Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Goyder Lagoon is a large ephemeral swamp in the Australian state of South Australia in the state's Far North region. The lake is part of the Diamantina River floodplain, lying beside the Birdsville Track close to the state border with Queensland, it is located within the gazetted locality of Clifton Hills Station, occupied by the pastoral lease of the same name. Exceptionally large floods in the Georgina-Mulligan River system may contribute water to the north-western side of Goyder Lagoon via Eyre Creek and the Warburton River. Most of the lagoon consists of braided micro-channels, it lies within the Median annual rainfall is 100–150 millimetres and average maximum summer temperatures are 36 to 39 °C. Goyder Lagoon was named in 1875 by J W Lewis after George Goyder, the Surveyor General of South Australia from 1861 to 1894. While Goyder Lagoon itself is not part of any protected area, it does receive consideration for protection under the provisions of state planning legislation on the basis of its location within “a variety of environments including arid and wetland environments and riverine environments.”
It is located both within an area listed on the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia as the Diamantina River Wetland System and an area of land nominated as an important bird area by BirdLife International, an international non-governmental organization, as the Goyder Lagoon Important Bird Area. Goyder Lagoon is located at the southern extent of the Diamantina River Wetland System, listed on the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia because it is considered a “good example of a major, arid zone river with a pristine biota, an exceptional hydrological environment and extensive uncultivated floodplains.” Goyder Lagoon is located within an area of 2,684 square kilometres, identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area principally because, when flooded, it supports large numbers of waterbirds, with a total of 170,000 estimated from aerial surveys in 2002. The IBA supports over 1% of the world populations of freckled ducks, gull-billed terns and breeding royal spoonbills.
A small population of yellow chats occurs at the Koonchera waterhole. Other bird species for which the site is important include the letter-winged kite, inland dotterel and Eyrean grasswrens and pied honeyeaters, banded whiteface, chirruping wedgebill and cinnamon quail-thrush. In particular, the lagoon is reported as being the site of the largest waterbird aggregations which are found on its southern side including several species of cormorants, ducks and ibises. List of lakes of South Australia
Far North (South Australia)
The Far North is a large region of South Australia close to the Northern Territory border. Colloquial usage of the term in South Australia refers to that part of South Australia north of a line from Ceduna through Port Augusta to Broken Hill; the South Australian Government defines the Far North region with the exception of the Maralinga Tjarutja Lands. The Yalata Aboriginal Reserve and other unincorporated crown lands in the state's far west, which are considered part of the Eyre and Western region; the region is both the largest and the least populated of the state. The Far North is known as the Arid Lands of South Australia as much of the region is desert; the deserts in the north east are the Simpson Desert, Tirari Desert, Painted Desert and the Pedirka Desert. To the north and north west the Great Victoria Desert predominates the landscape; the Far North includes the following local government areas: Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara, City of Port Augusta, District Council of Coober Pedy, Flinders Ranges Council and Municipal Council of Roxby Downs.
As most of its extent lies within of what is known as the unincorporated area, municipal services to communities outside of the above listed local government areas are provided directly by the South Australian Government via the Outback Communities Authority. It is within the extent of the state electoral districts of Giles and Stuart, the Federal Division of Grey; the region has scattered tourist facilities as well as national parks and reserves. Permits are required to enter Aboriginal reserves, the Woomera Prohibited Area and several National Parks in the region, including Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre National Park and Witjira National Park; some significant roads in the area include the Stuart Highway from Port Augusta to Alice Springs, the Oodnadatta Track, both the Birdsville Track and the Strzelecki Track to Queensland Regions of South Australia List of regions of Australia "Official site: Regional Development Australia Far North". Retrieved 8 December 2015
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
The Barrier Miner
The Barrier Miner was a daily English language broadsheet newspaper published in Broken Hill in far western New South Wales from 1888 to 1974. First published on 28 February 1888, The Barrier Miner was published continuously until 25 November 1974. Copies are available on online via Trove Digitised Newspapers; the paper was revived in 2005. The paper closed down for a second time in 2008 with the managing director, Margaret McBride stating that...due to commercial reasons the paper would no longer service Broken Hill and the region... The Barrier Miner served the growing mining community of Broken Hill, when the area was found to have lead ore and traces of silver, it was not until late 1884 or early 1885 that rich quantities of silver were found and the Broken Hill Proprietary Company was floated to mine the leases. The newspaper was published by Henry Fenton, Augustus Sydney Knight and George Alfred Mills and was distributed to Broken Hill, White Cliffs, Menindee, Ivanhoe, it was edited by Samuel Prior from 1888, a partner with the main proprietors in 1905, Knight and Von Rieben Ltd. who took over in about 1890 when Fenton and Mills sold their interests.
Prior may have been one of the youngest editors of a daily newspaper in Australia. He wrote the Wild Cats column at The Bulletin, where he was appointed editor, was its main proprietor when he died in 1933. E. R. Kellsall took over as editor after Prior left, with Mr R. D. S. Magnusson as sub-editor; the newspaper was published and printed from a building in Argent Street, occupying a galvanised iron clad shed. In 1908 a substantial stone building was erected by F. J. Fairweather and Sons on the corner of Blende and Sulphide Streets. Knight and Von Rieben retired in 1907 to Adelaide and Sydney when John Smethurst took over as managing editor, remained in charge up to 1933 when J. F. Williams took over. E. K. Lean, joined the staff in 1893 and became assistant manager in 1918. A Sunday evening special edition was published during the 1914-1918 war featuring letters from overseas soldiers with many eager residents rushing the office for copies as soon as they came off the presses; the newspaper office was twice bombed during World War I, it is believed because of some comments made about unpatriotic behaviour in the town, not taken well by the strong unionised workforce.
Daily circulation reached 8303 in 1905, with three editions published up to about 1922 the first and third editions being sold in Argent Street and the second edition being home delivered. James Davison took over the paper in 1919, along with the Port Pirie Recorder, he left in 1922 to start the Adelaide News. Competition came in 1919 with the addition of the Barrier Daily Truth; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project of the National Library of Australia. The microfilm copies are held in the collection of the State Library of New South Wales. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in New South Wales Barrier Miner at Trove THE "BARRIER MINER"
The Advertiser (Adelaide)
The Advertiser is a daily tabloid format newspaper published in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. First published as a broadsheet named The South Australian Advertiser on 12 July 1858, it is a tabloid printed from Monday to Saturday; the Advertiser came under the ownership of Keith Murdoch in the 1950s, the full ownership of Rupert Murdoch in 1987. It is now a publication of News Corp Australia. Through much of the 20th century, The Advertiser was Adelaide's morning broadsheet, The News the afternoon tabloid, with The Sunday Mail covering weekend sport, Messenger Newspapers community news; the head office was relocated from a former premises in King William Street, to a new News Corp office complex, known as Keith Murdoch House at 31 Waymouth Street. An early major daily colonial newspaper, The Adelaide Times, ceased publication on 9 May 1858. Shortly afterwards, Reverend John Henry Barrow, a former editor of the South Australian Register founded the morning newspaper The South Australian Advertiser and a companion weekly The South Australian Weekly Chronicle.
The original owners were Barrow and Charles Henry Goode, the first issues were published on 12 July 1858 and 17 July 1858 respectively. It consisted of four pages, each of seven columns, cost 4 pence. In 1863 the company started an afternoon newspaper The Express as a competitor to The Telegraph, an afternoon/evening daily paper independent of both The Advertiser and the South Australian Register; the company was re-formed, effective 9 September 1864, with additional shareholders Philip Henry Burden, John Baker, Captain Scott, James Counsell, Thomas Graves and others. Burden, secretary of the company, died in 1864, Barrow, whose wife had died in 1856, married his widow in 1865, thus owning together a quarter of the company. In December 1866, the syndicate bought the now defunct The Telegraph at auction, incorporated it with The Express to form The Express and Telegraph. In 1871, when the shareholders were Barrow, Robert Stuckey, Thomas Graves, William Parkin, Thomas King, James Counsell, George Williams Chinner, the partnership was dissolved and the business was carried on by Barrow and King.
J. H. Barrow died on 22 August 1874, Thomas King ran the papers for himself and Mrs. Barrow for about five years. In 1879 a new firm was created, consisting of Thomas King, Fred Burden, John Langdon Bonython. In July 1884, Thomas King dropped out, the firm of Burden & Bonython was formed to run the paper. On 1 April 1889, the main publication was re-branded with The Advertiser. In December 1891, Burden retired, sold his share of the company to Bonython, from 1894 to 1929, became the sole proprietor of The Advertiser; as well as being a talented newspaper editor, he supported the movement towards the Federation of Australia. In 1923, after a run of 60 years, The Express was stopped just as its renamed rival, The News, was starting. On 12 January 1929, The Mail announced that Bonython had sold The Advertiser for £1,250,000 to a group of Melbourne financiers The Herald and Weekly Times, an external media company, now had the controlling stake, but Bonython still retained a 48.7% interest. Bonython retired from his newspapers in 1929, after 65 years' service, his son, John Lavington Bonython, became editor.
In February 1931, in the wake of the Great Depression, The Advertiser took over and shut down its ailing competitors, The Register, The Chronicle, The Observer renaming itself for seven months as The Advertiser and Register. On the death of Keith Murdoch in 1952, ownership of The News and The Mail passed to his son Rupert Murdoch via News Limited. Following the handover, in response to suggestions of external influences from Victoria made by competing newspaper The Mail, the Chairman of The Advertiser's board published its policy in The Advertiser as follows: "It is the same today as when the late Sir Langdon Bonython was in sole control, it is based upon a profound pride and belief in South Australia, the system of private enterprise which has made this State what it is." On 24 October 1953 the company launched the Sunday Advertiser in direct competition to News Limited's The Mail, but failed to outreach its rival, though no doubt affecting its profitability. It ceased publication five years or so after which the by renamed Sunday Mail advertised itself as a joint publication of Advertiser Newspapers and News Ltd. and incorporated many of the Sunday Advertiser regular features.
It had introduced colour graphics on the comics page, but this was dropped shortly after joint publication commenced. In addition, The Messenger, published since 1951 was purchased in 1962, owned by 1983; when Murdoch acquired The Herald and Weekly Times in 1987, he acquired the remaining 48.7% share of The Advertiser. He sold The News in 1987, it was closed in 1992. Murdoch changed the format of The Advertiser from a broadsheet to a tabloid in November 1997, the masthead and content font and layout was modernised in September 2009; the Advertiser is available for purchase throughout South Australia and some towns and regions in New South Wales and the Northern Territory located near or adjacent to the South Australia state border such as Broken Hill, Mildura and Alice Springs. According to The Advertiser's website, the newspaper is read by over 580,000 people each weekday, by more than 740,000 people each Saturday. Circulation figures reported in May 2016 by Roy Morgan Research showe
In Australia, a cattle station is a large farm, whose main activity is the rearing of cattle. The largest cattle station in the world is Anna Creek Station in Australia; each station has a homestead where the property owner lives. Nearby cottages or staff quarters provide housing for the employees, storage sheds and cattle yards are sited here. Other structures depend on the location of the station; the isolated stations will have a mechanic's workshop, schoolroom, a small general store to supply essentials and an entertainment or bar area for the owners and staff. Water may be supplied from bores or dams in conjunction with rainwater tanks. Electricity is nowadays provided with a generator if rural power is not connected, but solar electricity systems have become common. Children were educated by correspondence lessons supervised by a governess and by the School of the Air, with most children in remote areas going to boarding school for their secondary education; the Royal Flying Doctor service is available to western remote stations.
Charles Brown Fisher and Maurice Lyons, a Melbourne magistrate stocked Victoria River Downs in the early 1880s. Drover, Nathaniel Buchanan, overlanded 20,000 head of cattle from Wilmot to Victoria River Downs in c.1881 to establish their cattle venture. Nat had from 1860 to 1867, stocked and managed Bowen Downs Station near Longreach, Queensland. Buchanan was associated with the opening up and stocking of several cattle stations in the Victoria River district and the Ord River region; the Gordon brothers and Nathaniel Buchanan took up Wave Hill on the Victoria River in 1883, one of the first cattle stations established west of the Telegraph Line. Their nearest neighbour was 200 miles away. By 1898 James Tyson, held 5,329,214 acres including 352,332 acres freehold, his stations included Bangate, Juanbung and Mooroonowa in New South Wales. Sidney Kidman set up a chain of cattle stations along the sources of water, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, into South Australia to be within easy droving distance of the Adelaide markets.
Aborigines have long played a big part in the cattle industry where they were competent stockmen on the cattle stations of the north. In 1950 it was legislated. Many cattle stations were established along the Great Dividing Range where only cattle raising was possible because of dingo attacks on sheep; the original Kunderang Station, on the eastern fall of the Great Dividing Range was taken up by Captain George Jobling as an outstation, sold under the Subdivision of Runs Act 1884. Kunderang was one of the few Great Dividing Range stations, inhabited; the isolated homestead here, was built of solid Australian red cedar. Several major events have affected cattle stations starting with the Second World War and including the beef depression of the early 1970s, the technological achievements of the 1980s and the advent of live export markets in the more recent years. Roads and communications were improved as a result of the War. Many of the Northern Territory cattle stations had been owned by English companies who did not pay tax in Australia.
The 33,280 square kilometres Victoria River Downs was sold in March 1909 to Lord Luke's Bovril Australian Estates for AU£180,000 and until 1950 they were not paying taxes to the Australian Government. In 1950 income tax was introduced to Northern Territory land owners; the large stations were subdivided and country was available with reasonable conditions of tenure. This saw an influx of adventurous, working stockmen, with many doing well by mustering'cleanskins' on their new land. Zebu cattle were imported from Pakistan in 1956 and Brahman cattle were brought from United States at about that time. Many new breeds were developed from these imports and this led to cattle that were much more tolerant to the Top End heat and cattle ticks; the Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign was a national program to eradicate bovine brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis that commenced in 1970 after years of local jurisdictional activities. In the 1970s, interest rates soared and the American beef market collapsed causing the beef depression.
A fat bullock was worth less than a pair of locally made elastic side riding boots. The cattle herd was reduced to 21.8 million by 1978 in the wake of this crash. Roads and communications were further improved as a result of the Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign. In 1979, a disastrous drought struck and continued into 1983 becoming one of Australia's worst droughts. Helicopters were now being used to assist in mustering in the 1980s. Australia entered the Japanese beef market in 1988 with improved expectations for a better future in the beef cattle industry; the North Australian Pastoral Company Pty Limited is now one of Australia's largest beef cattle producers, with a herd of over 180,000 cattle and fourteen cattle stations in Queensland and the Northern Territory. The Australian Agricultural Company manages a cattle herd of more than 585,000 head. Heytesbury Beef Pty Ltd owns and manages over two hundred thousand head of cattle across eight stations spanning the East Kimberley, Victoria River and Barkly Tablelands regions in Northern Australia.
Cattle station has a parallel term, sheep station, fo