The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Preventive healthcare consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health comprises a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, lifestyle choices. Health and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary and tertiary prevention; each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional injuries and certain infectious diseases; this same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. According to estimates made by the World Health Organization, about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer and chronic cardiovascular and lung diseases.
This is an increase from the year 2000, during which 60% of deaths were attributed to these diseases. Preventive healthcare is important given the worldwide rise in prevalence of chronic diseases and deaths from these diseases. There are many methods for prevention of disease, it is recommended that adults and children aim to visit their doctor for regular check-ups if they feel healthy, to perform disease screening, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Some common disease screenings include checking for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, screening for colon cancer, depression, HIV and other common types of sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, colorectal cancer screening, a Pap test, screening for osteoporosis. Genetic testing can be performed to screen for mutations that cause genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases such as breast or ovarian cancer.
However, these measures are not affordable for every individual and the cost effectiveness of preventive healthcare is still a topic of debate. Preventive healthcare strategies are described as taking place at the primal, primary and tertiary prevention levels. In the 1940s, Hugh R. Leavell and E. Gurney Clark coined the term primary prevention, they worked at the Harvard and Columbia University Schools of Public Health and expanded the levels to include secondary and tertiary prevention. Goldston notes that these levels might be better described as "prevention and rehabilitation", though the terms primary and tertiary prevention are still in use today; the concept of primal prevention has been created much more in relation to the new developments in molecular biology over the last fifty years, more in epigenetics, which point to the paramount importance of environmental conditions - both physical and affective - on the organism during its fetal and newborn life. Primal prevention has been propounded as a separate category of "health promotion".
This health promotion par excellence is based on the'new knowledge' in molecular biology, in particular on epigenetic knowledge, which points to how much affective - as well as physical - environment during fetal and newborn life may determine each and every aspect of adult health. This new way of promoting health consists in providing future parents with pertinent, unbiased information on primal health and supporting them during their child's primal period of life; this includes adequate parental leave - ideally for both parents - with kin caregiving and financial help where needed. Another related concept is primordial prevention which refers to all measures designed to prevent the development of risk factors in the first place, early in life. Primary prevention consists of traditional "health promotion" and "specific protection." Health promotion activities are non-clinical life choices. For example, eating nutritious meals and exercising daily, that both prevent disease and create a sense of overall well-being.
Preventing disease and creating overall well-being, prolongs our life expectancy. Health-promotional activities do not target a specific disease or condition but rather promote health and well-being on a general level. On the other hand, specific protection targets a type or group of diseases and complements the goals of health promotion. Food is much the most basic tool in preventive health care; the 2011 National Health Interview Survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control was the first national survey to include questions about ability to pay for food. Difficulty with paying for food, medicine, or both is a problem facing 1 out of 3 Americans. If better food options were available through food banks, soup kitchens, other resources for low-income people and the chronic conditions that come along with it would be better controlled A "food desert" is an area with restricted access to healthy foods due to a lack of supermarkets within a reasonable distance; these are ofte
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, sound tone, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler; the outcome of the comparison can result in no significant error being noted on the device under test, a significant error being noted but no adjustment made, or an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level. Speaking, the term calibration means just the act of comparison, does not include any subsequent adjustment; the calibration standard is traceable to a national standard held by a National Metrological Institute. The formal definition of calibration by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is the following: "Operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication."This definition states that the calibration process is purely a comparison, but introduces the concept of measurement uncertainty in relating the accuracies of the device under test and the standard.
The increasing need for known accuracy and uncertainty and the need to have consistent and comparable standards internationally has led to the establishment of national laboratories. In many countries a National Metrology Institute will exist which will maintain primary standards of measurement which will be used to provide traceability to customer's instruments by calibration; the NMI supports the metrological infrastructure in that country by establishing an unbroken chain, from the top level of standards to an instrument used for measurement. Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others. Since the Mutual Recognition Agreement was signed it is now straightforward to take traceability from any participating NMI and it is no longer necessary for a company to obtain traceability for measurements from the NMI of the country in which it is situated, such as the National Physical Laboratory in the UK. To improve the quality of the calibration and have the results accepted by outside organizations it is desirable for the calibration and subsequent measurements to be "traceable" to the internationally defined measurement units.
Establishing traceability is accomplished by a formal comparison to a standard, directly or indirectly related to national standards, international standards, or certified reference materials. This may be done by national standards laboratories operated by the government or by private firms offering metrology services. Quality management systems call for an effective metrology system which includes formal and documented calibration of all measuring instruments. ISO 9000 and ISO 17025 standards require that these traceable actions are to a high level and set out how they can be quantified. To communicate the quality of a calibration the calibration value is accompanied by a traceable uncertainty statement to a stated confidence level; this is evaluated through careful uncertainty analysis. Some times a DFS is required to operate machinery in a degraded state. Whenever this does happen, it must be in writing and authorized by a manager with the technical assistance of a calibration technician. Measuring devices and instruments are categorized according to the physical quantities they are designed to measure.
These vary internationally, e.g. NIST 150-2G in the U. S. and NABL-141 in India. Together, these standards cover instruments that measure various physical quantities such as electromagnetic radiation, sound and frequency, ionizing radiation, mechanical quantities, thermodynamic or thermal properties; the standard instrument for each test device varies accordingly, e.g. a dead weight tester for pressure gauge calibration and a dry block temperature tester for temperature gauge calibration. Calibration may be required for the following reasons: a new instrument after an instrument has been repaired or modified when a specified time period has elapsed when a specified usage has elapsed before and/or after a critical measurement after an event, for example after an instrument has been exposed to a shock, vibration, or physical damage, which might have compromised the integrity of its calibration sudden changes in weather whenever observations appear questionable or instrument indications do not match the output of surrogate instruments as specified by a requirement, e.g. customer specification, instrument manufacturer recommendation.
In general use, calibration is regarded as including the process of adjusting the output or indication on a measurement instrument to agree with value of the applied standard, within a specified accuracy. For example, a thermometer could be calibrated so the error of indication or the correction is determined, adjusted so that it shows the true temperature in Celsius at specific points on the scale; this is the perception of the instrument's end-user. However few instruments can be adjusted t
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, where it is the primary newspaper. It is the largest newspaper in the state of Wisconsin, where it is distributed widely, it is owned by the Gannett Company. The Journal Sentinel was first printed on Sunday, April 2, 1995, following the consolidation of operations between the afternoon The Milwaukee Journal and the morning Milwaukee Sentinel, owned by the same company, Journal Communications, for more than 30 years; the new Journal Sentinel became a seven-day morning paper. In early 2003, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel began printing operations at its new printing facility in West Milwaukee. In September 2006, the Journal Sentinel announced it had "signed a five-year agreement to print the national edition of USA Today for distribution in the northern and western suburbs of Chicago and the eastern half of Wisconsin"; the legacies of both papers are acknowledged on the editorial pages today, with the names of the Sentinel's Solomon Juneau and the Journal's Lucius Nieman and Harry J. Grant listed below their respective newspaper's flags.
The merged paper's volume and edition numbers follow those of the Journal. The Milwaukee Sentinel was founded in response to disparaging statements made about the east side of town by Byron Kilbourn's westside partisan newspaper, the Milwaukee Advertiser, during the city's "bridge wars", a period when the two sides of town fought for dominance; the founder of Milwaukee, Solomon Juneau, provided the starting funds for editor John O'Rourke, a former office assistant at the Advertiser, to start the paper. It was first published as a four-page weekly on June 27, 1837. A deathly ill O'Rourke struggled to help the paper to find its feet before he died six months of tuberculosis at the age of 24. On Juneau's request, O'Rourke's associate, Harrison Reed, remained to take over the Sentinel's operations, he continued the struggle to keep the paper ahead of its debts printing pleas to his advertisers and subscribers to pay their bills any way they could. Meanwhile, the establishment of the Whig party in the territory thrust the Sentinel into partisan politics.
In 1840 Reed was assaulted by individuals whom the Sentinel charged were hired by Democratic Governor Henry Dodge. That year the paper abandoned its independence and proclaimed itself a Whig paper with its endorsement of William Henry Harrison for president in 1840. In financial straits, Reed lost control of the paper in 1841 when Democrats foreclosed on the Sentinel's mortgaged debt and took over its editorial page. Only after the Democrats' successful election of Dodge for Congress was Reed able to regain control of the paper; the next year he sold the Sentinel to Elisha Starr, an editor who had founded a new Whig paper in response to the Sentinel's Democratic lapse. Reed became a "carpetbag" governor of Florida during Reconstruction. Starr guarded the Sentinel's position as the sole Whig organ in Milwaukee. In debt, he secured the partnership of David M. Keeler, who paid off the paper's creditors. Keeler took on partner John S. Fillmore and succeeded in ousting Starr, who kept publishing his own version of the Sentinel.
Keeler and Fillmore trumped his efforts by turning their Sentinel into a daily on December 9, 1844, while still publishing a weekly edition. The paper began to prosper and establish itself as a major political force in the nascent state of Wisconsin. Having accomplished his goal of establishing the first daily paper in the territory, Keeler retired two months but not before opening a public reading room of the nation's newspapers, the origin of Milwaukee's public library system. Fillmore employed a succession of editors, including Jason Downer a Wisconsin Supreme Court justice, Increase A. Lapham, a Midwestern naturalist who helped establish the National Weather Service. After running through six editors in eight years, Fillmore sought a more stable editorial foundation and went east to confer with Thurlow Weed, editor of the Albany Evening Journal and powerful Whig political boss of New York. Weed recommended protégé, Rufus King. King was a native of New York City, a graduate of West Point, a brevet lieutenant, the son of the president of Columbia College and the grandson of U.
S. Constitution signer Rufus King. In June 1845 King became the Sentinel's editor three months later. King was lionized by the community, it was his suggestion that made the Sentinel the first paper in the Midwest to employ newsboys to boost street sales. Due to King's connections to the East, the quality of the Sentinel improved, he declared the Sentinel an antislavery paper and supported temperance legislation. King invested his own money in the paper. Two years the first telegraph message wired to Wisconsin was received in the Sentinel office; the paper provided thorough coverage of Wisconsin's constitutional convention, held in Madison in 1846. When the adopted constitution fell short of Whig expectations, the Sentinel was instrumental in encouraging its rejection by territorial voters on April 6, 1847; the Sentinel launched a German paper, Der Volksfreund, to bring the city's large population of German immigrants to the Whig cause. Gen. King himself was a delegate to Wisconsin's second constitutional convention.
He was appointed head of the Milwaukee militia and sat on the University of Wisconsin's board of regents, as well as being the first superintendent of Milwaukee public schools. In the wake of the Panic of 1857 King sold the paper to T. D. Jermain and H. H. Brightman, but remained editor, covering the state legislative sessions of 1859–1861 himself. After
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where clinical pathology tests are carried out on clinical specimens to obtain information about the health of a patient to aid in diagnosis and prevention of disease. Clinical Medical laboratories are an example of applied science, as opposed to research laboratories that focus on basic science, such as found in some academic institutions. Medical laboratories so offer a variety of testing services. More comprehensive services can be found in acute-care hospitals and medical centers, where 70% of clinical decisions are based on laboratory testing. Doctors offices and clinics, as well as skilled nursing and long-term care facilities, may have laboratories that provide more basic testing services. Commercial medical laboratories operate as independent businesses and provide testing, otherwise not provided in other settings due to low test volume or complexity. In hospitals and other patient-care settings, laboratory medicine is provided by the Department of Pathology, divided into two sections, each of which will be subdivided into multiple specialty areas.
The two sections are: Anatomic pathology: areas included here are histopathology and electron microscopy. Clinical pathology, which includes the following areas:Clinical Microbiology: This encompasses several different sciences, including bacteriology, parasitology and mycology. Clinical Chemistry: This area includes automated analysis of blood specimens, including tests related to enzymology and endocrinology. Hematology: This area includes manual analysis of blood cells, it often includes coagulation. Blood Bank involves the testing of blood specimens in order to provide blood transfusion and related services. Molecular diagnostics DNA testing may be done along with a subspecialty known as cytogenetics. Reproductive biology testing is available in some laboratories, including Semen analysis, Sperm bank and assisted reproductive technology. Layouts of clinical laboratories in health institutions vary from one facility to another. For instance, some health facilities have a single laboratory for the microbiology section, while others have a separate lab for each specialty area.
The following is an example of a typical breakdown of the responsibilities of each area: Microbiology includes culturing of clinical specimens, including feces, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, as well as possible infected tissue. The work here is concerned with cultures, to look for suspected pathogens which, if found, are further identified based on biochemical tests. Sensitivity testing is carried out to determine whether the pathogen is sensitive or resistant to a suggested medicine. Results are reported with the identified organism and the type and amount of drug that should be prescribed for the patient. Parasitology is. For example, fecal samples may be examined for evidence of intestinal parasites such as tapeworms or hookworms. Virology is concerned with identification of viruses in specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hematology analyzes whole blood specimens to perform full blood counts, includes the examination of Blood films. Other specialized tests include cell counts on various bodily fluids.
Coagulation testing determines various blood clotting times, coagulation factors, platelet function. Clinical Biochemistry performs dozens of different tests on serum or plasma; these tests automated, includes quantitative testing for a wide array of substances, such as lipids, blood sugar and hormones. Toxicology is focused on testing for pharmaceutical and recreational drugs. Urine and blood samples are the common specimens. Immunology/Serology uses the process of antigen-antibody interaction as a diagnostic tool. Compatibility of transplanted organs may be determined with these methods. Immunohaematology, or Blood bank determines blood groups, performs compatibility testing on donor blood and recipients, it prepares blood components and products for transfusion. This area determines a patient's blood type and Rh status, checks for antibodies to common antigens found on red blood cells, cross matches units that are negative for the antigen. Urinalysis tests urine including microscopically. If more precise quantification of urine chemicals is required, the specimen is processed in the clinical biochemistry lab.
Histopathology processes solid tissue removed from the body for evaluation at the microscopic level. Cytopathology examines smears of cells from all over the body for evidence of inflammation and other conditions. Molecular diagnostics includes specialized tests involving DNA analysis. Cytogenetics involves using blood and other cells to produce a DNA karyotype; this can be helpful in cases of prenatal diagnosis as well as in some cancers which can be identified by the presence of abnormal chromosomes. Surgical pathology examines organs, tumors and other tissues biopsied in surgery such as breast mastectomies; the staff of clinical laboratories may include: Pathologist Clinical Biochemist Pathologists' Assistant Biomedical Scientist in the UK, Medical Laboratory Scientist in the US or Medical Laboratory Technologist in Canada Medical Laboratory Technician/Clinical Laboratory Technician Medical Laboratory Assistant Phlebotomist Histotechnologist/Histology Technician In the United States, there is a documented shortage of working laboratory professionals.
For example, in 2016 vacan
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can facilitate commoditization of custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions; this view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards. Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization; the centralized weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc.
Weights existed in categories. Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Kalibangan, Dolavira and Mohenjo-daro; the weights and measures of the Indus civilization reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilization: A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights, they did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each measuring about 1.5 m in depth. This was evidence; the 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, 68% were made of chert. The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts.
Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability to nuts and bolts. Before this, screw threads were made by chipping and filing. Nuts were rare. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were fastened in non-threaded ways. Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size; this was a major advance in workshop technology. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841, it came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, was adopted in other countries.
This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats; these were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering. With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing. American Unified Coarse was based on the same imperial fractions; the Unified thread angle has flattened crests. Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 1⁄2 in bolt is 12 threads per inch in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC. By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible.
In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work." The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929; the national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries; the Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commissi