Medical College of Georgia
The Medical College of Georgia is the flagship medical school of the University System of Georgia, the state's only public medical school, one of the top 10 largest medical schools in the United States. Established in 1828 as the Medical Academy of Georgia, MCG is the oldest and founding school of Augusta University, it is the 13th oldest in the nation. With 22 departments, it offers both a Doctor of Medicine as well as MD-PhD, MD-MPH, MD-MBA degrees, its national ranking in research is 84, its ranking in primary care is 88. In response to the state of Georgia's worsening shortage of physicians, the school has undergone tremendous growth in recent years. Beginning in 2010, MCG expanded to include multiple regional campuses across the state. In addition to its main clinical campus in Augusta, clinical training is offered at campuses in Albany, Savannah/Brunswick, in Athens at the University of Georgia; the Athens campus used by MCG is the University of Georgia’s full, four-year Health Science Campus that houses 40 of the school's 230 first-year students as part of a partnership with the University of Georgia.
In 2013, the MCG Foundation received $66 million as a gift from Dr. J. Harold Harrison, MD, a notable vascular surgeon and MCG alumnus; this unprecedented gift allowed for the creation of a number of scholarships, multiple construction projects, plans for further expansion in the future. MCG was founded in 1828 as the Medical Academy of Georgia by the Medical Society of Augusta to address a need to train new physicians, its first seven students enrolled in a one-year course of lectures and clinical training hosted in the Old Medical College building, leading to the bachelor of medicine degree. The next year, the governor signed a legislative act altering the charter of 1828 by expanding the curriculum to two years, culminating in a doctor of medicine degree, changing the name to the Medical Institute of Georgia; the school changed its name in 1833 to its current name, for the next 80 years continued to operate with an emphasis on research and training physicians. Many discoveries were made by faculty, including the first hysterectomy performed in the United States and the first documented case of sickle cell disease.
More than 2,600 students have applied for 230 first-year slots. Admitted students in 2018 had an average grade point average of 3.79 and MCAT score of 510, above the national average for students accepted at a US schools of medicine. The main campus resides in Georgia on the Health Sciences campus of Augusta University. All first- and second-year students attend classes at either the Augusta main campus or the University of Georgia Health Science Campus in Athens through the MCG/UGA Medical Partnership. In a student's third and fourth years, a student may choose to study on the main Augusta campus, based at Augusta University Medical Center, or to study at a regional campus for their clinical rotations. MCG has four satellite campuses: The Southwest campus in Albany, was the first residential campus opened in 2010, it marked the school's first efforts to increase the number of physicians produced in the state of Georgia, a problem the university had vowed to address. The Southeast campus, in Savannah and Brunswick, opened in 2011 with seven third-year students beginning rotations at two medical centers and hosts nearly 40 students annually.
The Northwest campus is located in Rome, opened in 2013. Students work with the Harbin Clinic, Floyd Medical Center, Redmond Regional Medical Center, with some classes and training provided on facilities provided by the centers; the University of Georgia Athens campus is part of the MCG/UGA partnership that first hosted students in 2010, aimed at growing the number of physicians the state produces. First-year medical students are given their white coats in an annual tradition to mark their first steps as a medical professional; the jacket is shorter than the long coats full-fledged doctors wear, to mark them as students until they earn their full degree. As with many medical schools around the country, Match Day marks the day fourth-year students are given the location of their residencies on the third Friday of March. Students choose a theme to mark the occasion and dress up accordingly, the day is filled with dancing and plenty of excitement as the next stage in students' medical careers is revealed.
Every year, differences in medical specialties are highlighted by one question: "A surgeon, an internist and an obstetrician are aboard a simulated sinking ship. Their only escape is a one-person raft. Who should be the sole survivor?" Media related to Medical College of Georgia at Wikimedia Commons
Lecturer is an academic rank within many universities, though the meaning of the term varies somewhat from country to country. It denotes an academic expert, hired to teach on a full- or part-time basis, they may conduct research. In the UK, the term lecturer covers several academic ranks; the key distinction is between temporary/fixed-term lectureships. A permanent lecturer in UK universities holds an open-ended position that covers teaching and administrative responsibilities. Permanent lectureships are tenure-track or tenured positions that are equivalent to an assistant or associate professorship in North America. After a number of years, a lecturer may be promoted based on his or her research record to become a senior lecturer; this position is below professor. Research lecturers are the equivalent in rank of lecturers and senior lecturers, but reflect a research-intensive orientation. Research lecturers are common in fields such as medicine and biological and physical sciences. In contrast, fixed-term or temporary lecturers are appointed for specific short-term teaching needs.
These positions are non-renewable and are common post-doctoral appointments. In North American terms, a fixed-term lecturer can hold an equivalent rank to assistant professor without tenure. Longer contracts denote greater seniority or higher rank. Teaching fellows may sometimes be referred to as lecturers—for example, Exeter named some of that group as education and scholarship lecturers to recognise the contribution of teaching, elevate the titles of teaching fellows to lecturers; some universities refer to graduate students or others, who undertake ad-hoc teaching for a department sessional lecturers. Like adjunct professors and sessional lecturers in North America, these non-permanent teaching staff are very poorly paid; these varying uses of the term lecturer cause confusion for non-UK academics. As a proportion of UK academic staff, the proportion of permanent lectureships has fallen considerably; this is one reason why permanent lectureships are secured only after several years of post-doctoral experience.
Data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency show that in 2013-14, 36 per cent of full- and part-time academic staff were on fixed-term contracts, down from 45 per cent a decade earlier. Over the same period, the proportion of academic staff on permanent contracts rose from 55 per cent to 64 per cent. Others were on contracts classed as “atypical”.' In the UK, promotion to a senior lectureship reflected prowess in teaching or administration rather than research, the position was much less to lead direct to promotion to professor. In contrast, promotion to senior lecturer nowadays is based on research achievements, is an integral part of the promotion path to a full chair. Promotion to reader is sometimes still necessary before promotion to a full chair. Senior lecturers and readers are sometimes paid on the same salary scale, although readers are recognized as more senior. Readers in pre-1992 universities are considered at least the equivalent, in terms of status, of professors in post-1992 universities.
Many academics consider it more prestigious to have been a reader in a pre-1992 university than a professor in a post-1992 university. Many open-ended lecturers in the UK have a doctorate and have postdoctoral research experience. In all fields, a doctorate is a prerequisite, although this was not the case; some academic positions could have been held on the basis of research merit alone, without a higher degree. The new universities have a different ranking naming scheme from the older universities. Many pre-1992 universities use the grades: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Professor. Meanwhile, post-1992 grades are normally: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Principal Lecturer or Reader, Professor. Much confusion surrounds the differing use of the "Senior Lecturer" title. A Senior Lecturer in a post-1992 university is equivalent to a Lecturer in a pre-1992 university, whereas a Senior Lecturer in a pre-1992 university is most equivalent to a Principal Lecturer in a post-1992 university. According to the Times Higher Education, the University of Warwick decided in 2006 "to break away from hundreds of years of academic tradition, renaming lecturers'assistant professors', senior lecturers and readers'associate professors' while still calling professors'professors'.
The radical move will horrify those who believe the "professor" title should be reserved for an academic elite." Nottingham has a mixture of the standard UK system, the system at Warwick, with both lecturers and assistant professors. At Reading, job advertisements and academic staff web pages use the title associate professor, but the ordinances of the university make no reference to these titles, they address only procedures for conferring the traditional UK academic ranks. Since the Conservatives' 1988 Education Reform Act, the ironclad tenure that used to exist in the UK has given way to a less secure form of tenure. Technically, university vice-chancellors can make individual faculty members redundant for poor performance or institute departmental redundancies, but in practice, this is rare; the most noted use of this policy happened in 2012 at Queen Mary University of London where lecturer
A teaching assistant or teacher's aide or education assistant is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. TAs include graduate teaching assistants. By definition, TAs assist with classes, but many graduate students serve as the sole instructor for one or more classes each semester as a teaching fellow or graduate student instructor. Graduate and adult TAs have a fixed salary determined by each contract period. Teaching assistants help the main teacher by supporting students with learning disabilities, such as ADHD, Autism, or physical disabilities, such as blindness or deafness. Graduate teaching assistants are graduate students employed on a temporary contract by a department at a college or university in teaching-related responsibilities. In New Zealand and some Canadian universities, graduate TAs are known as tutors. North American graduate TA positions provide funding for postgraduate research—although the main purpose is to provide teaching support—and it serves as a first career step for aspiring academics.
TA responsibilities vary and may include: tutoring. Professors may use their teaching assistants to help teach discussions during regular class; this gives the graduate student opportunity to use their teaching skills, as many are in pursuit of teaching careers. Some graduate students assist in distance education courses by meeting with the students as professors are not able to. Graduate TAs should not be confused with teaching fellows or graduate student instructors, who are graduate students who serve as the primary instructors for courses. However, at some universities the TF and TA titles are used interchangeably. In British, New Zealand, South African, Italian and some Canadian universities, a tutor is but not always, a postgraduate student or a lecturer assigned to conduct a seminar for undergraduate students known as a tutorial; the equivalent of this kind of tutor in the United States and the rest of Canada is known as a graduate teaching assistant or a graduate student instructor. UTAs or JTAs serve as true assistants to a class.
This case is less common for GTAs. Unlike professors and GTAs, UTAs do not have a fixed salary but instead are paid by the hour, earn credit hours, or volunteer their time; the term teaching assistant is used in the high school and middle school setting for students or adults that assist a teacher with one or more classes. The responsibilities and conditions of these individuals' involvement differ from those in higher education. A less formal position, a TA job in secondary education is determined by the supervising teacher. Common tasks include assisting students with their work, taking attendance. Most of the responsibilities of Teaching Assistants do not require the academic expertise of the professor in charge; some teaching assistants at this level may teach portions of the class lessons, or teach lessons to small groups of students who need extra instruction. Many TAs work "one-on-one" with special needs students. In some parts of the United States it is customary or required that each classroom have one certified teacher and one or more co-teachers or teaching assistants.
Students attending high school and middle schools can take a course an elective, perform tasks such as grade and record scores on homework or tests. The teacher in this setting reviews the grading to assign partial credit on tests and uses discretion. An elementary school teaching assistant is an adult, hired to help a teacher with class-related duties, which are similar to those encountered in middle and high school settings, they are sometimes referred to teacher's aides. Elementary school teaching assistants are hired on a contract that lasts the entire academic year. Teaching assistants aide with multiple duties within schools and can be hired in special education as well. Tutor Research assistant Tutor expertise in adult education The Art of TAing What are TA, RA and GA? Funding? National Career Service profile of a Teaching Assistant Teaching Assistant Resource for Jobs and Courses Changing career to a Teaching Assistant
Professor (highest academic rank)
Professor is the highest academic rank at universities and other institutions of higher education in parts of the world. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences. In most Commonwealth nations and northern Europe, professor is the title of the most senior academics at a university and not a generic label for all university academics. A professor is a accomplished and recognized academic, the title is in most cases awarded only after decades of scholarly work to senior academics. In the United Kingdom 10% of university academics hold professorships. In United States and Canada the word professor is used in the two lower ranking positions, assistant professor and associate professor
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun