San Luis Reservoir
The San Luis Reservoir is an artificial lake on San Luis Creek in the eastern slopes of the Diablo Range of Merced County, California 12 mi west of Los Banos on State Route 152, which crosses Pacheco Pass and runs along its north shore. It is the fifth largest reservoir in California; the reservoir stores water taken from the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta. Water is pumped uphill into the reservoir from the O'Neill Forebay, fed by the California Aqueduct and is released back into the forebay to continue downstream along the aqueduct as needed for farm irrigation and other uses. Depending on water levels, the reservoir is nine miles long from north to south at its longest point, five miles wide. At the eastern end of the reservoir is the San Luis Dam, or the B. F. Sisk Dam, the fourth largest embankment dam in the United States, which allows for a total capacity of 2,041,000 acre feet. Completed in 1967 on land part of Rancho San Luis Gonzaga, the 12,700 acres reservoir is a joint use facility, being a part of both the California State Water Project and Central Valley Project, which together form a network of reservoirs, pumping stations, 550 miles of canals and major conduits to move water across California.
The San Luis Reservoir is located in Merced County, has a visitor center located at the Romero Outlook where visitors can learn more about the dam and reservoir. The surface of the reservoir lies at an elevation of 544 ft, with the O'Neill Forebay below the dam at 225 ft above sea level; this elevation difference allows for a hydroelectric plant to be constructed - the Gianelli Hydroelectric Plant. Power from this plant is sent to Los Banos via a short power line; those 500 kV wires, carrying both the power generated here and elsewhere, leave the area and cross the O'Neill Forebay on several man-made islands. San Luis Reservoir supplies water to 63,500 acres of land in the Santa Clara Valley west of the Coast Ranges. San Justo Dam stores water diverted from San Luis Reservoir through the Pacheco Tunnel and Hollister Conduit, which travel through the Diablo Range. A separate canal, the Santa Clara Tunnel and Conduit, carries water to the Coyote Pumping Station in the Santa Clara Valley. San Luis Reservoir is part of the larger San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area and therefore offers many recreational opportunities for fishermen and campers.
The park is patrolled by California State Park Peace Officers by vehicle and off-highway vehicle. In addition to camping and boating, day use picnic areas are available at San Luis Creek, an off-highway vehicle area is available east of the main area at the intersection of Gonzaga Road and Jaspar-Sears Road. Camping is available at four campgrounds; the Basalt Campground on the south-eastern edge of the lake with 79 developed family campsites. Water faucets are available nearby, some sites can handle RV's to a length of 40 feet. San Luis Creek Campground on O'Neill Forebay with 53 sites with water and electric hook-ups. Medeiros Campground has primitive campsites along the southern shoreline of O'Neill Forebay; this campground has drinking water at chemical toilets. Los Banos Creek Campground has limited turn-around space, it is not suitable for trailers or motor homes. Drinking water and chemical toilets are available. Improved boat launch ramps are offered at the Basalt area. Due to the reservoir's water being imported from the Sacramento River Delta, San Luis shares many of its fish species with that area, including largemouth bass, striped bass, bluegill, yellow perch, occasional sturgeon and salmon.
The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in the San Luis Reservoir based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. The lake is noted for its high winds and has wind warning lights at Romero Outlook, Basalt Campground, Quien Sabe Point; the National Weather Service has maintained a cooperative weather station at San Luis Dam since 1963. Based on those records, average January temperatures are a maximum of 54.3 °F and a minimum of 37.9 °F and average July temperatures are a maximum of 92 °F and a minimum of 64.0 °F. There are an average of 69.3 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 14.1 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature was 110 °F on July 24, 2006, the record low temperature was 14 °F on December 22, 1990. Average annual precipitation is 10.36 in. There are an average of 57 days annually with measurable precipitation; the wettest year was 1998 with 25.06 in and the driest year was 1989 with 4.88 in.
The most precipitation in one month was 9.03 in in February 1998. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 3.70 in on May 6, 1998. Snow falls at the reservoir, but 1.2 in of snow fell on January 9, 2001. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California List of largest reservoirs in the United States List of largest reservoirs of California Department of Water Resources. "Station Meta Data: San Luis Reservoir ". California Data Exchange Center. State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-01. Allan, Stuart. California Road and Recreation Atlas. Medford, OR: Benchmark Maps. p. 75. ISBN 0-929591-80-1. California State Parks The Center for Land Use Interpretation California Dept of Water Resources Daily Reservoir Storage Summary
Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses; the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, it was the first community in California to have a name not of Spanish or Native American origin; the city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an estimated population of 320,554 by the California Department of Finance for 2017. Stockton is the 63rd largest city in the United States, it was named an All-America City in 1999, 2004, 2015 and again in 2017. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stockton's seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and beyond, it provided easy access for transportation to the southern gold mines. The University of the Pacific, chartered in 1851, is the oldest university in California, has been located in Stockton since 1923; as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection.
Stockton exited bankruptcy in February 2015. Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of California's San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways. Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland California's major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west. Stockton and Sacramento are California's only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies a total area of 64.8 square miles, of which 61.7 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, it was occupied by the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians, they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton.
The Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley. It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that led through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades and into present-day Oregon; the extensive network of waterways in and around Stockton was fished and navigated by Miwok Indians for centuries. During the California Gold Rush, the San Joaquin River was navigable by ocean-going vessels, making Stockton a natural inland seaport and point of supply and departure for prospective gold-miners. From the mid-19th century onward, Stockton became the region's transportation hub, dealing with agricultural products. Mexican eraCapt. Charles Maria Weber, a German, emigrated to America in 1836. After spending time in Texas, he came overland from Missouri to California with the Bartleson-Bidwell Party in 1841. Weber went to work for John Sutter. In 1842 Weber settled in the Pueblo of San José; as an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, so he formed a partnership with Guillermo Gulnac.
Born in New York, Gulnac had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which ruled California. He applied in Weber's place for Rancho Campo de los Franceses, a land grant of 11 square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Gulnac and Weber dissolved their partnership in 1843. Gulnac's attempts to settle the Rancho Campo de los Franceses failed, Weber acquired it in 1845. In 1846 Weber had induced a number of settlers to locate on the rancho, when the Mexican–American War broke out. Considered a Californio, Weber was offered the position of captain by Mexican Gen. José Castro, which he declined. Capt. Weber's decision to change sides lost him a great deal of the trust he had built up among his Mexican business partners; as a result, he moved to the grant in 1847 and sold his business in San Jose in 1849. Gold rush eraAt the start of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area of Weber's rancho on their way to the goldfields; when Weber decided to try his hand at gold mining in late 1848, he soon found selling supplies to gold-seekers was more profitable.
As the head of navigation on the San Joaquin River, the city grew as a miners' supply point during the Gold Rush. Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the Gold Rush, the location of what is now Stockton developed as a river port, the hub of roads to the gold settlements in the San Joaquin Valley and northern terminus of the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. During its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including "Weberville," "Fat City," "Mudville" and "California's Sunrise Seaport." In 1849 Weber laid out a town, which he named "Tuleburg," but he soon decided on "Stockton" in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. Stockton was the first community in California to have a name, neither Spanish nor Native American in origin. Chinese immigrationThousands of Chinese came to Stockton from the Kwangtung province of China during the 1850s due to a combination of political and economic unrest in China and the discovery of gold in California.
After the gold rush, many worked for the railroads and land reclamation projects in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and remained in Stockton. By 1880 Stockton was home to the third-largest Chinese community in California. Discriminatory laws
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025; the county seat is Martinez. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, is suburban; the county's name is Spanish for "opposite coast", referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In prehistoric times the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations.
This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and continues to be elevated by compressive forces resulting from the action of plate tectonics and at its upper reaches presents ancient seabed rocks scraped from distant oceanic sedimentation locations and accumulated and lifted by these great forces. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, with the present county containing portions of regions populated by a number of Native American tribes; the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned.
The known settled populations were hunter-gatherer societies that had no knowledge of metals and that produced utilitarian crafts for everyday use of the highest quality and with graphic embellishments of great aesthetic appeal. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known culturally comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts and from inter-generational knowledge passed down through northerly outlying tribes of the larger region. Early interaction of these Native Americans with Europeans came with the Spanish colonization via the establishment of missions in this area, with the missions in San Jose and San Francisco and the establishment of a Presidio in 1776.
Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, through the establishment of land grants from the King of Spain to favored settlers. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain. While little changed in ranchero life, the Mexican War of Independence resulted in the secularization of the missions with the re-distribution of their lands, a new system of land grants under the Mexican Federal Law of 1824. Mission lands extended including portions of Contra Costa County. Between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County; the smallest unit was one square league, or about seven square miles, or 4,400 acres, maximum to one individual was eleven leagues, or 48,400 acres, including no more than 4,428 acres of irrigable land. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope and stakes.
Lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year. Fences were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required 2000 head of cattle and two square leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, trading ships were taxed. Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley. In 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon. Jose Maria Amador was granted a four square league Rancho San Ramon in 1834. In 1834 Rancho Monte del Diablo was confirmed with 17,921 acres to Salvio Pacheco; the Pacheco family settled at the Rancho in 1846. The boundary lines w
Shasta Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam across the Sacramento River in Northern California in the United States. At 602 feet high, it is the eighth-tallest dam in the United States. Located at the north end of the Sacramento Valley, Shasta Dam creates Shasta Lake for long-term water storage, flood control and protection against the intrusion of saline water; the largest reservoir in the state, Shasta Lake can hold about 4,500,000 acre feet. Envisioned as early as 1919 as an effort to conserve, control and distribute water to the Central Valley, California's main agricultural region, Shasta was first authorized in the 1930s as a state undertaking. However, bonds did not sell due to the onset of the Great Depression and Shasta was transferred to the federal Bureau of Reclamation as a public works project. Construction started in earnest in 1937 under the supervision of Chief Engineer Frank Crowe. During its building, the dam provided thousands of much-needed jobs; when completed, the dam was the second-tallest in the United States after Hoover, was considered one of the greatest engineering feats of all time.
Before its dedication, Shasta Dam served an important role in World War II providing electricity to California factories, still plays a vital part in the management of state water resources today. However, it has changed the environment and ecology of the Sacramento River, flooded sacred Native American tribal lands. In recent years, there has been debate over whether or not to raise the dam in order to allow for increased water storage and power generation. In the late 19th century, the Central Valley was the main destination for large numbers of immigrants traveling into California from the eastern United States; the valley's land was coveted for farming due to its fertile soils, mild climate, gentle topography, abundant water. The Sacramento River, flows south through the northern third of the valley, known as the Sacramento Valley, for 400 miles before emptying into a vast estuary, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the Pacific Ocean. By the late 1800s, both the valley and Delta regions were intensely cultivated with various crops including wheat, rice and melons.
The low-lying topography of the Sacramento Valley makes it vulnerable to flooding in the winter. Although the Sacramento River discharges nearly 22.4 million acre feet of water each year, most of the flow occurs during winter storms and spring snowmelt, with natural runoff reducing to a trickle during late summers and autumns of drought years. As farming increased, low river flows dropped lower, leading to saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay into the Delta; this caused water shortages for Delta farms, led to a teredo infestation between 1919 and 1924 destroying piers and ships in Suisun Bay. In a bid to solve the salinity problem, local residents proposed constructing a tidal barrage across the mouth of Suisun Bay, a project, never realized. In 1919 a different solution came in the form of the Marshall Plan, created by Robert Marshall of the United States Geological Survey, it proposed a large dam across the Sacramento River just downstream of its confluence with the Pit River near the copper mining town of Kennett, several hundred miles to the north of the Delta.
The dam would store water for release during the dry months when the Delta was most vulnerable to saltwater intrusion, with the added benefit of controlling floods in the winter. Water captured by the dam would increase the irrigation supply, for both the Sacramento Valley and the San Joaquin Valley further south, with which it would be linked by an extensive aqueduct and reservoir system; the Marshall Plan was not supported due to its high cost. However, the state of California continued to search for a solution. In 1931, State Engineer Edward Hyatt published a similar but less extensive proposal called the State Water Plan, with a projected cost of about $550 million. Including the dam at Kennett and aqueducts from the Delta southwards into the arid San Joaquin Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, Hyatt's scheme laid the foundations for both the present day Central Valley Project and the California State Water Project; the state of California intended to finance the project on its own through the sale of revenue bonds.
However, the 1930s were a time of economic crisis with the onset of the Great Depression and a severe drought that devastated the agricultural sector, pushing the unemployment rate in California up to 20 percent. The project was approved in the state legislature by a slim margin riding on Central and Northern California voters, who needed both the jobs and the water. Southern California opposed the project because they needed money to build an aqueduct to the Colorado River, from which the state had secured rights. In 1933, the state authorized the sale of bonds to fund the Central Valley Project, whose main component was to be Shasta Dam. Unable to raise the necessary money, California turned to the federal government for help. In 1935, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt authorized the Central Valley Project as part of the New Deal; the construction works at Shasta Dam and other parts of the project would provide thousands of much-needed jobs, contributing a major portion of the Depression era federal job-creation programs.
Roosevelt first considered the U. S. Army Corps of Engi