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Clipboard (computing)

The clipboard is a buffer that some operating systems provide for short-term storage and transfer within and between application programs. The clipboard is temporary and unnamed, its contents reside in the computer's RAM; the clipboard is sometimes called the paste buffer. An operating system that supports a clipboard provides an application programming interface by which programs can specify cut and paste operations, it is left to the program to define methods for the user to command these operations, which may include keybindings and menu selections. When an element is copied or cut, the clipboard must store enough information to enable a sensible result no matter where the element is pasted. Application programs may extend the clipboard functions. A clipboard manager may give the user additional control over the clipboard. Specific clipboard semantics vary among operating systems, can vary between versions of the same system, can sometimes be changed by programs and by user preferences. Windows and macOS support a single clipboard transaction.

Each cut or copy overwrites the previous contents. Paste operations copy the contents, leaving the contents available in the clipboard for further pasting; the pointing device gesture of drag and drop may let a user move information within and between applications, independent of the clipboard. Clipboards as buffers for small text snippets were first used by Pentti Kanerva when he used it to store deleted texts in order to restore them. Since one could delete a text in one place and restore it in another, the term "delete" wasn't what one would expect in this case. Larry Tesler renamed this in 1973 as cut and paste and coined the term "clipboard" for this buffer, since these techniques need a clipboard for temporary saving the copied or cut data. Applications communicate through the clipboard by providing either serialized representations of an object, or a promise. In some circumstances the transfer of certain common data formats may be achieved opaquely through the use of an abstract factory, for example Mac OS X uses a class called NSImage to provide access to image data stored on the clipboard, though the actual format of the image data backing the object is hidden.

The sending and receiving application negotiate the formats which can be transferred in between them, oftentimes with the active GUI widget responsible for providing acceptable type transformations. The pasteboard allows for transfer of common items such as URLs, images, attributed strings, sounds; the operating system and GUI toolkit may provide some common conversions, for example converting from rich text to plain text and vice versa. Various type identifiers for data transfer are supported by modern operating systems, which may automatically provide acceptable mappings between type systems, such as between MIME and Uniform Type Identifier. Clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which a person's clipboard's content is replaced by malicious data, such as a link to a malicious web site. While some security-holes were patched, JavaScript can still be used to modify clipboard content via an attack dubbed'pastejacking'. Dylan Ayrey who developed the attack set up a website that demonstrates how this exploit can be used to trick a user into running commands they didn't want to run.

There have been exploits. In early 2013 researchers exposed risks stemming from Android-based password managers and documented how passwords in 21 of the most popular of these apps could be accessed by any other app on an Android device including those with low-level privileges. Joe Siegrist notes that this is an "OS-level issue that impacts everything running on Android". Clipboard manager extensions add functionality to the integrated clipboard functions of an operating system, they are applications. On platforms such as linux where that use multiple incompatible GUI toolkits, clipboard managers are used to transfer data between applications using different such frameworks; when a clipboard manager provides multiple cut and paste transactions, the clipboard is treated as a stack or scrap book, with new cuts and copies being placed on a list of recent transactions. The standard paste operation copies the most recent transaction, while specialized pastes provide access to the other stored transactions.

These managers also provide a window that displays the transaction history and allows the user to select earlier copies, edit them, change their format and search amongst them. Since most operating systems do not save the clipboard contents to any persistent storage – when a user logs out or reboots the system the clipboard contents are deleted – an added functionality is to save the clipboard persistently. Another example is making the local clipboard work with online applications by saving the clipboard data to the online location upon a copy or cut event, making this data available to online applications for pasting. Clipboard managers can serve as tools to overcome the limitation of software not supporting copying and pasting; the clipboard in Microsoft Windows holds one item in multiple available formats. Every item has at least one clipboard format, but can have different types of format of the same data; the three different types of possible formats are: standard formats, registered formats private formats for internal useUp to and including Windows XP the clipboard could be accessed via the ClipBook Viewer application.

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Darkside of the Sun

Darkside of the Sun is the second compilation album by German rock band Tokio Hotel, released in Japan. It was released February 2011 after the success of the song "Darkside of the Sun" in Japan; the band won Best Rock Video at 2011 MTV Video Music Aid Japan for it and performed live at the ceremony. The album is composed of songs from their studio albums Humanoid; the Deluxe version includes songs form Humanoid City Live and maxi single Ready, Set, Go!. The album was released in two versions: a deluxe version; the deluxe version bonus DVD includes eight of the band's music videos, five Tokio Hotel TV episodes and an interview with the band. Darkside of the Sun Automatic World Behind My Wall Ready, Set, Go! Monsoon Scream Lass Uns Laufen Schrei Interview above the clouds MTV VMA 2008: Music, Tokio Hotel Dreams come true...and now it's partytime Intimate confessions Humanoid City Live Questions & answers

Cem Kızıltuğ

Cem Kızıltuğ is a Turkish cartoonist and illustrator. He is a cartoonist and illustrator for Zaman and illustrates children's books. Kızıltuğ graduated from Marmara University, Faculty of Fine Arts in 1997. Cem Kızıltuğ is married to graphic designer Ravza Kızıltuğ, he has worked as an illustrator for national newspaper Zaman since right after his graduation. The cartoons he drew for Zaman on weekends were published in the album C’empati in 2003. Kızıltuğ developed a comic strip called "Mr. Diplomat" for Zaman's English-language subsidiary, Today's Zaman, in 2007. Kızıltuğ illustrated children’s books for the internationally acclaimed Museum of Sakip Sabanci from 2005 to 2008, his work, “Cats and Words”, an album of poetry and illustration, was published in 2006. Kızıltuğ illustrated children’s books for publishers in Turkey such as Yapi Kredi Publishing and Timas Publishing Group. Kızıltuğ opened art exhibitions in İzmir Efes Celcus Library in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, he is involved in an extensive project with Turkish Airlines.

Turkish Writers’ Association gave Cem Kızıltuğ the "Cartoonist of the Year" award in 2005. He gained 10 "Award of Excellence" and a silver award for his illustration in the competition, Society for News Design in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010.

Nikos Veliotis

Nikos Veliotis is a Greek musician and cellist. Nikos Veliotis studied classical piano until the age of 16, he became involved in the Athens underground electronic music scene and founded In Trance 95 together with Alex Machairas in 1988. He took up the cello at the age of 21. By the end of the 90s he was devoted to the experimental field in both sound and image, performing solo or in regular groups. During the early 2000s he started a collaboration with fellow Greek musician Giannis Aggelakas with whom they released two albums to date. In 2008 he founded Mohammad together with ILIOS Coti K. On 21 March 2009 he turned his cello into powder during a live performance with the title ‘Cello Powder ’ at the Install Festival in Glasgow, U. K, he is the owner of a curved bow. He has composed music for dance and films. From 2000 to 2007 Veliotis organised the 2:13 festival of experimental music in Greece. Β, Confront Recordings Radial, Confront Recordings Folklor Invalid, Antifrost With Giannis Aggelakas 28/04/2001, with Costis Drygianakis VW, with Dan Warburton Quartet, Hibari Music, with Taku Sugimoto, Kazushige Kinoshita, Taku Unami The Harmless Dust, Headz, with David Grubbs Οι Ανάσες Των Λύκων, Alltogethernow, EMI Πότε Θα Φτάσουμε Εδώ, Alltogethernow, EMI Slugabed, Hibari Music, with Klaus Filip Caspian Black, Alt.

Vinyl, with Xavier Charles In Trance 95 Cranc Looper MMMD / Mohammad / MMMD V based on violin & cello recordings qpdbqp for 6 musicians aceghd for string quartet FULL for cello overdubs Mugs on Speed for 9 Mugs on Marble 4D for 0 ensemble Haris Kittos - ÁTROPO 2002 Reynaldo Young - earlier person under the train 2002 Dimitris Kamarotos - 85:03:03 2002 Michalis Adamis - ANELIGMA 2002 Daryl Runswick - SONATA 2002 Dai Fujikura - Secret Breath 2001 Vomvos 2003, for cello and videoCello Powder 2009, multimedia performance for pre-recorded cello and live action Official website Nikos Veliotis on IMDb

Esso Cup

The Esso Cup is the Canadian national women's under-18 ice hockey club championship, sponsored by Esso. It is an annual event, sanctioned by Hockey Canada; the current champions are the St. Albert Slash, who won the 2019 Esso Cup in Ontario; the forerunner to the Esso Cup was the Esso Women's Hockey Nationals, the Canadian senior women's championship from 1982 to 2008. With the evolution of the Nationals into a professional tournament, Hockey Canada elected to discontinue it in 2008 and replace it with a national female midget championship known as the Esso Cup; the inaugural Esso Cup was played in April 2009 in Alberta. The Westman Wildcats from Souris, Manitoba were the first gold medalists; the St. Albert Slash of Alberta are the only team to win the championship three times; the Esso Cup follows Hockey Canada's standard six-team national championship format. Branch champions compete in regional playoffs. In years when not all regions have participated in the Esso Cup, another region has been allowed to send a second team to keep the field at six teams.

The Esso Cup uses the IIHF points system for the round robin, which awards three points for a win in regulation time. If the game is decided in overtime or a shootout, the winning team receives two points and the losing team receives one. No points are awarded for losing a game in regulation time. After the round robin is complete, the top four teams qualify for the playoff round; each year's gold medal game is televised nationally on TSN and RDS. All other tournament games are streamed live on Hockey Canada's website; as of 2018-19 season Note: The Quebec region has not participated every year. In such years, a second team from another region has qualified in their place. See: List of Esso Cup award winners Telus Cup National Women's Under-18 Championship Esso Women's Hockey Nationals Esso Cup Website

Eliyahu Moyal

Eliyahu Moyal was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment between 1974 and 1981. Born in Salé in Morocco, Moyal became general secretary of the city's Community Council in 1941 and secretary of the All Israel are Friends association the following year. In 1945 he made aliyah to Mandatory Palestine, joined the Haganah, he joined Mapai the following year, was arrested by the British Authorities. In 1947 he travelled to the internment camps in Cyprus as an emissary for the Jewish Agency. In 1948 he was amongst the founders of kibbutz Bror Hayil; the following year he travelled to Morocco as an emissary for the Habonim movement. In 1950 he joined Kibbutz Dorot. In 1952-1954, he studied at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he worked for Youth Aliyah movement, taught from 1956 until 1957t in the Sha'ar HaNegev regional school. In 1957 he became secretary of Mapai's Negev branch. In 1958 he became secretary of the Beersheva Workers Council, the following year joined Mapai's national secretariat.

In 1966 he joined the Histadrut's central committee. In 1973 Moyal was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list, an alliance of the Labor Party and Mapam. On 24 March 1975 he was appointed Deputy Minister of Communications in Yitzhak Rabin's government, he lost his seat in the 1981 elections. In 1982 Moyal was appointed chairman of Clalit's national board, he died in 1991 at the age of 71. Eliyahu Moyal on the Knesset website