Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
General Dean Suspension Bridge
The General Dean Suspension Bridge spans the Kaskaskia River at Carlyle in Clinton County, United States. It is named after Major General William F. Dean, who served during the Korean War and was a native of Carlyle; the bridge is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was added to the Register in 1973; the bridge was constructed in 1859 at a cost of $40,000. The original bridge remained in operation for nearly seventy years. Before the bridge was constructed, travelers were forced to cross the Kaskaskia at Carlyle by ferry or over a mud bridge. In 1950 the Historic American Buildings Survey recognized the bridge for its architectural significance. HABS recommended preservation of the bridge; the Illinois General Assembly set aside $20,000 for bridge restoration in 1951, in 1953 the bridge was named after Major General Dean. Bridgemeister: Several good photos and closeups of the bridge General Dean Suspension Bridge at Structurae Historic American Buildings Survey No. IL-225, "Suspension Bridge, Spanning Kaskaskia River, Clinton County, IL"
The Kaskaskia River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 325 miles long, in central and southern Illinois in the United States. The second largest river system within Illinois, it drains a rural area of farms, as well as rolling hills along river bottoms of hardwood forests in its lower reaches; the lower reaches of the river have been canalized to allow barge traffic. "Cascasquia" is an alternative more French, spelling of "Kaskaskia", sometimes encountered. It was named after a clan of the Illiniwek encountered by the early French Jesuits and other settlers. "Okaw River" was an alternative name for the Kaskaskia that persists in place names along the river, including Okawville, in a major tributary, the West Okaw River. The Kaskaskia rises in east central Illinois in several farm ditches along the west side of Champaign; the headwaters of the river is just north of Interstate 74. The river flows south across rural Champaign and Douglas counties southwest across southern Illinois, past Vandalia.
It joins the Mississippi from the north 10 miles northwest of Chester and 40 miles south-southeast of St. Louis, Missouri; the watershed of the river encompasses 5,746 square miles 10.2% of the state of Illinois. The Kaskaskia is impounded in Shelby County to form Lake Shelbyville, it is impounded in Clinton County southwest of Vandalia to form Carlyle Lake. For most of the 19th century, the river joined the Mississippi at Chester. Deforestation of river banks of the Mississippi and tributaries to fuel the hundreds of steamboats that plied the river had several significant environmental effects: destabilizing the banks, causing the Mississippi to become wider and more shallow, causing more severe flooding and leading to lateral channel changes in the American Bottoms area. In the aftermath of a major 1881 flood, the Mississippi changed its channel and moved east to flow along the lower 10 miles of the channel of the Kaskaskia, shifting the confluence 10 miles north; as a result, a small portion of Illinois, including the former capital, was cut off from Illinois when the river moved to its east side.
It is now located on the west side of the Mississippi. The community of Kaskaskia can now only be reached from the Missouri shore; the Kaskaskia River State Fish & Wildlife Area is located along the lower river in southern Illinois. Fort Kaskaskia was located near the mouth of the river in Randolph County. List of Illinois rivers Media related to Kaskaskia River at Wikimedia Commons Kaskaskia River State Fish & Wildlife Area Kaskaskia River Watershed Northern Illinois University: Kaskaskia River in Randolph County Surf the Upper Kaskaskia with USEPA Surf the Middle Kaskaskia Surf the Shoal Watershed Surf the Lower Kaskaskia
Salt evaporation pond
A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines. Natural salt pans are geological formations that are created by water evaporating and leaving behind salts; some salt evaporation ponds are only modified from their natural version, such as the ponds on Great Inagua in the Bahamas, or the ponds in Jasiira, a few kilometres south of Mogadishu, where seawater is trapped and left to evaporate in the sun. The seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested; the ponds provide a productive resting and feeding ground for many species of waterbirds, which may include endangered species. The ponds are separated by levees. Salt evaporation ponds called salterns, salt works or salt pans, are shallow artificial ponds designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines; the seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested.
Due to variable algal concentrations, vivid colors are created in the evaporation ponds. The color indicates the salinity of the ponds. Microorganisms change their hues as the salinity of the pond increases. In low- to mid-salinity ponds, green algae such as Dunaliella salina are predominant, although these algae can take on an orange hue. In middle- to high-salinity ponds, a group of halophilic Archaea, shift the colour to pink and orange. Other bacteria such as Stichococcus contribute tints. Notable salt ponds include: The Salterns of Guérande, in Loire-Atlantique, the last artisanal salt production in France; the salt produced in the salterns are a Protected geographical indication in Europe The Salineras de Maras, Peru, in the Cusco Region The El Caracol solar evaporator, on the outskirts of Mexico City, Mexico The Sečovlje and Strunjan salt ponds on the northern edge of the Adriatic Sea in Slovenia, The San Francisco Bay salt ponds in the United States, operated by Cargill, including Charleston Slough The Dead Sea salt ponds in the West Bank and Jordan The salt ponds in Salina, Malta.
The name of the village is the Maltese word for salt pan The Port Hedland, Lake McLeod, Useless Loop and Onslow salt ponds in Western Australia Yellow Walls, Ireland. Lake Grassmere in New ZealandUntil World War II, salt was extracted from sea water in a unique way in Egypt near Alexandria. Posts were covered with several feet of sea water. In time the sea water evaporated, leaving the salt behind on the post, where it was easier to harvest. Salt pans are shallow open metal, pans used to evaporate brine, they are found close to the source of the salt. For example, pans used in the solar evaporation of salt from sea water are found on the coast, while those used to extract salt from solution-mined brine will be found near to the brine shaft. In this case, extra heat is provided by lighting fires underneath. Solar desalination Seawater Greenhouse Evaporite NASA page on salt ponds Information on the San Francisco Bay salt ponds Interactive satellite view "Salt, Grown On Sticks Harvested From Sea" Popular Science, March 1933
DeWitt Clinton was an American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator, Mayor of New York City and sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity, he was responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton was a major candidate for the American presidency in the election of 1812, challenging incumbent James Madison. A nephew of long-time New York Governor George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton served as his uncle's secretary before launching his own political career; as a Democratic-Republican, Clinton won election to the New York State Legislature in 1798 before serving as a U. S. Senator. Returning to New York, Clinton served three terms as Mayor of New York City and won election as the Lieutenant Governor of New York. In the 1812 election, Clinton won support from the Federalists as well as a group of Democratic-Republicans dissatisfied with Madison. Though Madison won re-election, Clinton carried most of the Northeastern United States and fared better than the previous two Federalist-supported candidates.
After the presidential election, Clinton continued to affiliate with the Democratic-Republican Party. Clinton served as Governor of New York from 1817 to 1822 and from 1825 to 1828, presiding over the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton believed that infrastructure improvements could transform American life, drive economic growth, encourage political participation, he influenced the development of New York State and the United States. DeWitt Clinton was born on March 2, 1769, the second son born to Major-General James Clinton and his wife Mary DeWitt, a descendant of the Dutch patrician De Witt family, he attended Kingston Academy and began his college studies at the College of New Jersey before transferring to King's College. Kings was renamed Columbia College, Clinton was the first to graduate under the school's new name, he was the brother of U. S. Representative George Clinton Jr. the half-brother of U. S. Representative James G. Clinton, the cousin of Simeon De Witt, he became the secretary to his uncle George Clinton, governor of New York.
Soon after, he became a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1798, of the New York State Senate from the Southern District in 1798–1802 and 1806–1811 He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention in 1801, he was a member of the Council of Appointments in 1801–1802 and 1806–1807. He won election by the New York State Legislature to the U. S. Senate seat left vacant by the resignation of John Armstrong, Jr. and served from February 9, 1802 to November 4, 1803. He resigned over unhappiness with living conditions in newly built Washington, D. C. and was appointed Mayor of New York City. He served as Mayor of New York from 1803 to 1807, 1808 to 1810, 1811 to 1815. While serving as mayor, he was its president, he helped re-organize the American Academy of the Fine Arts in 1808, served as its president between 1813 and 1817. He was a Regent of the University of the State of New York from 1808 to 1825. Clinton was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, served as its vice president from 1821 to 1828.
In 1816 he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. In 1811, the death of John Broome left a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor of New York. In a special election, Clinton defeated the Federalist Nicholas Fish and the Tammany Hall candidate Marinus Willett, to become Lieutenant Governor until the end of the term in June 1813. Clinton's uncle, George Clinton, had attempted to challenge James Madison for the presidency in 1808, but was chosen as the party's vice presidential nominee instead. In 1812, after George Clinton's death, the elder Clinton's supporters gravitated towards DeWitt Clinton. Clinton ran for President of the United States as candidate for both the Federalist Party and a small group of anti-war Democratic-Republicans. In the close election of 1812, Clinton was defeated by President Madison, it was the strongest showing of any Federalist candidate for the Presidency since 1800, the change of the votes of one or two states would have given Clinton the victory.
After the resignation of Governor Tompkins, elected Vice President, he won a special gubernatorial election in which he was the only candidate. 1,479 votes were cast for Peter Buell Porter – against Clinton's 43,310 – because the Tammany organization, which fiercely hated Clinton, had printed ballots with Porter's name on them and distributed them among the Tammany followers in New York City. On July 1, 1817, Clinton took office as Governor of New York, he was re-elected in 1820, defeating the sitting Vice President Tompkins in a narrow race – DeWitt Clinton 47,447 votes, Tompkins 45,900 – and served until December 31, 1822. During his second term, the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 shortened the gubernatorial term to two years, moved the beginning of the term from July 1 to January 1 cutting off the last 6 months of the 3-year-term he had been elected to; the gubernatorial election was moved from April to November, but Clinton was not renominated by his party to run for re-election in November 1822.
So, he still kept his post as President of the Erie Canal Commission. In April 1824, a majority of his political enemies, the Bucktails, voted in the New York State Legislature for his removal from the Canal Commission; this caused such a wave of indignation among the electorate, that he was nominated for Governor by the "People's Party", was re-elected governor against the official candidate of the Dem
A post road is a road designated for the transportation of postal mail. In past centuries, only major towns had a post house and the roads used by post riders or mail coaches to carry mail among them were important ones or, due to the special attention given them, became so. In various centuries and countries, post road became more or less equivalent to main road, royal road, or highway; the 20th century spread of postal service blurred the distinction. Great Post Road, from Anyer to Panarukan, was a notable post road in Asia, built during the governancy of Herman Willem Daendels of Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811. Notable post roads in Europe include: Antwerp-Venice Post Road, similar to the Dutch Post Road. Bremen-Hamburg Post Road, approved by the king of Sweden on July 5, 1665 to establish regular mail service. A second route was routed from Cuxhaven through the Land of Wursten to Lehe. Dutch Post Road, established in 1490, connected the Netherlands with coaching inns in Germany and Italy.
The following are notable posts roads in Canada and the U. S. Chemin du Roy was built between Montreal and Quebec City from 1731 to 1737, for mail and as a means of travel for the key settlements in New France/Lower Canada, it was incorporated as Quebec Route 2 and is now part of Quebec Route 138. Two notable post roads built in the late 1700s and early 1800s were Dundas Road and Kingston Road to provide a route for mail and stagecoaches between key settlements in Upper Canada; the latter route, which became The Provincial Highway in 1917, the former which became a Dundas Highway in 1920, were the beginning of the provincial highway system in Ontario. In what was to become the United States, post roads developed as the primary method of communicating information across and between the colonies; the Articles of Confederation authorized the national government to create post offices but not post roads. Adoption of the U. S. Constitution changed this, as Article I, Section Eight, known as the Postal Clause authorizes Congress the enumerated power "to establish post offices and post roads."
This was interpreted liberally, to include all public highways. U. S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story defended the broad interpretation that had become dominant in his influential Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States. Notable American post roads built for the purpose include: Albany Post Road, which connects New York City to Albany, the capital of New York State Boston Post Road, which traverses New England from New York City to Boston, Massachusetts White Plains Post Road, the southernmost section of New York State Route 22, known as the White Plains Post Road in the 18th and 19th centuries, was a major highway connecting New York City to White Plains, Westchester's county seat. Justice Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, 3 vols
Mean center of the United States population
The mean center of the United States population is determined by the United States Census Bureau from the results of each national census. The Bureau defines it as follows: The concept of the center of population as used by the U. S. Census Bureau is that of a balance point; the center of population is the point at which an imaginary, weightless and flat surface representation of the 50 states and the District of Columbia would balance if weights of identical size were placed on it so that each weight represented the location on one person. More this calculation is called the mean center of population. After moving 600 mi west by south during the 19th century, the shift in the mean center of population during the 20th century was less pronounced, moving 324 mi west and 101 mi south. Nearly 79% of the overall southerly movement happened between 1950 and 2000. Given the strong pull of Texas and the Western US, the population center would be heading towards and one day entering Oklahoma; the 20.2-mile shift projected for the 2010–2020 period would be the shortest centroid movement since the Great Depression intercensal period of 1930–1940.
Center of population Median center of United States population Geographic center of the United States Geographic center of the contiguous United States