Terra Alta, West Virginia
Terra Alta is a town and former coal town in Preston County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,477 at the 2010 census. Terra Alta was called Portland, under the latter name had its start in the 1850s; the present name Terra Alta is derived from Latin meaning "high land". The town is home to the James S. Lakin House and Terra Alta Bank, each listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Terra Alta is located at 39°26′40″N 79°32′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.19 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Terra Alta has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,477 people, 610 households, 394 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,241.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 700 housing units at an average density of 588.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.0% White, 0.7% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 610 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.4% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the town was 38.8 years. 24.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,456 people, 596 households, 417 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,220.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 690 housing units at an average density of 578.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 99.18% White, 0.14% African American, 0.07% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.34% of the population. There were 596 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,388, the median income for a family was $32,692.
Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $17,950 for females. The per capita income for the town was $12,040. About 15.6% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.5% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Arthurdale, West Virginia
Arthurdale is an unincorporated community in Preston County, West Virginia, United States. Arthurdale was named for Richard Arthur, former owner of the land on which it was built, who had sold the land to the federal government under a tax default. Arthurdale was the first of many New Deal planned communities established under Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration, it was intended to take impoverished laborers and coal miners and move them to a modern rural community that would allow them to become economically self-sufficient. The idea for such a self-sufficient community originated when Eleanor Roosevelt learned through her friend, journalist Lorena Hickok, of a plan to relocate a group of West Virginia coal miners to a nearby farm with the intention that they could combine subsistence farming with simple industries to reclaim their economic footing. Roosevelt was so passionate about the concept that she brought it to the attention of her husband, who decided to place the project under the direction of the United States Department of the Interior.
Ninety-eight similar federal subsistence homestead. In meeting their stated goals and the other projects were found to be too costly and were regarded as a failure for governmental purposes. Construction began at the end of 1933, from the outset it was clear that the Arthurdale community had become one of Eleanor Roosevelt's chief priorities, she intervened with Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes and with others to ensure that the Arthurdale homes were built with modern necessities such as insulation and indoor plumbing. Eleanor chose the refrigerators that went into each home. For some time she acted in the capacity of a micro-manager for Arthurdale, contacting people who could help bring jobs to the community, raising money and awareness monitoring the budgets with a close eye. Roosevelt spent most of her own income on the project in its early years. On October 12, 1933, the purchase of the Arthurdale land was announced publicly; the press release painted Arthurdale as a "demonstration project" that would help unemployed coal miners.
Each family would receive enough acreage to raise its own food and crops. Each home would cost about $2,000 and the community was to govern itself, much like small New England towns. There were to be no private employment options, aside from a factory that would provide equipment for the U. S. Post Office. While Eleanor Roosevelt saw Arthurdale as an exciting new chance for the government to provide destitute citizens with the foundation for successful, self-sufficient lives, the project soon faltered on budgetary and political grounds; the cost of constructing and maintaining the Arthurdale community far exceeded what the government had anticipated and the idea of federally planned communities had never sat well with conservatives. Conservatives condemned it as socialist and a "communist plot", while Democratic members of Congress opposed government competition with private enterprise. Thomas Schall, a US Senator from Minnesota, accused Roosevelt of having her name autographed on furniture produced by the Arthurdale collective, sold for five times the normal price.
From its earliest stages, selecting Arthurdale's homesteaders was a contradictory process. Faculty members at nearby West Virginia University were given charge of picking the first round of homesteaders, they wanted at once to help people who needed it, but wanted to select only people who would assure the success of the experiment. Arthurdale was not to be a "community of saints, but neither did the University committee feel justified in offering the opportunity to persons whose lack of moral character was to jeopardize their ability to contribute to the venture." The federal government wanted the first homesteaders to be intelligent and persistent people. In short, not just anyone would be chosen for Arthurdale because only certain kinds of people could make the experiment successful. In the fall of the 1933, the selection of the first fifty homesteaders began. Most fundamentally, applicants had to have practical farming knowledge. By October, over 600 applications had been received. In addition to knowing how to farm, homesteaders had to be physically fit, have a certain education and intelligence level, demonstrate the potential to succeed at Arthurdale.
An eight-page questionnaire and follow-up interview were a part of the process, those favorable applicants were interviewed in their homes and asked questions about the health and stability of their families. By virtue of these requirements, Arthurdale's homesteaders were by majority white, married couples who had or wanted to have children. Single people and immigrants were excluded, because single people could not contribute as to the communal life of Arthurdale. Immigrants, with their perceived lack of English skills, could not demonstrate the intelligence and education required to succeed at Arthurdale. Many locals and homesteaders alike wanted Arthurdale to be a place for whites only, but Mrs. Roosevelt disagreed. Despite her feelings, she deferred to local project sponsors. After losing a community vote on the issue, Roosevelt recommended the creation of other communities for the excluded black and Jewish miners; the experience motivated Roosevelt to become much more outspoken on the issue of racial discrimination.
In many New Deal agencies and projects, the power of local administrators was hard to overcome. Though legislation was federal, it took local powers-that-be to implement it. Arthurdale was not unique in the nature of locals' racial attitudes. In 1938, Franklin Roosevelt delivered the only high school commencement address of his Presidenc
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
Albright, West Virginia
Albright is a town and former coal town in Preston County, West Virginia, United States, along the Cheat River. The population was 299 at the 2010 census; the town derives its name from an early settler. In 1985, a mass flooding of the Cheat River wiped out most structures in the town. Located near Albright is the Virginia Furnace, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.27 square miles, of which, 0.23 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. At the 2010 census, there were 299 people, 120 households and 79 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,300.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 128 housing units at an average density of 556.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.3% from two or more races. There were 120 households of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families.
30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the town was 38.2 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. At the 2000 census, there were 247 people, 99 households and 61 families residing in the town; the population density was 857.9 per square mile. There were 113 housing units at an average density of 392.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.79% White, 0.40% African American, 0.81% from two or more races. There were 99 households of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06.
27.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median household income was $21,389 and the median family income was $21,500. Males had a median income of $20,764 compared with $16,250 for females; the per capita income was $10,581. About 27.9% of families and 26.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 27.3% of those sixty five or over. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Albright has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps