Geography of Arizona
Arizona is a landlocked state situated in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It has a vast and diverse geography famous for its deep canyons, high- and low-elevation deserts, numerous natural rock formations, volcanic mountain ranges. Arizona shares land borders with Utah to the north, the Mexican state of Sonora to the south, New Mexico to the east, Nevada to the northwest, as well as water borders with California and the Mexican state of Baja California to the southwest along the Colorado River. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states and is diagonally adjacent to Colorado. Arizona has a total area of 113,998 square miles, making it the sixth largest U. S. state. Of this area, just 0.32% consists of water, which makes Arizona the state with the second lowest percentage of water area. Arizona spans about 335 miles at its widest and 390 miles at its longest, has an average elevation of about 4,000 feet; the geographic center of Arizona is located in Yavapai County 55 miles east-southeast of the city of Prescott.
Arizona is divided into 15 counties, has 90 incorporated cities and towns. 65 percent of Arizona residents live in Maricopa County, which had a population of 3,880,181 as of the 2000 Census. Maricopa County ranks fourth among the nation's counties in terms of population, is more populated than 24 of the U. S. states. The county seat of Maricopa County is Phoenix, Arizona's largest city and capital; the next most populous county is Pima County, which had a 2000 population of 843,746. The county seat of Pima County is Tucson. Combined, nearly 80% of Arizona residents live in either Maricopa County or Pima County though the two counties make up 16% of Arizona's total area; because of the high population of Maricopa County and Pima County, both counties are dominant in state politics. About 15% of Arizona is owned, the remaining land consisting of public forest and park land, Native American reservations, military institutions, swaths of wilderness held by the Bureau of Land Management. Arizona is home to 21 federally recognized tribes.
The large majority are part of the Navajo Nation, the largest Native American reservation in terms of population and size. The Navajo Reservation covers all of northeastern Arizona along with portions of New Mexico and Utah, had a population of 180,462 as of the 2000 census. Due to the state's large area and range of elevation, there is a variety of localized climate conditions. Overall, most of Arizona receives little precipitation, is classified as having either an arid or semi-arid climate; the northern parts of the state and the mountainous areas tend to have cooler climates, while the southern parts of the state tend to be warm year round. Precipitation in Arizona is governed by the season of year; the peak periods of rainfall are during the early winter, when storm systems from the Pacific Ocean cross the state, during the summer moisture-bearing winds sweep into Arizona from the southeast, which obtain moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Summer rains tend to occur in the form of thunderstorms, which result from excessive heating of the ground and the lifting of moisture-laden air along mountain ranges.
These thunderstorms can cause strong winds, brief periods of blowing dust, infrequently cause hail. The heaviest precipitation is found in the mountain ranges of central and southeastern Arizona, while the driest conditions are found in the arid regions of southwestern Arizona; the number of days with measurable precipitation can vary from around 70 in the Flagstaff area to 15 in the Yuma area. The highest elevations of Arizona receive up to 30 inches of precipitation annually, the lower elevations receive between up to 20 inches; the driest part of the state is the southwestern region, which receives under 3 inches of rain a year. Annual average humidity values vary from 55% in Flagstaff to 23% in Yuma. Due to the high temperatures, low humidity, occurrence of sunshine, Arizona has high rates of evaporation. Average annual lake evaporation varies from about 80 inches in the southwestern part of the state to about 50 inches in the northeast. While the desert parts of Arizona are renowned for their warm climates, snow is not uncommon to portions of Arizona.
From November through March, when storm systems from the Pacific Ocean cross the state, heavy snow can accumulate in the mountains of central and northern Arizona. Moderate snow can occur as far south as Nogales, located on the southern border with Mexico, since it experiences below-freezing nighttime temperatures during the winter; the rims of the Grand Canyon experience snow during the winter due to their high altitudes. The South Rim of the Grand Canyon, located at an altitude averaging 7000 feet, receives 60 inches of snow annually, the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, located at an altitude over 8000 feet receives 144 inches of snow; because of the dry climate and sparse cloud cover throughout the state, temperatures can vary from day to night, from season to season. Parts of Arizona located in the Sonoran Desert have warm daytime temperatures year round, while other parts of the state experience seasonal coldness regularly; the average daily temperatures of Yuma, located near Arizona's southwestern corner, range from 43° to 67 °F in January, from 81° to 107 °F in July.
In Flagstaff, located in the state's central interior, the average daily temperatures range from 14° to 41 °F durin
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Climate of the United States
The climate of the United States varies due to differences in latitude, a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. On the mainland, the climate of the U. S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast. West of the 100th meridian, much of the U. S. has a cool to cold semi-arid climate in the interior upper western states, to warm to hot desert and semi-arid climates in the rest of the western and southwestern U. S. East of the 100th meridian, the climate is humid continental in northern areas, transitioning into a humid temperate climate from the southern plains, lower Midwest east to the Middle Atlantic states. A humid subtropical climate is found from southern Oklahoma, eastward to extreme southeast Virginia southward, including the Gulf states and South Atlantic states, extending into south-central Florida. A Mediterranean climate prevails along most of the California coast, while southern Florida has a tropical climate, the warmest region on the US mainland.
Higher-elevation areas of the Rocky Mountains, the Wasatch Range, Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range are alpine. Coastal areas of Oregon and Washington have an oceanic climate; the state of Alaska, on the northwestern corner of the North American continent, is dominated by a subarctic climate, but with a subpolar oceanic climate in the southeast, southwestern peninsula and Aleutian Islands, a polar climate in the north. The primary drivers of weather in the contiguous United States are the seasonal change in the solar angle, the migration north/south of the subtropical highs, the seasonal change in the position of the polar jet stream. In the Northern Hemisphere summer, the subtropical high pressure systems move northward and closer to the United States mainland. In the Atlantic Ocean, the Bermuda High creates a south-southwest flow of warm, humid air over the southern and central United States - resulting in warm to hot temperatures, high humidity and occasional to frequent showers and/or thunderstorms.
In the Northern Hemisphere summer, high pressure in the Pacific Ocean builds toward the California coast, resulting in a northwesterly airflow, creating the cool and stable weather conditions prevalent along the West Coast in summer. In the Northern Hemisphere winter, the subtropical highs retreat southward; the polar jet stream drops further southward into the United States - bringing major rain and snow events, much more variable temperatures, with rapid temperature rises and falls not uncommon. Areas in the southern U. S. however have more stable weather, as the polar jet stream's impact does not reach that far south. Weather systems, be they high-pressure systems, low-pressure systems or fronts are faster-moving and more intense in the winter/colder months than in the summer/warmer months, when the belt of lows and storms moves into southern Canada; the Gulf of Alaska is the origination area of many storms. Such "North Pacific lows" enter the U. S. through the Pacific Northwest move eastward across the northern Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, upper Midwest, Great Lakes and New England states.
Across the central states from late fall to spring, "Panhandle hook" storms move from the central Rockies into the Oklahoma/Texas panhandle areas northeast toward the Great Lakes. They generate unusually large temperature contrasts, bring copious Gulf moisture northward, resulting sometimes in cold conditions and possibly-heavy snow or ice north and west of the storm track, warm conditions, heavy rains and potentially-severe thunderstorms south and east of the storm track - simultaneously. Across the northern states in winter from Montana eastward, "Alberta clipper" storms track east and bring light to moderate snowfalls from Montana and the Dakotas across the upper Midwest and Great Lakes states to New England, windy and severe Arctic outbreaks behind them; when winter-season Canadian cold air masses drop unusually far southward, "Gulf lows" can develop in or near the Gulf of Mexico track eastward or northeastward across the Southern states, or nearby Gulf or South Atlantic waters. They sometimes bring rain, but can bring snow or ice across the South in interior or northern areas.
In the cold season, most precipitation occurs in conjunction with organized low-pressure systems and associated fronts. In the summer, storms are much more localized, with short-duration thunderstorms common in many areas east of the 100th meridian and south of 40 latitude. In the warm season, storm systems affecting a large area are less frequent, weather conditions are more solar controlled, with the greatest chance for thunderstorm and severe weather activity during peak heating hours between 3 PM and 9 PM local time. From May to August often-overnight mesoscale-convective-system thunderstorm complexes associated with frontal activity, can deliver significant to flooding rainfall amounts from the Dakotas/Nebraska eastward across Iowa/Minnesota to the Great Lakes states. From late summer into fall, tropical cyclones sometimes approach or cross the Gulf and Atlantic states, bringing high winds, heavy rainfall, storm surges
Climate of Alaska
The climate of Alaska is determined by average temperatures and precipitation received statewide over many years. The extratropical storm track runs along the Aleutian Island chain, across the Alaska Peninsula, along the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska which exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific; the climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate, in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate in the northern parts. The climate in Southcentral Alaska is a subarctic climate due to its cool summers; the climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate, as the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska have both occurred in the interior. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is an Arctic climate with long, cold winters, cool summers where snow is possible year-round; the climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate in the southern sections and an oceanic, marine subpolar climate, in the northern parts.
Much of the southern parts are temperate rainforest. On an annual basis, southern portions are both the wettest and warmest part of Alaska, with milder temperatures in the winter and high precipitation throughout the year. Average monthly precipitation is highest in the autumn months October, lowest in May or June; this is the only region in Alaska in which the average daytime high temperature is above freezing during the winter months. There are a few regions in the far southeast Alaska where the average temperature is warm enough to grow some cold-hardy palm trees; the climate in south central Alaska, with Anchorage as a typical city, is mild by Alaskan standards. This is due in large part to its proximity to the coast. While it does not get nearly as much rain as the southeast of Alaska, it does get more snow, although days tend to be clearer here, it is a subarctic climate due to its cool summers. There are frequent, strong southeast winds known as the Knik wind in the vicinity of Palmer in the winter months.
The climate of Western Alaska is determined by the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. It is a subarctic oceanic climate in the southwest and a continental subarctic climate farther north; the temperature is somewhat moderate considering. This area has a tremendous amount of variety when considering precipitation; the northern side of the Seward Peninsula is technically a desert with less than 10 inches of precipitation annually, while some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches of precipitation. The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is an excellent example of a true continental subarctic climate; some of the hottest and coldest temperatures in Alaska occur around the area near Fairbanks. The summers can have temperatures reaching into the 90s °F, while in the winter, the temperature can fall below −50 °F, in rare cases, below −60 °F. Precipitation is sparse around the year, peaking during the summer months, all precipitation between October and April falls as snow.
Ice fog is a significant hazard during cold periods between November and March. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is what would be expected for an area north of the Arctic Circle, it is an Arctic climate with long cold winters and short, cool summers. The sun does not rise at all during some weeks in the winter, is out for 24 hours during some weeks in the summer. However, despite 24 hours of sunshine in the summertime, the average low temperature is above freezing in Utqiagvik in July, at 34 °F and snow may fall any month of the year. North Alaska is the coldest region in Alaska; the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska are both in the Interior. The highest is 100 °F in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915; the lowest Alaska temperature is −80 °F in Prospect Creek on January 23, 1971, 1 °F above the lowest temperature recorded in continental North America. Alaska holds the extreme US record low temperatures for every month Juneau averages over 50 inches of precipitation a year, while some other areas in southeast Alaska receive as much as 275 inches.
Average monthly precipitation peaks in September or October, is lowest in May and June. Owing to the rain shadow of the coastal mountains, south-central Alaska does not get nearly as much rain as the southeast of Alaska, though it does get more snow with up to 300 inches at Valdez and much more in the mountains. On average, Anchorage receives 16 inches of precipitation a year, with around 75 inches of snow; the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska receives up to 150 inches of precipitation annually. Across western sections of the state, the northern side of the Seward Peninsula is a desert with less than 10 inches of precipitation annually, while some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches of precipitation. Inland less than 10 inches falls a year and on the North Slope as little as 4 inches of rainfall equivalent and 30 inches of snow is typical, but what snow falls during the winter tends to stay throughout the season. Thunderstorms are rare in most of Alaska, but do occur in the interior in the summer with some frequency and may cause wild
A tropical cyclone is a rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. "Cyclone" refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect. Tropical cyclones form over large bodies of warm water, they derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled by horizontal temperature contrasts. Tropical cyclones are between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter; the strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are unknown in the South Atlantic due to a strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone; the African easterly jet and areas of atmospheric instability which give rise to cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, along with the Asian monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool, are features of the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. Coastal regions are vulnerable to the impact of a tropical cyclone, compared to inland regions; the primary energy source for these storms is warm ocean waters, therefore these forms are strongest when over or near water, weaken quite over land.
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves, storm surges, the potential of spawning tornadoes. Tropical cyclones draw in air from a large area—which can be a vast area for the most severe cyclones—and concentrate the precipitation of the water content in that air into a much smaller area; this continual replacement of moisture-bearing air by new moisture-bearing air after its moisture has fallen as rain, which may cause heavy rain and river flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline, far beyond the amount of water that the local atmosphere holds at any one time. Though their effects on human populations are devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions, they carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface.
On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm core" systems; the near-surface wind field of a tropical cyclone is characterized by air rotating around a center of circulation while flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm; as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere; this radius is coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm. Once aloft, air flows away from the storm's center; the mentioned processes result in a wind field, nearly axisymmetric: Wind speeds are low at the center, increase moving outwards to the radius of maximum winds, decay more with radius to large radii.
However, the wind field exhibits additional spatial and temporal variability due to the effects of localized processes, such as thunderstorm activity and horizontal flow instabilities. In the vertical direction, winds are strongest near the surface and decay with height within the troposphere. At the center of a mature tropical cyclone, air sinks rather than rises. For a sufficiently strong storm, air may sink over a layer deep enough to suppress cloud formation, thereby creating a clear "eye". Weather in the eye is calm and free of clouds, although the sea may be violent; the eye is circular in shape, is 30–65 km in diameter, though eyes as small as 3 km and as large as 370 km have been observed. The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall"; the eyewall expands outward with height, resembling an arena foo
Urban heat island
An urban heat island is an urban area or metropolitan area, warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The temperature difference is larger at night than during the day, is most apparent when winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the winter; the main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces. Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor; as a population center grows, it tends to increase its average temperature. The term heat island is used. Monthly rainfall is greater downwind of cities due to the UHI. Increases in heat within urban centers increases the length of growing seasons, decreases the occurrence of weak tornadoes; the UHI decreases air quality by increasing the production of pollutants such as ozone, decreases water quality as warmer waters flow into area streams and put stress on their ecosystems. Not all cities have a distinct urban heat island. Mitigation of the urban heat island effect can be accomplished through the use of green roofs and the use of lighter-colored surfaces in urban areas, which reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat.
Concerns have been raised about possible contribution from urban heat islands to global warming. While some lines of research did not detect a significant impact, other studies have concluded that heat islands can have measurable effects on climate phenomena at the global scale; the phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon. There are several causes of an urban heat island; this causes a change in the energy budget of the urban area leading to higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas. Another major reason is the lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas; the U. S. Forest Service found in 2018 that cities in the United States are losing 36 million trees each year. With a decreased amount of vegetation, cities lose the shade and evaporative cooling effect of trees. Other causes of a UHI are due to geometric effects; the tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight, increasing the efficiency with which urban areas are heated.
This is called the "urban canyon effect". Another effect of buildings is the blocking of wind, which inhibits cooling by convection and prevents pollutants from dissipating. Waste heat from automobiles, air conditioning and other sources contributes to the UHI. High levels of pollution in urban areas can increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radiative properties of the atmosphere. UHI not only raises urban temperatures but increases ozone concentrations because ozone is a green house gas whose formation will accelerate with the increase of temperature; some cities exhibit largest at night. Seasonally, UHI shows up both in winter; the typical temperature difference is several degrees between the center of the city and surrounding fields. The difference in temperature between an inner city and its surrounding suburbs is mentioned in weather reports, as in "68 °F downtown, 64 °F in the suburbs". "The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8–5.4 °F warmer than its surroundings.
In the evening, the difference can be as high as 22 °F."The UHI can be defined as either the air temperature difference or the surface temperature difference between the urban and the rural area. These two show different diurnal and seasonal variability and have different causes The IPCC stated that "it is well-known that compared to non-urban areas urban heat islands raise night-time temperatures more than daytime temperatures." For example, Spain is 0.2 °C cooler for daily maxima and 2.9 °C warmer for minima than a nearby rural station. A description of the first report of the UHI by Luke Howard in the late 1810s said that the urban center of London was warmer at night than the surrounding countryside by 3.7 °F. Though the warmer air temperature within the UHI is most apparent at night, urban heat islands exhibit significant and somewhat paradoxical diurnal behavior; the air temperature difference between the UHI and the surrounding environment is large at night and small during the day. The opposite is true for skin temperatures of the urban landscape within the UHI.
Throughout the daytime when the skies are cloudless, urban surfaces are warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Surfaces in the urban areas tend to warm faster than those of the surrounding rural areas. By virtue of their high heat capacities, urban surfaces act as a giant reservoir of heat energy. For example, concrete can hold 2,000 times as much heat as an equivalent volume of air; as a result, the large daytime surface temperature within the UHI is seen via thermal remote sensing. As is the case with daytime heating, this warming has the effect of generating convective winds within
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th