In the United States, railroads are designated as Class I, II, or III, according to size criteria first established by the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1911, now governed by the Surface Transportation Board. There are six US Class I freight railroad companies. Canada has two Class I freight railroads, both of which have trackage in the US. Mexico has two Class I freight railroads, one with trackage in the US. In addition, the national passenger railroads in the US and Canada and Via Rail, are both Class I; the ICC classed railroads by their annual gross revenue. Class I railroads had an annual operating revenue of at least $1 million, while Class III railroad incomes were under $100,000 per annum. All such corporations were subject to reporting requirements on a annual schedule. If a railroad slipped below its class qualification threshold for a period, it was not demoted immediately. For instance, in 1925, the ICC reported 174 Class I railroads, 282 Class II railroads, 348 Class III railroads.
Since dissolution of the ICC in 1996, the Surface Transportation Board has become responsible for defining criteria for each railroad class. The bounds are redefined every several years to adjust for inflation and other factors; the initial $1 million criterion established in 1911 for a Class I railroad was used until January 1, 1956, when the figure was increased to $3 million. In 1956, the ICC counted 113 Class I line-haul operating railroads and 309 Class II railroads; the Class III category was dropped in 1956 but reinstated in 1978. By 1963, the number of Class I railroads had dropped to 102. In a special move in 1979, all switching and terminal railroads were re-designated Class III, including those with Class I or Class II revenues. Class II and Class III designations are now used outside the rail transport industry; the Association of American Railroads divides non–Class I companies into three categories: Regional railroads: operate at least 350 miles or make at least $40 million per year.
Local railroads: non-regional but engage in line-haul service. Switching and terminal railroads: switch cars between other railroads or provide service from other lines to a common terminal. In the United States, the Surface Transportation Board defines a Class I railroad as "having annual carrier operating revenues of $250 million or more in 1991 dollars", which adjusted for inflation was $452,653,248 in 2012. According to the Association of American Railroads, Class I railroads had a minimum carrier operating revenue of $346.8 million in 2006, $359 million in 2007, $401.4 million in 2008, $378.8 million in 2009, $398.7 million in 2010 and $433.2 million in 2011. In early 1991, two Class II railroads, Montana Rail Link and Wisconsin Central, asked the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase the minimum annual operating revenue criteria to avoid being redesignated as Class I, which would have resulted in increased administrative and legal costs; the Class II maximum criterion was increased in 1992 to $250 million annually, which resulted in the Florida East Coast Railway having its status changed to Class II.
Rail carriers with less than $20 million in revenue are designated as Class III. In Canada, a Class I rail carrier is defined as a company that has earned gross revenues exceeding $250 million for each of the previous two years. Class I railroads are some of the most efficient forms of transportation, moving a ton of freight 500 miles with each gallon of diesel fuel. In 2013, eleven railroads in North America were designated as Class I. In the United States and seven freight railroads are designated Class I based on 2011 measurements released in 2013. A Class II railroad in the United States hauls freight and is mid-sized in terms of operating revenue; as of 2011, a railroad with revenues greater than $37.4 million but less than $433.2 million for at least three consecutive years is considered Class II. Switching and terminal railroads are excluded from Class II status. Railroads considered by the Association of American Railroads as "Regional Railroads" are Class II. An example of a Class II would be the Florida East Coast Railway.
The last major change of the upper bound for a Class II railroad was in 1992, when the Florida East Coast Railway was changed from a Class I railroad to Class II. A previous change in 1991, which prevented two railroads—Montana Rail Link and Wisconsin Central—from becoming Class I, was made at the request of the two railroads, as they did not wish to take on the extra cost and paperwork associated with Class I status. Changes since have been adjustments for inflation. A Class III railroad has an annual operating revenue of less than $20 million. Class III railroads are local short-line railroads serving a small number of towns and industries or hauling cars for one or more railroads. Many Class III railroads are owned by railroad holding companies such as Genesee & Wyoming, Watco Companies and Iowa Pacific Holdings. In the United States, the Surface Transportation Board continues to use designations of Class II and Class III since there are different labor regulations for the two classes. List of U.
S. Class I railroads List of U. S
Seaboard System Railroad
The Seaboard System Railroad, Inc. was a short-lived former US Class I railroad, created on December 29, 1982 after the consolidation of the Seaboard Coast Line and its sister railroads into a single entity. It was one of two operating companies of the other being Chessie System. Since the late 1960s, the Seaboard Coast Line and its sister railroads had been known as the "Family Lines System," sharing common ownership while operating under different names when conducting business. On July 1, 1986, Seaboard and Chessie merged into Chesapeake & Ohio Railway on August 31, 1987 which ended the CSX Corporation's shared ownership of the Seaboard System and Chessie System railroads; the Seaboard System's roots trace back to SCL Industries, a holding company created in 1968 that combined the SCL's subsidiary railroads into one entity. In 1969, SCL was renamed Seaboard Coast Line Industries. Known as the Family Lines System, this entity adopted its own logo and colors, but each railroad maintained its own identity.
Over time, this caused confusion among customers. In comparison to the neighboring Chessie System, which had three railroads, the Family Lines had five railroads. In 1971 SCL made the Louisville & Nashville a subsidiary. On November 1, 1980, the holding company CSX Corporation was created after the merger of Seaboard Coast Lines Industries and Chessie System; this now simplified ownership of both the Chessie and Seaboard's railroads under one holding company while still keeping their identities separate. On December 29, 1982, the Seaboard Coast Line and Louisville & Nashville were merged to form the Seaboard System Railroad, Inc; this was the first step under the CSX Corporation holding company to combine all railroads into one railroad. Considered as a "temporary railroad", the Seaboard System began to merge away the smaller railroads that were owned under the Family Lines System entity, as well as to simplify equipment and management alongside the Chessie System railroads; this included the Georgia Railroad, South Carolina Pacific Railway, Henderson & St. Louis Railway, Gainesville Midland, Atlanta & West Point Railroad and the Columbia, Newberry & Laurens.
The process began its culmination when Seaboard renamed itself CSX Transportation on July 1, 1986. On April 30, 1987, the Baltimore & Ohio railroad was merged away into Ohio. On August 31, 1987, the Chesapeake & Ohio was merged into CSX Transportation. All the major railroads under CSX Corporation were now one company. Before the creation of the Seaboard System, locomotives began to receive a simplified paint scheme of the Family Lines. However, only the iron-grey and yellow colors were recycled, in combination with a redesigned logo featuring a coupled variation font of ITC Eras Demi; the first locomotive to be decorated with the new Seaboard System paint scheme was Uceta GP16 #4802 in October 1982. Because the merger did not occur until December, locomotives after October 1982 were to receive the Seaboard System paint scheme with the existing railroad's reporting marks applied; when the merger took effect on January 1, 1983, all former reporting marks were to be either removed or patched with SBD initials.
Shortly before taking delivery of the L&N specified EMD SD50's, Seaboard adopted a Swis721 type font for reporting marks and numbers, instead of the customized Seaboard Coast Line lettering seen on pre-1983 repaints. To simplify its locomotive roster and meet Chessie System specifications, Seaboard introduced a numbering system that became meshed within the Chessie System locomotive fleet, removed any existing Mars Lights or Gyralights from locomotives. Any new locomotives purchased by Seaboard would be built to meet Chessie specifications; this section lists the operating divisions of the Seaboard System as of January 1, 1985: Atlanta Birmingham Corbin Evansville Florence Jacksonville Louisville Mobile Nashville Raleigh Savannah Tampa CSX Transportation Family Merger Tree UCETA GP16 roster UCETA GP16 paint EMD "40" Series models EMD "50" Series models GE B36-7 Roster
A reporting mark is an alphabetic code of one to four letters used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock and other equipment used on certain railroad networks. In North America the mark, which consists of an alphabetic code of one to four letters, is stenciled on each piece of equipment, along with a one- to six-digit number; this information is used to uniquely identify every such rail car or locomotive, thus allowing it to be tracked by the railroad they are traveling over, which shares the information with other railroads and customers. The Association of American Railroads assigns marks to all carriers, under authority granted by the U. S. Surface Transportation Board, Transport Canada, Mexican Government. Under current practice, the first letter must match the initial letter of the railroad name; as it acts as a Standard Carrier Alpha Code, the reporting mark cannot conflict with codes in use by other nonrail carriers. Marks ending with the letter "X" are assigned to companies or individuals who own railcars, but are not operating railroads.
In another example, the reporting mark for state-funded Amtrak services in California is CDTX because the state transportation agency owns the equipment used in these services. This may apply to commuter rail, for example Metrolink in Southern California uses the reporting mark SCAX because the equipment is owned by the Southern California Regional Rail Authority—which owns the Metrolink system—even though it is operated by Amtrak; this is why the reporting mark for CSX Transportation, an operating railroad, is CSXT instead of CSX. Private freight car owners in Mexico were issued, up until around 1990, reporting marks ending in two X's to signify that their cars followed different regulations than their American counterparts and so their viability for interchange service was impaired; this resulted in five-letter reporting marks, an option not otherwise allowed by the AAR. Companies owning trailers used in trailer-on-flatcar service are assigned marks ending with the letter "Z", the National Motor Freight Traffic Association, which maintains the list of Standard Carrier Alpha Codes, assigns marks ending in U to owners of intermodal containers.
The standard ISO 6346 covers identifiers for intermodal containers. When the owner of a reporting mark is taken over by another company, the old mark becomes the property of the new company. For example, when the Union Pacific Railroad acquired the Chicago and North Western Railway in the 1990s, it retained the CNW mark rather than repaint all acquired equipment; some companies own several marks that are used to identify different classes of cars, such as boxcars or gondolas. If the acquiring company discontinues the name or mark of the acquired company, the discontinued mark is referred to as a "fallen flag" railway. Long-disused marks are revived by the companies which now own them. For example, in recent years, the Union Pacific Railroad has begun to use the mark CMO on newly built covered hoppers and five-bay coal hoppers. CMO belonged to a predecessor of the CNW, which passed it on to them, from which the UP inherited it. During the breakup of Conrail, the long-retired marks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad were temporarily brought back and applied to much of Conrail's fleet to signify which cars and locomotives were to go to CSX and which to Norfolk Southern.
Some of these cars still retain their temporary NYC marks. Because of its size, this list has been split into subpages based on the first letter of the reporting mark. Railinc, a subsidiary of the AAR, maintains the active reporting marks for the North American rail industry. Railinc offers a free online look-up of reporting marks and other industry reference files through the Railinc's Freight Rail 411 website. A railway vehicle must be registered in a national vehicle register using a 12-digit number derived from the old UIC system of vehicle numbering; the number contains the register country in the fourth digit. The keeper of a vehicle is indicated with a company abbreviation of maximum five letters, called Vehicle Keeper Marking which must be registered with OTIF and ERA and is unique throughout Europe and parts of Asia and Northern Africa; the VKM must not contain special digits. The VKM is preceded by a hyphen; some examples: When a vehicle is sold it will not be transferred to another register.
The Czech railways bought large numbers of coaches from ÖBB. The number remained the same but the VKM changed from A-ÖBB to A-ČD; the UIC introduced a uniform numbering system for their members based on a 12-digit number known as UIC number. The third and fourth digit of the number indicated the owner, or more the keeper of the vehicle, thus each UIC member got a two-digit owner code. With the introduction of national vehicle registers this code became a country code; some vehicles had to be renumbered as a consequence. The Swiss company BLS Lötschbergbahn had the owner code 63; when their vehicles were registered, they got numbers with the country code 85 for Switzerland and the VKM BLS. Example for an "Einheitswagen" delivered in 1957: delivered as BLS B 831 renumbered with UIC number 50 63 20-33 801-5 rebuilt 1991 and renumberd 50
A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine. Several types of diesel locomotive have been developed, differing in the means by which mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels. Early internal combusition locomotives and railcars used gasoline as their fuel. Dr. Rudolf Diesel patented his first compression ignition engine in 1898, steady improvements in the design of diesel engines reduced their physical size and improved their power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. Internal combustion engines only operate efficiently within a limited torque range, while low power gasoline engines can be coupled to a mechanical transmission, the more powerful diesel engines required the development of new forms of transmission; the first successful diesel engines used diesel–electric transmissions, by 1925 a small number of diesel locomotives of 600 hp were in service in the United States. In 1930, Armstrong Whitworth of the United Kingdom delivered two 1,200 hp locomotives using Sulzer-designed engines to Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway of Argentina.
In 1933, diesel-electric technology developed by Maybach was used propel the DRG Class SVT 877, a high speed intercity two-car set, went into series production with other streamlined car sets in Germany starting in 1935. In the USA, diesel-electric propulsion was brought to high speed mainline passenger service in late 1934 through the research and development efforts of General Motors from 1930–34 and advances in lightweight carbody design by the Budd Company; the economic recovery from the Second World War saw the widespread adoption of diesel locomotives in many countries. They offered greater flexibility and performance than steam locomotives, as well as lower operating and maintenance costs. Diesel–hydraulic transmissions were introduced in the 1950s, but from the 1970s onwards diesel–electric transmission has dominated; the earliest recorded example of the use of an internal combustion engine in a railway locomotive is the prototype designed by William Dent Priestman, examined by Sir William Thomson in 1888 who described it as a " mounted upon a truck, worked on a temporary line of rails to show the adaptation of a petroleum engine for locomotive purposes.".
In 1894, a 20 hp two axle machine built by Priestman Brothers. In 1896 an oil-engined railway locomotive was built for the Royal Arsenal, England, in 1896, using an engine designed by Herbert Akroyd Stuart, it was not a diesel because it used a hot bulb engine but it was the precursor of the diesel. Following the expiration of Dr. Rudolf Diesel's patent in 1912, his engine design was applied to marine propulsion and stationary applications. However, the massiveness and poor power-to-weight ratio of these early engines made them unsuitable for propelling land-based vehicles. Therefore, the engine's potential as a railroad prime mover was not recognized; this changed as development reduced the weight of the engine. In 1906, Rudolf Diesel, Adolf Klose and the steam and diesel engine manufacturer Gebrüder Sulzer founded Diesel-Sulzer-Klose GmbH to manufacture diesel-powered locomotives. Sulzer had been manufacturing Diesel engines since 1898; the Prussian State Railways ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in 1909, after test runs between Winterthur and Romanshorn the diesel–mechanical locomotive was delivered in Berlin in September 1912.
The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of 1912 on the Winterthur–Romanshorn railroad in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success. During further test runs in 1913 several problems were found. After the First World War broke out in 1914, all further trials were stopped; the locomotive weight was 95 tonnes and the power was 883 kW with a maximum speed of 100 km/h. Small numbers of prototype diesel locomotives were produced in a number of countries through the mid-1920s. Adolphus Busch purchased the American manufacturing rights for the diesel engine in 1898 but never applied this new form of power to transportation, he founded the Busch-Sulzer company in 1911. Only limited success was achieved in the early twentieth century with internal combustion engined railcars, due, in part, to difficulties with mechanical drive systems. General Electric entered the railcar market in the early twentieth century, as Thomas Edison possessed a patent on the electric locomotive, his design being a type of electrically propelled railcar.
GE built its first electric locomotive prototype in 1895. However, high electrification costs caused GE to turn its attention to internal combustion power to provide electricity for electric railcars. Problems related to co-coordinating the prime mover and electric motor were encountered due to limitations of the Ward Leonard current control system, chosen. A significant breakthrough occurred in 1914, when Hermann Lemp, a GE electrical engineer and patented a reliable direct current electrical control system. Lemp's design used a single lever to control both engine and generator in a coordinated fashion, was the prototype for all internal combustion–electric drive control systems. In 1917–18, GE produced three experimental diesel–electric locomotives using Lemp's control design, the first known to be built in the United States. Following this development, the 1923 Kaufman Act banned steam locomotives from New York City because of severe pollution problems; the response to this law was to electrify high-traffic rail lines.
However, electrification was u
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Little Switzerland, North Carolina
Little Switzerland is an unincorporated community in McDowell and Mitchell counties of North Carolina, United States. It is located along NC 226A off the Blue Ridge Parkway, directly north of Marion, North Carolina and south of Spruce Pine. Elevation is 3500 feet above sea level. At this location, in 1909, the "Switzerland Company" was founded by North Carolina State Supreme Court Justice Heriot Clarkson to construct a resort village. Covenants in the rules included no one house per lot. On January 17, 1964, the Switzerland Company filed a suit against the construction of the Blue Ridge Parkway noting that it was seeking a right of way of 800 feet wide and through the resort and were not paying an adequate amount; the suit was settled with the Parkway getting 200 feet wide access and paying $25,000. It is now the narrowest point on the Parkway in North Carolina; the access to the Switzerland Inn is the only commercial access road on the parkway. There were other skirmishes between the resort and parkway including the parkway closing the road to Kilmichael Tower built by Little Switzerland atop Grassy Mountain.
Little Switzerland lost the tower fell into disrepair. Its base is still visible; the group got the Carolina and Ohio Railroad to locate a station 4 miles from the community. They built a toll road to it - Etchoe Pass Road; the tolls did not last. It is now NC 226A; the original Switzerland Inn was razed in the 1960s and a modern motor court was built by William Cessna. Its naming illustrates the gradual change in meaning of the 19th century term little Switzerland from an area of limestone formations to one of mountainous appearance. Famous oboist John Mack used to hold an annual "John Mack Oboe Camp" in the community before his death in 2006; the camp continues to be hosted every summer by many of his students. The Church of the Resurrection was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. Woody's Knob Louisa DeSaussure Duls, The Story Of Little Switzerland Visit Little Switzerland website
Kingsport is a city in Sullivan and Hawkins counties in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census the population was 48,205. Kingsport is the largest city in the Kingsport–Bristol–Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 309,544 as of 2010; the Metropolitan Statistical Area is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. Census data from 2006–2008 for the Tri-Cities Combined Statistical Area estimates a population of 496,454. Kingsport is included in what is known as the Mountain Empire, which spans a portion of southwest Virginia and the mountainous counties in northeastern Tennessee; the name "Kingsport" is a simplification of "King's Port" referring to the area on the Holston River known as King's Boat Yard, the head of navigation for the Tennessee Valley. Kingsport was developed after the Revolutionary War, at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Holston River. In 1787 it was known for an ancient mineral lick.
It was first settled about a mile from the confluence. The Long Island of the Holston River is near the confluence, within the present-day corporate boundaries of Kingsport; the island was an important site for the Cherokee, colonial pioneers and early settlers, mentioned in the 1770 Treaty of Lochaber. Early settlements at the site were used as a staging ground for other pioneers who were traveling overland on the Wilderness Road leading to Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap. First chartered in 1822, Kingsport became an important shipping port on the Holston River. Goods originating for many miles around from the surrounding countryside were loaded onto barges for the journey downriver to the Tennessee River at Knoxville. In the Battle of Kingsport during the Civil War, a force of 300 Confederates under Colonel Richard Morgan stopped a larger Union force for nearly two days. An army of over 5,500 troops under command of Major General George Stoneman had left Knoxville to raid Confederate targets in Virginia: the salt works at Saltville, the lead works at Wytheville, the iron works in Marion.
While Col. Morgan's small band held off a main Union force under Major General Cullem Gillem on the opposite side the Holston River, Union Col. Samuel Patton took a force of cavalry to a ford in the river 2.5 miles north and came down behind the Confederates. Out-numbered, out-flanked, demoralised by the bitter winter weather, Col. Morgan surrendered; the Confederates suffered 18 dead, 84 prisoners of war were sent to a Union prison in Knoxville. The city lost its charter. On September 12, 1916, Kingsport residents demanded the death of circus elephant Mary, she had killed city hotel worker Walter Eldridge, hired by the circus the day before as an assistant elephant trainer. Eldridge was killed by the elephant while he was leading her to a pond; the elephant was impounded by the local sheriff. Leaders of several nearby towns threatened to prevent the circus from performing if it included the elephant; the circus owner, Charlie Sparks, reluctantly decided that the only way to resolve the situation was to hold a public execution.
On the following day, she was transported by rail to Erwin, where a crowd of over 2,500 people assembled in the Clinchfield Railroad yard to watch her hang from a railroad crane. Re-chartered in 1917, Kingsport was an early example of a "garden city". Part of it was designed by city planner and landscape architect John Nolen of Cambridge, Massachusetts, it was nicknamed as the "Model City" from this plan, which organized the town into areas for commerce, churches and industry. Most of the land on the river was devoted to industry. Most of the Long Island is now occupied by Eastman Chemical Company, headquartered in Kingsport; as part of this plan, Kingsport built some of the earliest traffic circles in the United States. Kingsport was among the first municipalities to adopt a city manager form of government, to professionalize operations of city departments, it developed its school system based on a model promoted by Columbia University. Pal's Sudden Service, a regional fast-food restaurant chain, opened its first location in Kingsport in 1956.
Kingsport is located in western Sullivan County at 36°32′N 82°33′W, at the intersection of U. S. Routes 11W and 23. Kingsport is the northwest terminus of Interstate 26. US 11W leads east 22 miles to Bristol and southwest 28 miles to Rogersville, while US 23 leads north 38 miles to Big Stone Gap, Virginia. I-26 and US 23 lead south 8 miles to Interstate 81 and 83 miles to North Carolina; the city is bordered to the west by the town of Mount Carmel, to the southeast by unincorporated Colonial Heights, to the northeast by unincorporated Bloomingdale. The Kingsport city limits extend north to the Virginia border. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 50.8 square miles, of which 49.8 square miles are land and 0.93 square miles, or 1.86%, are water. Most of the water area is in the South Fork Holston River. Allandale Amersham Borden Mill Village Gibson Town Fair Acres The Fifties District Highland Park Huntington Hills Indian Springs Lynn Garden Morrison City Preston Forest Preston Hills Ridgefields Riverview Rotherwood Heights Tellico Hills As of the census of 2000, there were 44,90