Clifton is a neighborhood east of downtown Louisville, Kentucky USA. Clifton was named because of its hilly location on the Ohio River valley escarpment. Clifton is bounded by I-64, N Ewing Ave, Brownsboro Road, Mellwood Ave. Unlike other Louisville neighborhoods, Clifton was developed over a period of 60 years, with the first homes built in the 1860s sitting next to homes built in the 1910s, although nearly all homes were built in Victorian styles, its residential areas are much less dense than other nearby areas like Butchertown or the Original Highlands. The Louisville and Lexington toll pike, now called Frankfort Avenue, went through the heart of the area and was lined with small shops; the area began to revitalize in the 1990s, as numerous restaurants and antique shops opened up along Frankfort Avenue. Area attractions include the Kentucky School for the Blind and the American Printing House for the Blind; as of 2000, the population of Clifton was 2,469, of which whites are 87.2%, blacks are 8.1%, people listed as other are 2.2%, Hispanics are 2%.
College graduates are 32.1% of the population, people without a high school degree are 22%. Females outnumber males 53.1% to 46.9%. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Street map of Clifton Car Free Guide to Clifton /field/coveraa/mode/exact/conn/and/order/title/ad/asc/cosuppress/0 Images of Clifton in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collection "Clifton: Residents Knocked'Angora Heights' Down to Earth.
Interstate 71 is a north-south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes/Midwestern and Southeastern region of the United States. Its southern terminus is at an interchange with I-64 and I-65 in Kentucky, its northern terminus is at an interchange with I-90 in Ohio. I-71 runs concurrently with I-75 from a point about 20 miles south of Cincinnati, into downtown Cincinnati. Three-quarters of the route lies east of I-75, thereby putting it out of its proper place in the Interstate grid. While I-71 is designated a north–south highway, it is a major east–west route for cross-country traffic, it links I-80 and I-90 to I-70, links to I-40. The highway goes through the states of Kentucky and Ohio and the metropolitan areas of Louisville, Cincinnati and Cleveland. In Kentucky, I-71 begins east of Downtown Louisville at the Kennedy Interchange, where it meets I-64 and I-65; this interchange is sometimes called the "Spaghetti Junction". From Louisville, it follows the Ohio River in a diagonal path toward Northern Kentucky.
Between Louisville and Cincinnati, I-71 is a four-lane highway, except for the approach to Kentucky Speedway in Sparta in which it runs three lanes each way for about 2 miles. Near the town of Carrollton, there are signs marking the location of a tragic accident that occurred on May 14, 1988, when a drunk driver crossed the median and struck a church bus full of children and teenagers, causing the bus' fuel tank to ignite into flames and killing 27 people on board, it is one of the worst bus accidents in state and national history. After having run 77 miles from Louisville, I-71 merges with Interstate 75 near Walton after which it intersects Interstate 275, the Cincinnati beltway. After passing through Covington, the freeway crosses the Ohio River via the lower level of the Brent Spence Bridge and continues into Cincinnati. In Cincinnati, I-71 splits from I-75 and heads due east onto Fort Washington Way, where it continues through downtown Cincinnati concurrently with US-50 for less than a mile.
Just east of downtown, US-50 continues east. I-71 heads in a general northeast direction through urban Cincinnati and into its surrounding suburbs. After another interchange with the Interstate 275 beltway, the freeway leaves the metropolitan area and heads towards Columbus, it continues northeast until it reaches South Lebanon, where it begins cutting east across the flat plains of southwest Ohio. The freeway crosses the Little Miami River on the Jeremiah Morrow Bridge, a continuous truss bridge and the tallest bridge in Ohio at 239 feet above the river. I-71 heads towards Columbus intersects with the bypass I-270 before heading north into urban Columbus, where it junctions I-70. About a mile north of the I-70 junction, it intersects with I-670. After another interchange with the I-270 bypass, the highway exits out of Columbus and continues north until near Delaware, where it again turns northeast. Beginning its path to Cleveland, I-71 enters the rolling farm country on the edges of the Allegheny Plateau.
It continues in this fashion to Lodi/Westfield Center and its junction with I-76, which provides access to Akron. Heading north to Medina, it meets the terminus of I-271; the highway continues north into urban Cuyahoga County and Cleveland's suburbs, intersecting the Ohio Turnpike/I-80. Passing Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, I-71 meets I-480 and enters Cleveland's west side, continuing on to downtown, it junctions with terminates at Interstate 90 on the Innerbelt. The first section of I-71 in Louisville opened in December 1966 between its terminus at Spaghetti Junction and Zorn Avenue, its first exit, its junction with I-264 opened in July 1968, the complete Kentucky portion of the interstate was opened to the public in July 1969. At that point, it replaced U. S. Route 42 as the primary link between Louisville. Much of Interstate 71 in Ohio was intended to be State Route 1. State Route 1 was planned in the 1950s as a second Ohio Turnpike extending southwest to northeast across the state.
It was planned to run from Cincinnati to Conneaut and connect with an extension built across the panhandle of Pennsylvania to the New York State Thruway. As the highway was being planned, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 was enacted, the project was converted from a toll road to a freeway, it was designated as State Route 1, since the Interstate Highway numbering system had not yet been implemented. Portions of the freeway began to be completed and opened in 1959 with the new Interstate Highway funding, they were marked as State Route 1 as well as with their new Interstate Highway number. Since large gaps existed along the corridor where no freeway had yet been completed, existing two-lane or four-lane highways were designated as State Route 1 in order to complete the route; the State Route 1 signage was removed in 1966 as the Interstate Highway numbers adequately marked the route by and the state highway numbering was superfluous. In Columbus, the portion of Interstate 71 that bounds Worthington's eastern edge was called the North Freeway.
Costing US$13.8 million, it was constructed south from Route 161, arriving at 11th Avenue by August 1961. It took another year to construct the portion between 11th Avenue and 5th Avenue due to the need to construct a massive underpass under the Pennsylvania Railroad's Grogan Yard. Today, only two tracks cross the viaduct, the rest of the structure supports a large, weedy field. By August 1962, the freeway
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. The soils consist of levees and sands deposited during floods. Levees are the heaviest materials and they are deposited first. Floodplains are formed; when a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium. These build up to create the floor of the plain. Floodplains contain unconsolidated sediments extending below the bed of the stream; these are accumulations of sand, loam, and/or clay, are important aquifers, the water drawn from them being pre-filtered compared to the water in the river. Geologically ancient floodplains are represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces; these are old floodplains that remain high above the present floodplain and indicate former courses of a stream. Sections of the Missouri River floodplain taken by the United States Geological Survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed having been scoured at one place and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand or of fine silt.
It is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character. The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, is completely covered with water; when the drainage system has ceased to act or is diverted for any reason, the floodplain may become a level area of great fertility, similar in appearance to the floor of an old lake. The floodplain differs, because it is not altogether flat, it has a gentle slope downstream, for a distance, from the side towards the center. The floodplain is the natural place for a river to dissipate its energy. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow down the flow of water and when the channel is at capacity the water spills over the floodplain where it is temporarily stored. In terms of flood management the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the flood water control starts. Artificial canalisation of the river here will have a major impact on wider flooding.
This is the basis of sustainable flood management. Floodplains can support rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity. Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains in Central Asia, they are a category of riparian systems. A floodplain can contain 100 or 1,000 times as many species as a river. Wetting of the floodplain soil releases an immediate surge of nutrients: those left over from the last flood, those that result from the rapid decomposition of organic matter that has accumulated since then. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle. Opportunistic feeders move in to take advantage; the production of nutrients falls away quickly. This makes floodplains valuable for agriculture. River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change; this change is a threat to other floodplain forests. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the spring peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow.
Many towns have been built on floodplains, where they are susceptible to flooding, for a number of reasons: access to fresh water. The worst of these, the worst natural disaster were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions; this had been preceded by the 1887 Yellow River flood, which killed around one million people, is the second-worst natural disaster in history. The extent of floodplain inundation depends in part on the flood magnitude, defined by the return period. In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency manages the National Flood Insurance Program; the NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map, which depicts various flood risks for a community. The FIRM focuses on delineation of the 100-year flood inundation area known within the NFIP as the Special Flood Hazard Area. Where a detailed study of a waterway has been done, the 100-year floodplain will include the floodway, the critical portion of the floodplain which includes the stream channel and any adjacent areas that must be kept free of encroachments that might block flood flows or restrict storage of flood waters.
Another encountered term is the Special Flood Hazard Area, any area subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. A problem is that any alteration of the watershed upstream of the point in question can affect the ability of the watershed to handle water, thus affects the levels of the periodic floods. A large shopping center and parking lot, for example, may raise the levels of the 5-year, 100-year, other floods, but the maps are adjusted, are rendered
Hawthorne is a neighborhood in eastern Louisville, United States. Its boundaries are Taylorsville Road, Hawthorne Avenue, Bardstown Road and I-264; the land was once part of John Speed's Farmington estate, known for its plantation house built around 1815-16. The neighborhood is residential and was first subdivided in 1909, but saw its fastest grown in the 1920s, it takes its name from Hawthorne Avenue, most of the other streets are named after writers or poets. Sullivan University is located in the neighborhood. Hawthorne surrounds the small city of Kentucky. "Hawthorne". The Encyclopedia of Louisville. 2001. Images of Hawthorne in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Tyler Park, Louisville
Tyler Park is a neighborhood three miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. It is considered a part of a larger area of Louisville called The Highlands. Near the middle of the neighborhood is a city park of the same name, many houses in the neighborhood feature park views; the neighborhood boundaries are St Louis Cemetery to the north, Bardstown Road to the east, Eastern Parkway to the south and Beargrass Creek to the west. The first subdivision was laid out in 1873 by John H. Tucker between Baxter Avenue, Bardstown Road, Edenside Avenue, about where Windsor Place would be. However, because of its remote location from downtown, development did not pick up until the 1880s. All early subdivisions were in the eastern section of the area, near Bardstown Road and away from the steep hills to the west; the extension of a streetcar line down Bardstown Road to Bonnycastle Avenue and the establishment of nearby Cherokee Park created demand around this time for housing in the area. The last subdivision built in this part was Windsor Place in 1910, unusually strict, requiring all houses built there to sell for over $8,000 and have exteriors only of brick, stucco or stone.
Utilities and wires were located in the alleys, to allow for an unobstructed view along the maple-lined street. Further west, the sections between St. Louis and Calvary cemeteries were developed starting in 1907; the upper section was done by Edward A. Goddard; the lower hilly section was developed by John Breckinridge Castleman, a former Confederate army major and leader in creating Louisville's park system. He began purchasing the 60-acre area, known as Schwartz's Woods, in the 1870s, intending to build a personal estate there, but realized this would be impractical as the city expanded around the land, he saw that there were strict deed restrictions on the lots, including 35-foot setbacks, prohibition of wood fences, a minimum cost of $6,000 for houses, all structures on lots had to be built under one roof. A city park was opened in 1910, named Tyler Park after mayor Henry S. Tyler who died during his term in 1896; this park would in turn lend its name to the surrounding neighborhood. One of the defining features of both the park and the neighborhood is the Tyler Park Bridge, built in 1904.
Built of Indiana limestone, the bridge allowed Baxter Avenue to span the valley north of Eastern Parkway that would become Tyler Park. The design is attributed to John Olmsted and incorporates a large arch that allows pedestrians to walk from one part of the park to the other without crossing the busy street that bisects Tyler Park; as of 2000, the population of Tyler Park was 2,867, of whom 91.9% are white, 3.9% are black, 3% are listed as other, 1.2% are Hispanic. College graduates comprise 51.4% of the population, while people without a high school diploma make up 10.6%. Females outnumber males 52.2% to 47.8%. Forecastle Festival, held in Tyler Park 2002–2004 ^ "Community Resource Network". Retrieved 2005-11-18. "Tyler Park". The Encyclopedia of Louisville. 2001. Tyler Park Fest will celebrate Tyler Park Bridge's 100th anniversary Map of Tyler Park Images of Tyler Park in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Owensboro is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Daviess County, United States. It is the fourth-largest city in the state by population. Owensboro is located on U. S. Route 60 about 107 miles southwest of Louisville, is the principal city of the Owensboro metropolitan area; the 2015 population was 59,042. The metropolitan population was estimated at 116,506. Evidence of American Indian settlement in the area dates back 12,000 years. Following a series of failed uprisings with British support, the last Shawnee were forced to vacate the area before the end of the 18th century; the first European descendant to settle in Owensboro was frontiersman William Smeathers or Smothers in 1797, for whom the riverfront park is named. The settlement was known as "Yellow Banks" from the color of the land beside the Ohio River; the Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered at what is today's Owensboro prior to departing on their famous travels. In 1817, Yellow Banks was formally established under the name Owensborough, named after Col. Abraham Owen.
In 1893, the spelling of the name was shortened to its current Owensboro. In August 1864, Owensboro was subject to a raid by a band of Confederate guerrillas from Tennessee led by Captain Jack Bennett, an officer in Stovepipe Johnson's Partisan Rangers. Bennett's men rode into Owensboro and failed to rob a local bank, took 13 Union soldiers of the 108th Colored Infantry prisoner, executed them, burned the bodies on a supply boat, escaped back to Tennessee, having covered a total of 300 miles on horseback in six days. Another major battle occurred 8 miles south of Owensboro and is today signified by a monument marking the battle located beside US Highway 431. Several distillers of bourbon whiskey, have been in and around the city of Owensboro; the major distillery still in operation is the Glenmore Distillery Company, now owned by the Sazerac Company. On August 14, 1936, downtown Owensboro was the site of the last public hanging in the United States. A 26 year old African American man, Rainey Bethea, was convicted and sentenced for the rape and murder of 70-year-old Lischa Edwards in a short time.
A carnival atmosphere was in place with vendors selling hotdogs, attended by a large crowd including children and many reporters. The execution was presided over by a female sheriff, Florence Shoemaker Thompson, who gained national media attention for her role in the process, although she declined to spring the trap. Before Bethea was dead, the crowd had begun to tear at his clothes and his body for souvenirs; the Kentucky General Assembly abolished public executions after the embarrassment this caused. The end of the Second World War brought civil engineering projects which helped turn Owensboro from a sleepy industrial town into a modern, expanding community by the turn of the 1960s. Many of the projects were set in motion by Johnson, Depp & Quisenberry, a firm of consulting engineers engaged in a runway redesign at the County Airport; as of 1903, Owensboro was home to several stemmeries. Pinkerton Tobacco produced Red Man chewing tobacco in Owensboro. Swedish Match continues to make Red Man in a plant outside city limits.
The Owensboro Wagon Company, established in 1884, was one of the largest and most influential wagon companies in the nation. With eight styles or sizes of wagons, the company set the standard of quality at the turn of the 20th century. Frederick A. Ames came to Owensboro from Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1887, he started the Carriage Woodstock Company to repair horse-drawn carriages. In 1910, he began to manufacture a line of automobiles under the Ames brand name. Ames hired industrialist Vincent Bendix in 1912, the company became the Ames Motor Car Company. Despite its product being called the "best $1500" car by a Texas car dealer, the company ceased production of its own model in 1915; the company began manufacturing replacement bodies for the more sold Ford Model T. In 1922, the company remade itself and started to manufacture furniture under the name Ames Corporation; the company sold out to Whitehall Furniture in 1970. The start of the Kentucky Electrical Lamp Company, a light bulb manufacturing company was in 1899.
The Owensboro plant was a major part of General Electric's vacuum tube manufacturing operations, producing both receiving types and military/industrial ceramic types. In 1961, engineers at the General Electric plant in Owensboro introduced a family of vacuum tubes called the Compactron. In June 1932, John G. Barnard founded the Modern Welding Company in a small building located near the Ohio River at First and Frederica Streets where the Commonwealth of Kentucky office building sits today. Today, Modern Welding Company has nine steel tank and vessel fabrication subsidiaries located throughout the United States, five welding supply stores located in Kentucky and Indiana; the company is the country's largest supplier of underground and aboveground steel storage tanks for flammable and combustible liquids. The company celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2007. Texas Gas Transmission Corporation was created in 1948 with the merger of Memphis Natural Gas Company and Kentucky Natural Gas Corporation and made its headquarters in Owensboro.
Since that time, Texas Gas changed ownershi
Deer Park, Louisville
Deer Park is a neighborhood four miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Most of the neighborhood was developed from 1890 through the 1920s as a streetcar suburb, with all but six of its 24 subdivisions being developed by 1917, the last laid out by 1935, although some development west of Norris Place continued after World War II. Deer Park's boundaries are Newburg Road, Eastern Parkway and Douglass Boulevard. Deer Park is considered a part of a larger area of Louisville called The Highlands. Prior to subdivision, it was agricultural; the origin of the name is not clear, although recent campaigns to "put the deer back in Deer Park" have seen colorful deer sculptures placed at local businesses, parodying a Louisville-wide campaign with larger horse sculptures placed similarly. The neighborhood is residential. Most businesses and other non-residential buildings are found along Norris Place, Bardstown Road, Newburg Road; these facilities include Highland Middle School and the King's Daughters and Sons Home, an institute for the ill and disabled opened in 1909 and renamed Highlands Nursing Home in the early 2000s.
Other schools in the neighborhood include the Catholic primary schools St. Francis and St. Agnes, the DePaul School, a private school for students with dyslexia and other specific learning differences. Bellarmine University is located on the Belknap side of the boundary between that neighborhood and Deer Park; as the university has sought to expand its student base and campus, residents residing the closest to the university met with Bellarmine representatives on an ad hoc basis to address areas of concern such as street, rather than campus parking, the building of a stadium in close proximity to houses on an adjoining street. The ad hoc nature of meeting with Bellarmine ceased in 2005 when there was a push by the university to buy houses on the Bellarmine side of Richmond Drive west of Norris and use them as student housing; this was brought before the zoning commission. From this effort, the Good Neighbor Working Group was formed with Bellarmine to ensure their expansion and plans for growth did not adversely affect the integrity of the neighborhood.
A local landmark is the Bullock-Clifton House called the Yunker house, a former farmhouse built in 1834 and located at the corner of Richmond and Rosedale. The imposing structure was described in a 1980 study as "steamboat gothic," and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Early landowners included the Norris and Stevens families, after whom streets in the neighborhood are named. Two other streets are named after locations in Virginia, Hartman Avenue is named after developer George Hartman, who developed the area in 1914 on what was family property; the area from Eastern Parkway to Speed Avenue and Fernwood to Bardstown Road is a National Register District, is one of the most densely populated areas in Louisville. Since the mid-1970s, all of the somewhat narrow east/west streets here have been one-way, an oddity for a neighborhood far from downtown. Further contributing to the unusually high density for a neighborhood of single family homes, Deer Park includes two pedestrian courts whose long rows of houses, with no conventional street, are accessible only by alleys and sidewalks running through the short front yards.
Ivanhoe Court was built in 1914, the smaller Maplewood Place a year in 1915. These types of developments, built during the streetcar suburb era, are unique to Louisville. There are 11 in Old Louisville; the neighborhood has long had more of a middle and working class reputation than surrounding Highlands neighborhoods, which range in character from upper-middle to outright upper class. The reason for this is that Deer Park's housing stock is, other than the Yunker House, decidedly low-key. Due to the lack of geographical obstacles such as steep hills or creeks, the entire neighborhood was developed in a rather uniform and quick manner. Shotgun houses and 2½ story Victorians, more modest than those on the east side of Bardstown Road, make up the majority of the stock in the oldest sections, while modest craftsmen-style houses dominate streets further out, a few small ranch style homes can be found west of Norris Place. In the north end near Douglass Boulevard is Forest Park, the last of the pre-World War II subdivisions, the largest of any single development in Deer Park.
Larger houses can be found here, many in various historical revival styles. As of 2000, the population of Deer Park was 4,082, of which 93.7% are white, 3.6% are listed as other, 2% are black, 0.7% are Hispanic. College graduates are 48.3% of the population, people without a high school degree are 8%. Females outnumber males 51.8% to 48.2%. Street map of Deer Park Deer Park Neighborhood Association A Car-Free Guide to the Deer Park Neighborhood Images of Deer Park in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections