Roger Keith "Syd" Barrett was an English singer and musician who co-founded the band Pink Floyd in 1965. Barrett named the group and was their original lead singer and principal songwriter, he was ousted in April 1968 after David Gilmour took over as their new guitarist and was hospitalised amid speculation of mental illness and his excessive use of psychedelic drugs. Barrett was musically active for less than ten years. With Pink Floyd, he recorded four singles, their debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, portions of their second album A Saucerful of Secrets, several unreleased songs. Barrett debuted his solo career in 1969 with the single "Octopus" from his first solo album, The Madcap Laughs; the album was recorded over the course of a year with five different producers and included two tracks featuring members of Soft Machine. He recorded and released one more album, produced by Gilmour and featuring contributions from former Pink Floyd bandmate Richard Wright. Two years Barrett left the music industry, retired from public life and guarded his privacy until his death in 2006.
In 1988, EMI released an album of unreleased tracks and outtakes, with Barrett's approval. Barrett's innovative guitar work and exploration of experimental techniques such as dissonance and feedback influenced many musicians, his vocals are noted for their strong English accent. After leaving the music industry, Barrett dedicated himself to gardening. Pink Floyd recorded several tributes to him, most notably the 1975 album Wish You Were Here, which includes the homage "Shine On You Crazy Diamond". Barrett was born as Roger Keith Barrett in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire to a middle-class family living at 60 Glisson Road. Barrett was the fourth of five children, his father, Arthur Max Barrett, was a prominent pathologist and was related to Elizabeth Garrett Anderson through Max's maternal grandmother Ellen Garrett, Elizabeth's cousin. In 1951, his family moved to 183 Hills Road. Barrett played piano but preferred writing and drawing, he got a ukulele at 10, a banjo at 11 and a Hofner acoustic guitar at 14.
A year after he got his first acoustic guitar, he bought his first electric guitar and built his own amplifier. One story of how Barrett acquired the nickname "Syd" is that at the age of 14 he was named after an old local Cambridge jazz double bassist, Sid "The Beat" Barrett, which claims Syd Barrett changed the spelling to differentiate himself from his namesake. Another account is that when he was 13, his schoolmates nicknamed him "Syd" after he showed up to a field day at Abington Scout site wearing a flat cap instead of his Scout beret because "Syd" was a "working-class" name, he used both names interchangeably for several years. His sister Rosemary stated, "He was never Syd at home, he would never have allowed it." He went on to be a patrol leader. At one point at Morley Memorial Junior School he was taught by the mother of future Pink Floyd bassist Roger Waters. In 1957, he attended Cambridgeshire High School for Boys with Waters, his father died of cancer on 11 December 1961, less than a month before Barrett's 16th birthday.
On this date, Barrett left the entry in his diary blank. By this time, his brothers and sisters had left home and his mother decided to rent out rooms to lodgers. Eager to help her son recover from his grief, Barrett's mother encouraged the band in which he played, Geoff Mott and The Mottoes, a band which Barrett formed, to perform in their front room. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends, Waters visited such gigs. At one point, Waters organised a gig, a CND benefit at Friends Meeting House on 11 March 1962, but shortly afterwards Geoff Mott joined the Boston Crabs, the Mottoes broke up. In September 1962, Barrett had taken a place at the Cambridge Technical College art department, where he met David Gilmour. During the winter of 1962 and early 1963, the Beatles made an impact on Barrett, he began to play Beatles songs at parties and at picnics. In 1963, Barrett became a Rolling Stones fan and, with then-girlfriend Libby Gausden, saw them perform at a village hall in Cambridgeshire. At this point, Barrett started writing songs.
Around this time and Gilmour played acoustic gigs together. Barrett had played bass guitar with Those Without during the summer of 1963 and both bass and guitar with The Hollerin' Blues the next summer. In 1964, Barrett and Gausden saw. After this performance, Barrett was inspired to write "Bob Dylan Blues". Barrett, now thinking about his future, decided to apply for Camberwell College of Arts in London. Barrett enrolled in the college in the summer of 1964 to study painting. Starting in 1964, the band that would become Pink Floyd evolved through various line-up and name changes including "The Abdabs", "The Screaming Abdabs", "Sigma 6", "The Meggadeaths". In 1965, Barrett joined them as the Tea Set; when they found themselves playing a concert with another band of the same name, Barrett came up with "The Pink Floyd Sound". During 1965, they went into a studio for the first time, when a friend of Richard Wright's gave the band free time to record. During this summer Barrett had his first LSD trip in the garden of friend Dave Gale, with Ian Moore and Storm Thorgerson.
During one trip and another friend, Paul Charrier, ended up naked in the bath, reciting: "No rules, no rules". That summer, as a consequence of the continuation of drug use, the band became
Bob Dylan World Tour 1966
The Bob Dylan World Tour 1966 was a concert tour undertaken by American musician Bob Dylan, from February to May 1966. Dylan's 1966 World Tour was notable as the first tour--actually a continuation of his late 1965 U. S. tour--where Dylan employed an electric band backing him, following his "going electric" at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival. The musicians Dylan employed as his backing band were known as The Hawks; the 1966 tour was filmed by director D. A. Pennebaker. Pennebaker's footage was edited by Dylan and Howard Alk to produce a little-seen film, Eat the Document, an anarchic account of the tour. Drummer Mickey Jones filmed the tour with an 8mm home movie camera. Many of the 1966 tour concerts were recorded by Columbia Records; these recordings produced two official albums, the so-called "Royal Albert Hall" concert and in 2016, "The Real Royal Albert Hall Concert," as well as The 1966 Live Recordings, a 36 CD box set of every recorded concert from the 1966 tour. There are many unofficial bootleg recordings of the tour.
Dylan's 1966 Tour ended with his motorcycle accident late on Friday afternoon, July 29, 1966. Subsequent to Dylan's withdrawal to Woodstock, he refrained from undertaking a major tour until 1974; as Dylan finished the sessions for his 1965 "Positively 4th Street" single, he wanted to reproduce on-stage the same sound that he had polished in the studio. He soon began to gather a pick-up band, with several musicians, such as bassist Harvey Brooks and organist Al Kooper, that had played during the sessions for Highway 61 Revisited. However, the bulk of the players came from Ronnie Hawkins' former backing group and the Hawks, they impressed Dylan when he saw them play in Toronto, at the direction of Albert Grossman's staffer, Mary Martin, who told him to visit the group at Le Coq d'Or Tavern, a Yonge Street club. An alternate version of the first meeting, put forward by Williamson, suggests that he saw them in a Jersey Shore club. Drummer Levon Helm and guitarist Robbie Robertson were invited to join Dylan's backing group.
As the initial tour in North America progressed, both Kooper and Helm left the band due to stress, which opened up the way for the remaining Hawks to join the band. Helm was replaced by session drummer Bobby Gregg. Gregg left the band as the tour progressed, Sandy Konikoff replaced him on drums, but Konikoff too left when Dylan traveled to Australia. Former Johnny Rivers drummer Mickey Jones remained with the band throughout the rest of the tour. Dylan and his backing group gave concerts sporadically throughout the United States and Canada while the initial sessions for Blonde on Blonde were being recorded. Sometime in September 1965, Dylan and the Band embarked to Woodstock, New York to rehearse the songs they would be performing on the tour. Several songs, such as "Maggie's Farm", "Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?" and "It Ain't Me Babe" were dropped from the tour's set list as they embarked to different locations. The first leg of the tour took place in North America, but by now both Kooper and Helm had left the band.
The initial sessions with the Band for Blonde on Blonde, proved unproductive, with only two tracks good enough to be released. Dylan soon began recording in Tennessee with a new lineup of studio musicians. By April, Dylan had finished the sessions for Blonde on Blonde, continued the tour outside of North America. Leaving the continental United States, Dylan first traveled to Honolulu and from there to Australia, where he performed seven concerts over ten days in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth; the tour group flew to Scandinavia for concerts in Stockholm and Copenhagen. After Scandinavia, Dylan toured the United Kingdom in May, he made a short trip to Paris. Towards the end of the May 17, 1966 concert at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester, Dylan was called "Judas!" by a member of the audience, between the songs "Ballad of a Thin Man" and "Like a Rolling Stone". Dylan answered back, told the man that "I don't believe you... you're a liar!", before he shouted to the members of the band to "Play it fuckin' loud!", where they finished off the set with "Like a Rolling Stone".
A bootleg album of the electric portion of this concert existed for many years, first appearing on the record In 1966 There Was in 1970, before it was released as The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan Live 1966, The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert in 1998. This incident soon became a legendary moment in Rock history. I just keep staring at my copy." Because Dylan was now playing "electric", he was being heckled by folkniks or angry fans throughout the second, electric half of a concert. The press began to go along with the dissent of his fans. A review in the magazine Melody Maker of the May 5, 1966 concert in Dublin, Ireland stated that "It was unbelievable to see a hip-swinging Dylan trying to look and sound like Mick Jagger. For most it was the night of the big let-down." In Europe, walkouts were common, unlike in the United States. The press became more and more hostile as he traveled through England in London; the May 10 concert at Colston Hall in Bristol was savaged by one reviewer, saying that Dylan was "sacrificing lyric and melody to the God of big beat.", while another stated that Dylan had been "buried in
Sir George Ivan Morrison OBE, better known as Van Morrison, is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter and record producer. His professional career began as a teenager in the late 1950s playing a variety of instruments including guitar, harmonica and saxophone for various Irish showbands, covering the popular hits of that time. Van Morrison rose to prominence in the mid-1960s as the lead singer of the Northern Irish R&B band Them, with whom he recorded the garage band classic "Gloria", his solo career began under the pop-hit oriented guidance of Bert Berns with the release of the hit single "Brown Eyed Girl" in 1967. After Berns's death, Warner Bros. Records bought out his contract and allowed him three sessions to record Astral Weeks. Though this album garnered high praise, it was a poor seller. Moondance established Morrison as a major artist, he built on his reputation throughout the 1970s with a series of acclaimed albums and live performances, he continues to record and tour, producing albums and live performances that sell well and are warmly received, sometimes collaborating with other artists, such as Georgie Fame and The Chieftains.
Much of Morrison's music is structured around the conventions of soul music and R&B, such as the popular singles "Brown Eyed Girl", "Jackie Wilson Said", "Domino" and "Wild Night". An equal part of his catalogue consists of lengthy, loosely connected, spiritually inspired musical journeys that show the influence of Celtic tradition and stream-of-consciousness narrative, such as the album Astral Weeks and the lesser known Veedon Fleece and Common One; the two strains together are sometimes referred to as "Celtic soul". He has received two Grammy Awards, the 1994 Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, the 2017 Americana Music Lifetime Achievement Award for Songwriting and has been inducted into both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2016, he was knighted for services to tourism in Northern Ireland, he is known by the nickname Van the Man to his fans. George Ivan "Van" Morrison was born on 31 August 1945, at 125 Hyndford Street, Belfast, Northern Ireland, as the only child of George Morrison, a shipyard electrician, Violet Stitt Morrison, a singer and tap dancer in her youth.
Morrison's family were working class Protestants descended from the Ulster Scots population that settled in Belfast. From 1950 to 1956, who began to be known as "Van" during this time, attended Elmgrove Primary School, his father had what was at the time one of the largest record collections in Ulster and the young Morrison grew up listening to artists such as Jelly Roll Morton, Ray Charles, Lead Belly, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee and Solomon Burke. Those guys were the inspiration. If it wasn't for that kind of music, I couldn't do what I'm doing now."His father's record collection exposed him to various musical genres, such as the blues of Muddy Waters. When Lonnie Donegan had a hit with "Rock Island Line", written by Huddie Ledbetter, Morrison felt he was familiar with and able to connect with skiffle music as he had been hearing Lead Belly before that. Morrison's father bought him his first acoustic guitar when he was eleven, he learned to play rudimentary chords from the song book The Carter Family Style, edited by Alan Lomax.
In 1957, at the age of twelve, Morrison formed his first band, a skiffle group, "The Sputniks", named after the satellite, Sputnik 1, launched earlier that year by the Soviets. In 1958, the band played at some of the local cinemas, Morrison took the lead, contributing most of the singing and arranging. Other short-lived groups followed – at fourteen, he formed Midnight Special, another modified skiffle band and played at a school concert; when he heard Jimmy Giuffre playing saxophone on "The Train and The River", he talked his father into buying him a saxophone, took lessons in tenor sax and music reading. Now playing the saxophone, Morrison joined with various local bands, including one called Deanie Sands and the Javelins, with whom he played guitar and shared singing; the line-up of the band was lead vocalist Deanie Sands, guitarist George Jones, drummer and vocalist Roy Kane. The four main musicians of the Javelins, with the addition of Wesley Black as pianist, became known as the Monarchs.
Morrison attended Orangefield Boys Secondary School. As a member of a working-class community, it was expected he would get a regular full-time job, so after several short apprenticeship positions, he settled into a job as a window cleaner—later alluded to in his songs "Cleaning Windows" and "Saint Dominic's Preview". However, he had been developing his musical interests from an early age and continued playing with the Monarchs part-time. Young Morrison played with the Harry Mack Showband, the Great Eight, with his older workplace friend, Geordie Sproule, whom he named as one of his biggest influences. At age 17, Morrison toured Europe for the first time with the Monarchs, now calling themselves the International Monarchs; this Irish showband, with Morrison playing saxophone and harp, in addition to back-up duty on bass and drums, toured steamy clubs and US Army bases in Scotland and Germany, of
Nicholas Rodney Drake was an English singer-songwriter and musician known for his acoustic guitar-based songs. He failed to find a wide audience during his lifetime, but his work has since achieved wider recognition. Drake signed to Island Records when he was 20, while a student at the University of Cambridge, released his debut album, Five Leaves Left, in 1969. By 1972, he had recorded Bryter Layter and Pink Moon. Neither sold more than 5,000 copies on initial release, his reluctance to perform live or give interviews contributed to his lack of commercial success. No footage of the adult Drake has been released, only still photographs. Drake is believed to have suffered from depression, reflected in his lyrics. After making Pink Moon, he withdrew from performance and recording, retreating to his parents' home in rural Warwickshire. At the age of 26, Drake died from an overdose of 30 amitriptyline pills, a prescribed antidepressant, his cause of death was determined as suicide. The 1979 release of the retrospective album Fruit Tree triggered a reassessment of Drake's music.
By the mid-1980s, he was credited as an influence by such artists as Robert Smith, David Sylvian, Peter Buck. In 1985, the Dream Academy reached the UK and US charts with "Life in a Northern Town", a song written for and dedicated to Drake. By the early 1990s, he had come to represent a "doomed romantic" musician in the UK music press; the first Drake biography was published in 1997, followed in 1998 by the documentary film A Stranger Among Us. In 1999, his song "Pink Moon" was used in a Volkswagen commercial, resulting in an increase in his U. S. album sales. By 2014, more than 2.4 million Nick Drake albums had been sold in the UK and the US. Drake’s father, Rodney Shuttleworth Drake, moved to Rangoon, Burma, in the early 1930s to work as an engineer with the Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation. In 1934, Rodney met the daughter of a senior member of Mary Lloyd. Rodney Drake proposed in 1936, though they had to wait a year until she turned 21 before her family allowed them to marry. In 1950 they returned to England to live in Warwickshire at their home, Far Leys, in Tanworth-in-Arden, south of Birmingham, the city where Rodney Drake worked from 1952 as the Chairman and Managing Director of Wolseley Engineering.
Nick's older sister, became a successful screen actress. Both parents were musically inclined and each wrote music. Recordings of Molly's songs, which have come to light since her death, are similar in tone and outlook to the work of her son. Encouraged by his mother, Drake learned to play piano at an early age and began to compose songs which he recorded on a reel-to-reel tape recorder she kept in the family drawing room. In 1957, Drake was sent to Eagle House School, a preparatory boarding school near Sandhurst, Berkshire. Five years he went to Marlborough College, a public school in Wiltshire attended by his father and great-grandfather, he developed an interest in sport, becoming an accomplished sprinter over 100 and 200 yards, representing the school's Open Team in 1966. He was appointed a House Captain in his last two terms. School friends recall Drake as having been confident aloof, "quietly authoritative", his father Rodney remembered: "In one of his reports said that none of us seemed to know him well.
All the way through with Nick. People didn't know him much."Drake played piano in the school orchestra, learned clarinet and saxophone. He formed a band, the Perfumed Gardeners, with four schoolmates in 1964 or 1965. With Drake on piano and occasional alto sax and vocals, the group performed Pye International R&B covers and jazz standards, as well as Yardbirds and Manfred Mann songs. Chris de Burgh asked to join the band, but was rejected as his taste was "too poppy". Drake's academic performance deteriorated and, while he had accelerated a year in Eagle House, at Marlborough he began to neglect his studies in favour of music. In 1963 he attained seven GCE O-Levels, fewer than his teachers had been expecting, failing "Physics with Chemistry", a fallback for students who struggled with science. In 1965, Drake paid £13 for his first acoustic guitar, a Levin, was soon experimenting with open tuning and finger-picking techniques. In 1966, Drake enrolled at a tutorial college in Five Ways, where he won a scholarship to study at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge.
He delayed attendance to spend six months at the University of Aix-Marseille, beginning in February 1967, where he began to practise guitar in earnest. To earn money, he would busk with friends in the town centre. Drake began to smoke cannabis, he travelled with friends to Morocco, he most began using LSD while in Aix, lyrics written during this period—in particular for "Clothes of Sand"— suggest an interest in hallucinogens. On returning to England, Drake moved into his sister's flat in Hampstead, before enrolling at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge University that October to study English Literature, his tutors found him unwilling to apply himself. His biographer, Trevor Dann, notes that he had difficulty connecting with staff and fellow students, that matriculation photographs from this time portray a sullen young man. Cambridge placed emphasis on its rugby and cricket teams, yet by this time Drake had lost interest in sport, preferring to stay in his college room smoking cannabis, li
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer-songwriter and leader of the E Street Band. Nicknamed "The Boss," he is recognized for his poetic lyrics, his Jersey Shore roots, his distinctive voice, lengthy, energetic stage performances. Springsteen has recorded more somber folk-oriented works, his most successful studio albums, Born to Run and Born in the U. S. A. find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 135 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world's best-selling artists, he has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award, a Tony Award. Springsteen was inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame in 1999, received Kennedy Center Honors in 2009, was named MusiCares person of the year in 2013, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. Married to actress Julianne Phillips, Springsteen married musician Patti Scialfa in 1991.
Their three children are Evan James Springsteen, Jessica Rae Springsteen, Sam Ryan Springsteen. Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949, at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey, he was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough. He attended Freehold Borough High School, his father, Douglas Frederick "Dutch" Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, worked as a bus driver, among other jobs, but was unemployed most of the time. Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann, a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner, his maternal grandfather was born in a town near Naples. He has two younger sisters and Pamela. Pamela left acting to pursue still photography full-time. Douglas Springsteen, Bruce's father, suffered from mental health issues through his life which worsened in his years. Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin translating to "jumping stone" but more meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses.
The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s. Raised a Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold Borough, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him though some of his music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music, he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life", although he joked that this "made it difficult sexually." He added: "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic."In ninth grade, Springsteen began attending the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either. Former teachers have said he was a "loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar." He felt so uncomfortable that he skipped the ceremony. He attended Ocean County College, but dropped out.
Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 and 1957, at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show. Soon after this his mother rented him a guitar from Mike Diehl's Music in Freehold for $6 a week but it failed to provide him with the'instant gratification' he desired. In 1964, Springsteen saw the Beatles appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show and, inspired, he bought his first guitar for $18.95 at the Western Auto Appliance Store. Thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In late 1964, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish"; the following year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped, his first gig with the Castiles was at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34.
The Castiles recorded two original songs at a public recording studio in Brick Township and played a variety of venues, including Cafe Wha? in Greenwich Village. Marion Vinyard said. Called for conscription in the United States Army when he was 18, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War, he had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, this together with his "crazy" behavior at induction gave him a classification of 4F, which made him unacceptable for service. In the late-1960s, Springsteen performed in a power trio known as Earth, playing in clubs in New Jersey, with one major show at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City. Earth consisted of John Graham on bass, Mike Burke on drums. Bob Alfano was added on organ was replaced for two gigs by Frank'Flash' Craig. From 1969 through early 1971, Springsteen performed with Steel Mill, which included Danny Federici, Vini Lopez, Vinnie Roslin and Steve Van Zandt and Robbin Thompson. During this time he performed at venues on the Jersey Shore, in Richmond, Nashville, a set of gigs in California gatheri
Manchester Grammar School
Manchester Grammar School is the largest independent day school for boys in the United Kingdom and is located in Manchester, England. Founded in 1515 as a free grammar school, it was adjacent to Manchester Parish Church until 1931 when it moved to its present 28-acre site at Fallowfield. In accordance with its founder's wishes, MGS has remained a predominantly academic school and belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. In the post-war period, MGS was a direct-grant grammar school, it chose to become an independent school in 1976 after the Labour government abolished the Direct Grant System. Fees for 2016–2017 were £11,970 per annum; the school's motto is Sapere Aude, the motto of the council of the former County Borough of Oldham, granted on 7 November 1894. Sapere aude is a quotation from Horace, famously used by Immanuel Kant and the motto of the Enlightenment; the Senior School badge is an outline of an owl. This is a heraldic "canting" reference to its founder, Hugh Oldham, the badge should be read as "owl-dom".
This suggests that he pronounced his name, as the local accent in Oldham still tends to do, as "Owdem". Owls are to be seen in the shield of the Borough of Oldham. There is a second significance to the "dom" of which Hugh Oldham, as a bishop, would have been well aware. D. O. M. was and is a standard abbreviation for Deo Optimo Maximo meaning "To God, the Best and the Greatest", a phrase of dedication required to be written by schoolboys before the Reformation and in Roman Catholic education since, at the head of a new piece of work, a practice continued into adult life by many as they committed a new undertaking into God's hands. This badge replaced the original one when the school colours changed from red and yellow to dark and light blue to reflect its connection with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; the Junior School badge, which depicts the face of an owl, was introduced to blazers and ties in 2008. The founder, Hugh Oldham, a Manchester-born man, attended Exeter College and Queens' College, after having been tutored in the house of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
Historical accounts suggest that he was not a learned man, but was in Royal service, being a favoured protégé of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII, became recognised for his administrative abilities. He was appointed Bishop of Exeter in 1505, his great wealth came from his water-powered corn mills on the River Irk near Manchester, which were subsequently used to fund the school's endowment. On 2 July 1515 he signed an endowment trust deed establishing the Manchester Free Grammar School for Lancashire Boys. A site was purchased in September 1516 and construction took place between April 1517 and August 1518; the combined cost was £218.13s.5d given by Oldham, but with the help of his and the Bexwyke family who had provided an earlier endowment for a school within the parish church. A more elaborate deed in 1525 set the detailed rules for the school until the late 19th century; the original deed promoted "Godliness and good learning" and established that any boy showing sufficient academic ability, regardless of background, might attend, free of charge.
The school was situated between Manchester Cathedral a collegiate church, the church's domestic quarters, subsequently Chetham's School of Music. Oldham's great friend Richard Foxe, the Bishop of Winchester, wished to found a monastery. Oldham, convinced him instead to found Corpus Christi College in Oxford and contributed 6000 marks. Oldham had a hand in the founding of Brasenose College, Oxford; the original foundation provided a school house in the curtilage of Manchester's Parish Church and two graduates to teach Latin and Greek, to any children who presented themselves. The school was intended to prepare pupils for university and the Church or the legal profession. Pupils would have stayed for 8 to 10 years before leaving for university. There was enough money to fund bursaries or exhibitions for pupils. In 1654, the world's first free public library was formed next door to MGS in what had been the church's living quarters; this was facilitated by a bequest from a wealthy businessman Humphrey Chetham, which served to create a bluecoat orphanage there, schooling 40 poor boys.
By the 18th century, there are thought to have been between 50 and 100 boys in the grammar school at any one time, three or four of whom each year were awarded exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. An extra room had been built onto the school house for boys who needed instruction in English before they started Latin, another master was employed to teach them; the 1515 building was replaced on the same site in 1776. This was on two levels, an Upper School for the Latin and Greek pupils, a Lower School for the English pupils. Boarding-houses were added and many of the Upper School pupils were boarders from surrounding counties; when De Quincy came as a boarder in 1800, classes were held at 7.00am to 9.00, 9.30 to 12.00 and 3.00pm to 5.00. By 1808 consideration was being given to moving from the site, as it was becoming insalubrious, but this proved impossible as the deed could not be changed except by Act of Parliament. Going from the Old Church to Long Millgate... one is in an undisguised working men's quarter, for the shops and beerhouses hardly take the trouble to exhibit a trifling degree of cleanliness... is a narrow, coal black, foul smel
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs