Climate is the long-term average of weather averaged over a period of 30 years. Some of the meteorological variables that are measured are temperature, atmospheric pressure and precipitation. In a broader sense, climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean and ice on Earth; the climate of a location is affected by its latitude and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. More the "climate" of a region is the general state of the climate system at that location at the current time. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most temperature and precipitation; the most used classification scheme was the Köppen climate classification. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and how climate change affects it; the Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
Paleoclimatology is the study of ancient climates. Since few direct observations of climate are available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. Climate models are mathematical models of past and future climates. Climate change may occur over short timescales from a variety of factors. Global warming results in redistributions. For example, "a 3°C change in mean annual temperature corresponds to a shift in isotherms of 300–400 km in latitude or 500 m in elevation. Therefore, species are expected to move upwards in elevation or towards the poles in latitude in response to shifting climate zones". Climate is defined as the weather averaged over a long period; the standard averaging period is 30 years. Climate includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001 glossary definition is as follows: Climate in a narrow sense is defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.
The classical period is 30 years. These quantities are most surface variables such as temperature and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system; the World Meteorological Organization describes climate "normals" as "reference points used by climatologists to compare current climatological trends to that of the past or what is considered'normal'. A Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element over a 30-year period. A 30 year period is used, as it is long enough to filter out any interannual variation or anomalies, but short enough to be able to show longer climatic trends." The WMO originated from the International Meteorological Organization which set up a technical commission for climatology in 1929. At its 1934 Wiesbaden meeting the technical commission designated the thirty-year period from 1901 to 1930 as the reference time frame for climatological standard normals. In 1982 the WMO agreed to update climate normals, these were subsequently completed on the basis of climate data from 1 January 1961 to 31 December 1990.
The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get." Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, proportion of land to water, proximity to oceans and mountains. These change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics. Other climate determinants are more dynamic: the thermohaline circulation of the ocean leads to a 5 °C warming of the northern Atlantic Ocean compared to other ocean basins. Other ocean currents redistribute heat between water on a more regional scale; the density and type of vegetation coverage affects solar heat absorption, water retention, rainfall on a regional level. Alterations in the quantity of atmospheric greenhouse gases determines the amount of solar energy retained by the planet, leading to global warming or global cooling; the variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least insofar as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned.
There are several ways to classify climates into similar regimes. Climes were defined in Ancient Greece to describe the weather depending upon a location's latitude. Modern climate classification methods can be broadly divided into genetic methods, which focus on the causes of climate, empiric methods, which focus on the effects of climate. Examples of genetic classification include methods based on the relative frequency of different air mass types or locations within synoptic weather disturbances. Examples of empiric classifications include climate zones defined by plant hardiness, evapotranspiration, or more the Köppen climate classification, designed to identify the climates associated with certain biomes. A common shortcoming of these classi
Im Jin-ah, known professionally as Nana, is a South Korean singer and model, known for her work as a group member of the South Korean girl group After School and its subgroups, After School Red and Orange Caramel. As an actress, Nana starred in various television dramas such as Love Weaves Through a Millennium, The Good Wife, Kill It and Justice. Nana was born on September 14, 1991, she graduated from Ochang High School in Cheongju, was a participant in the 2009 Asia Pacific Super Model Contest. In November 2009, Nana debuted in After School along with Raina as third generation members with the release of After School's second EP, Because of You. In June 2010, along with After School members Raina and Lizzy, formed a sub-unit called Orange Caramel. Nana's first solo song, "Close Your Eyes", was included on Orange Caramel's third single, "Shanghai Romance". In July 2011, Nana was part of the After School sub-unit A. S. Red along with After School members Kahi and Uee, releasing the single "In the Night Sky".
In September 2011, she was chosen as the main model for the Tokyo Girls Collection fashion show. In March 2012, Nana again modeled for Tokyo Girls Collection, she was a model for the Japanese fashion show Girls' Award and Park Yoon-yoo's Seoul Fashion Walk S/S 2012. In June 2012, After School released their fifth maxi-single Flashback. Nana has a solo song on it titled "Eyeline". In December she joined fellow K-pop stars Hyolyn, Hyuna and Nicole to form super group Dazzling Red for SBS Gayo Daejun, performing the song "This Person", she became the endorsement model for the biggest diet brand in Korea, Juvis. Nana was a permanent panelist on the Japanese fashion TV show, Tokyo Brandnew Girls. In 2013, she walked the runway for a-nation's “NYLON” fashion show; the same year, Nana collaborated with Electroboyz on their single "Ma Boy 3". In December 2013, Nana gained global recognition when she placed second on the Independent Critics List of 100 Most Beautiful Faces of 2013, she rose to #1 position in 2014, placed first again in 2015.
In March 2014, it was announced that Nana would be a member on a new SBS variety show called Roommate. The show features 11 celebrities living in one house. In April, Nana became the host for the second season of OnStyle's Style Log, along with Hong Jong-hyun and Cho Min-ho. In August 2014, Nana participated in the Chinese fashion elimination show Muse Dress, emerged runner-up in the competition, she had a cameo role in the Korean film Fashion King, released on November 6, 2014. In early 2015, Nana starred in the Chinese television drama, Love Weaves Through a Millennium, a remake of the Korean drama Queen In-hyun's Man; the same year, she starred in the Chinese romantic comedy film Go Lala Go 2, the sequel to Go Lala Go!. In February 2016, Nana joined the cast of Real Men for the fourth season's female soldier special. In the year, she was cast in a supporting role in the television drama The Good Wife, a remake of the American series of the same name Nana earned positive reviews for her role as Kim Dan, received the Rookie Actress award at the 2016 Asia Artist Awards.
Following her success on the small screen, Nana was cast alongside her The Good Wife co-star, Yoo Ji-tae in the crime comedy film, The Swindlers. In 2017, she was cast in her first leading role for upcoming romantic thriller Four Men, but has decided to leave the cast. In 2019, Nana starred in OCN's crime drama playing a detective; the same year, she starred in KBS's melodrama Justice as a prosecutor. In 2020, she is set to star in a mystery thriller film Confession alongside So Ji-sub and Yunjin Kim. Nana at HanCinema
The Texas State Board of Dental Examiners is a state agency of Texas. It has its headquarters in Suite 800 of Tower 3 of the William P. Hobby State Office Building in Downtown Austin, Texas; the board regulates dental clinics in the state. The agency includes an executive division with five employees, an administration and personnel division with two employees, a licensing division with six employees, an enforcement division with fourteen employees, a legal division with seven employees; the dental board itself has 15 board members. Dr. Christine Ellis, an orthodontist in the North Texas region who served as one of the auditors of All Smiles Dental Centers, said that she complained about All Smiles to the SBDE around 2012 but the board said that it was unable to handle the case. Texas State Board of Dental Examiners