonotary warbler species account at Neotropical Birds