An aisle is, in general, a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in airplanes, certain types of buildings, such as churches, synagogues, meeting halls and legislatures, theatres, in certain types of passenger vehicles, their floors, as in theatres, stepped upwards from a stage. Aisles can be seen in shops and factories, where rather than seats, they have shelving to either side. In warehouses and factories, aisles may consist of storage pallets, in factories, aisles may separate work areas. In health clubs, exercise equipment is arranged in aisles. Aisles are distinguished from corridors, walkways, footpaths/pavements, paths and "open areas". Aisles have certain general physical characteristics: They are always straight, not curved, they are fairly long. An open space that had three rows of chairs to the right of it and three to the left would not be considered an "aisle". Theatres, meeting halls, etc. have aisles wide enough for 2-3 strangers to walk past each other without feeling uncomfortably close.
In such facilities, anything that could comfortably accommodate more than 4 people side-by-side would be considered an "open area", rather than an "aisle". Factory work area aisles are wide enough for workers to comfortably sit or stand at their work area, while allowing safe and efficient movement of persons, equipment and/or materials. Passage aisles are quite narrow—wide enough for a large person to carry a suitcase in each hand but not wide enough for two people to pass side-by-side without touching. Without luggage one person must turn sideways in order for the other one to pass. Warehouse aisles are at least 8–10 feet wide, to allow use of mechanical loading equipment. Wedding aisles are wide enough to allow two people to walk comfortably beside each other and still have space; the width of these aisles is up to those who design the layout of the wedding. Vehicle aisles are wide enough to allow a designated type of vehicle to pass two way. Width varies for vehicle type and other variables like no of parking accessibility etc.
Note that spaces between buildings, e. g. rows of storage sheds, would not be considered "aisles" if the same amount of separation would be considered an aisle in a warehouse. Aisles are common in weddings when a bride walk down it. In architecture, an aisle is more the wing of a house, or a lateral division of a large building; the earliest examples of aisles date back to the Roman times and can be found in the Basilica Ulpia, which had double aisles on either side of its central area. The church of St. Peter's in Rome has the same number. In church architecture, an aisle is more a passageway to either side of the nave, separated from the nave by colonnades or arcades, a row of pillars or columns. Aisles stop at the transepts, but aisles can be continued around the apse. Aisles are thus categorized as transept-aisles or choir-aisles. A semi-circular choir with aisles continued around it, providing access to a series of chapels, is a chevet. In Gothic architecture, the aisles' roofs are lower than that of the nave, allowing light to enter through clerestory windows.
In Romanesque architecture, the roofs are at equal heights, with those of the aisle being only lower than that of the nave. In Germany, churches where the roofs of the aisles and nave are the same height, such as St. Stephen's, the Wiesenkirche at Soest, St. Martin's, the Frauenkirche in Munich are known as Hallenkirchen; when discussing overall design, architectural historians include the centrally-positioned nave in the number of aisles. Thus the original St Peter's Basilica in Rome, Milan Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral, Notre Dame de Paris and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia are all described as having five aisles, meaning they have two side aisles either side of the nave. Antwerp Cathedral has seven aisles. In the United Kingdom, cathedrals only have one aisle on each side, with Chichester Cathedral, Elgin Cathedral and St Mary Magdalene, Taunton being the only three exceptions. In supermarkets there are two types of aisles, food aisles and checkout aisles. Food aisles are. At the end of food aisles may be found crown end displays, where high-margin goods are displayed for impulse purchase.
In retail stores that do not sell food, aisles containing products would be referred to either generically as merchandise aisles, or by the particular products contained in the aisle, e.g. "the gardening aisle", "the sports equipment aisle". Checkout aisles contain. Regardless of the type of merchandise the establishment sells, it is common to display a range of "impulse buy" items along the checkout aisle, such as cold beverages and candy; these are called "lanes" to distinguish them from the food aisles. For customer convenience and retail stores number the aisles and have signs indicating both the aisle number and the types of products displayed in that aisle. Churches, courtrooms and meeting halls may identify individual rows, seats or sections but do not assign aisle numbers or display signs regarding aisles. Libraries are divided into several areas: Circulation desk Collections, areas where materials are grouped, e
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
South Central Ambulance Service
South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust is the ambulance service for the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire. It is a foundation trust of the National Health Service, one of 10 NHS ambulance trusts in England; as an ambulance service, SCAS responds to emergency 999 calls, in addition to calls from the NHS non-emergency number. These services are provided in an area that covers the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire; the exceptions are North East Hampshire, served by South East Coast Ambulance Service and the Shrivenham area of Oxfordshire, served by South Western Ambulance Service. The service provides an emergency transport service for patients in life-threatening condition and a Non-Emergency Patient Transport Service; the NEPTS transports patients unable to use public transport due to their medical conditions, patients using outpatient clinics and patients being admitted or discharged from hospital. The Trust has a commercial division, which provides first aid training to members of the public, a community equipment service and logistic services.
Since 2017, SCAS has run the NEPTS in Sussex and Surrey, within the South East Coast ambulance area. It has a resilience and specialist operations department which plans for major or hazardous incidents; this includes a Hazardous Area Response Team, which responds to emergencies involving chemical, radiological or nuclear materials, as well as major incidents. The Trust trains and supports volunteer community first responders, it is the only NHS ambulance organisation in the UK to be supported by its own League of Friends, a registered charity. The South Central Ambulance League of Friends raises funds that are used to enhance the standard of care for patients, provide additional benefits for service personnel, encourage the acquisition of essential life-support skills among the public, support the deployment of volunteer community first responders; this group had been founded in 1982 to raise funds for the former Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust. South Central Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006, following the merger of the Royal Berkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust, part of the Two Shires Ambulance NHS Trust.
The Trust achieved Foundation status on 1 March 2012, becoming known as South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust. In June 2011 it was named England's top performing ambulance service, managing to respond to 77.5% of Cat A calls within the 8 minute target time, compared to the national average of 74.9%. In October 2011 the BBC discovered that SCAS spent more on private ambulance services to cover 999 calls than any other service in the country. On 1 March 2012, the Trust became an NHS Foundation Trust. In October 2013 the Trust accidentally published on its website a document listing the age and religion of all its 2,826 staff members. SCAS took over patient transport services in Hampshire in October 2014. In 2014 the trust held a recruitment drive in Poland to help fill vacancies. On 1 November 2016, it was announced that the trust would take over the running of NEPTS in the south-east of England from April 2017; the service had been run by South East Coast Ambulance Service until 1 April 2016, when it had been taken over by Coperforma, a private-sector provider, unable to provide a satisfactory level of service.
In 2015 the trust established a subsidiary company, South Central Fleet Services Ltd, to which 41 estates and facilities staff were transferred. The intention was to achieve VAT benefits, as well as pay bill savings, by recruiting new staff on less expensive non-NHS contracts. VAT benefits arise because NHS trusts can only claim VAT back on a small subset of goods and services they buy; the Value Added Tax Act 1994 provides a mechanism through which NHS trusts can qualify for refunds on contracted out services. Performance of SCAS is provided by national NHS England Ambulance Quality Indicators. In February 2016: The Trust managed to respond to 70% of Red 1 calls within 8 minutes 68% of Red 2 calls were responded to within 8 minutes 93% of Red 19 calls were responded to within 19 minutes Cardiac arrest survival rates were 16% 53% of stroke patients arrived at a thrombolysis centre within 60 minutes of their calls The average time to answer 999 calls was 43 seconds There were 21,024 incidents requiring patients being taken to an A&E department 42% of 999 patients were treated by paramedic crews only.
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom NHS ambulance services prior to 2006 Hampshire & Isle of Wight Air Ambulance South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance League of Friends
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in parts of western Europe, Russia and Turkey. Under the open-field system, each manor or village had two or three large fields several hundred acres each, which were divided into many narrow strips of land; the strips or selions were cultivated by individuals or peasant families called tenants or serfs. The holdings of a manor included woodland and pasture areas for common usage and fields belonging to the lord of the manor and the church; the farmers customarily lived in individual houses in a nucleated village with a much larger manor house and church nearby. The open-field system necessitated co-operation among the inhabitants of the manor; the Lord of the Manor, his officials, a Manorial court administered the manor and exercised jurisdiction over the peasantry. The Lord levied required the peasantry to work on his personal lands, called a demesne. In medieval times, little land was owned outright.
Instead the lord had rights given to him by the king and the tenant rented land from the lord. Lords demanded rents and labour from the tenants, but the tenants had firm user rights to cropland and common land and those rights were passed down from generation to generation. A medieval lord hire labour to replace him without legal cause. Most tenants were not free without penalty to depart the manor for other locations or occupations; the rise of capitalism and the concept of land as a commodity to be bought and sold led to the gradual demise of the open-field system. The open-field system was replaced over several centuries by private ownership of land after the 15th century in the process known as enclosure in England. France and other northern European countries had systems similar to England, although open fields endured longer on the continent; some elements of the open-field system were practised by early settlers in the New England region of the United States. The most visible characteristic of the open-field system was that the arable land belonging to a manor was divided into many long narrow furlongs for cultivation.
The fields of cultivated land were unfenced, hence the name open-field system. Each tenant of the manor cultivated several strips of land scattered around the manor; the village of Elton, Cambridgeshire is representative of a medieval open-field manor in England. The manor, whose Lord was an abbot from a nearby monastery, had 13 "hides" of arable land of six virgates each; the acreage of a hide and virgate varied. Thus, the total of arable land amounted to 1,872 acres; the abbot's demesne land consisted of three hides plus 3 acres of pasture. The remainder of the land was cultivated by 113 tenants. Counting spouses and other dependents, plus landless people, the total population resident in the manor village was 500 to 600; the abbot owned two water mills for grinding grain, a fulling mill for finishing cloth, a millpond on the manor. The village contained a church, a manor house, a village green, the sub-manor of John of Elton, a rich farmer who cultivated one hide of land and had tenants of his own.
The tenants' houses lined a road rather than being grouped in a cluster. Some of the village houses were large, 50 feet long by 14 feet wide. Others were only 10 feet wide. All required frequent reconstruction. Most of the tenants' houses had outbuildings and an animal pen with a larger area, called a croft, of about one-half acre, enclosed for a garden and grazing for animals; the tenants on the manor did not have equal holdings of land. About one-half of adults living on a manor had no land at all and had to work for larger landholders for their livelihood. A survey of 104 13th-century manors in England found that, among the landholding tenants, 45 percent had less than 3 acres. To survive, they had to work for larger landowners. 22 percent of tenants had a virgate of land (which varied in size between 24 acres and 32 acres and 31 percent had one-half virgate. To rely on the land for a livelihood a tenant family needed at least 10 acres; the land of a typical manor in England and other countries was subdivided into two or three large fields.
Non-arable land was allocated to common pasture land or waste, where the villagers would graze their livestock throughout the year, woodland for pigs and timber, some private fenced land, called closes. The ploughed fields and the meadows were used for livestock grazing when fallowed or after the grain was harvested. One of the two or three fields was fallowed each year to recover soil fertility; the fields were divided into parcels called furlongs. The furlong was further subdivided into thin strips of land called selions or ridges. Selions were distributed among the farmers of the village, the manor, the church. A family might possess about 70 selions totalling about 20 acres scattered around the fields; the scattered nature of family holdings ensured that families each received a ration of both good and poor land and minimised risk. If some selions were unproductive, others might be productive. Ploughing techniques created a landscape of ridge and furrow, with furrows between ridges dividing individual holdings and aiding drainage.
While selions were cultivated by individuals or families, the right of pasture on fallowed fields, land unsuitable for cultivation, harvested fields was held in common wit
A lancet window is a tall, narrow window with a pointed arch at its top. It acquired the "lancet" name from its resemblance to a lance. Instances of this architectural motif are typical of Gothic church edifices of the earliest period. Lancet windows may occur singly, or paired under a single moulding, or grouped in an odd number with the tallest window at the centre; the architectural motif first appeared in the early French Gothic period, in the English period of Gothic architecture. So common was the lancet window feature that this era is sometimes known as the "Lancet Period"; the term "lancet window" is properly applied without tracery. Paired windows were sometimes surmounted by a simple opening such as a quatrefoil cut in plate tracery; this form gave way to the more ornate, multi-light traceried windowed. Catenary arch