Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway
The Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway was a unique coastline railway in Brighton, England that ran through the shallow coastal waters of the English Channel between 1896 and 1901. Magnus Volk, its owner and engineer, had been successful with the more conventional Volk's Electric Railway, which had not been extended east of Paston Place. Facing unfavourable geography, Volk decided to construct a line through the surf from a pier at Paston Place to one at Rottingdean; this was home to Volk's Seaplane Station, used by his son George Herbert Volk. The railway itself consisted of two parallel 2 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge tracks, billed as 18 ft gauge, the measurement between the outermost rails; the tracks were laid on concrete sleepers mortised into the bedrock. The single car used on the railway was a 45 by 22 ft pier-like building which stood on four 23 ft -long legs; the car weighed 45 long tons. Propulsion was by electric motor, it was named Pioneer, but many called it Daddy Long-Legs. Due to regulations in place, a qualified sea captain was on board at all times, the car was provided with lifeboats and other safety measures.
Construction took two years from 1894 to 1896. The railway opened 28 November 1896, but was nearly destroyed by a storm the night of 4 December. Volk set to rebuilding the railway including the Pioneer, knocked on its side, it reopened in July 1897; the railway faced difficulties. The car was slowed at high tide, but Volk could never afford to improve the motors. In 1900, groynes built near the railway were found to have led to underwater scouring under the sleepers and the railway was closed for two months while this was repaired. Afterward, the council decided to build a beach protection barrier, which required Volk to divert his line around the barrier. Without funds to do so, Volk closed the railway. In 1901 the right-of-way was broken up for construction of the barrier. One further attempt was made to raise money for a conventional over-water viaduct along the same route; the track and other structures were sold for scrap, but some of the concrete sleepers can still be viewed at low tide. Volk's Electric Railway was extended onshore, covering a portion of the same distance.
A model of the railway car is on display in the foyer of the Brighton Model Museum. St. Malo, had a 110-yard single-line across the harbour, running on submerged rails, bearing a strong resemblance to Volk's Pioneer; the vehicle was cable-hauled rather than self-propelled, however. Some ferries are arranged to operate on underwater rails, for example some diesel-powered ferries across the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal in The Netherlands. Several fairground rides, including the riverboat rides at Disney theme parks, feature vehicles guided by submerged rails or guideways. BARV, a tracked military vehicle designed to wade through seawater up to 3 metres deep. Sea tractor, a motor vehicle that can travel through shallow water, with driver and passengers on a raised platform. Pioneer Illustration Highly detailed illustration of the Pioneer tramcar, by Conor Gorman The Volks Electric Railway Association, with some information about'Daddy Long Legs' Daddy Longlegs Illustrated feature on Volk's Brighton to Rottingdean Seashore Electric railway with 3D animation Daddy Longlegs by John Roles, Brighton Museum Daddy Longlegs Photo by Dmitry Karpenko Winchester, Clarence, ed. "Brighton's electric railway"", Railway Wonders of the World, pp. 604–608 illustrated description of the railway
In classical architecture rustication is a range of masonry techniques giving visible surfaces a finish that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared-block masonry surfaces called ashlar. The visible face of each individual block is cut back around the edges to make its size and placing clear. In addition the central part of the face of each block may be given a deliberately rough or patterned surface. Rusticated masonry is "dressed", or squared off neatly, on all sides of the stones except the face that will be visible when the stone is put in place; this is given wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block, by angling the edges, or dropping them back a little. The main part of the exposed face may be worked flat and smooth or left with, or worked, to give a more or less rough or patterned surface. Rustication is used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above. Though intended to convey a "rustic" simplicity, the finish is artificial, the faces of the stones carefully worked to achieve an appearance of a coarse finish.
Rustication was used in ancient times, but became popular in the revived classical styles of Italian Renaissance architecture and that of subsequent periods, above all in the lower floors of secular buildings. It remains in use in some modern architecture. Similar finishes are common in medieval architecture in castles and similar buildings, but here it arises from an unwillingness to spend the extra money required for ashlar masonry in a particular building, lacks the deliberate emphasis on the joints between blocks. Though it achieves a decorative effect, this is something of a by-product, the exploitation for architectural effect within a single building of contrasts between rusticated and ashlar surfaces is seen. In some buildings, such as the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence something other than cost-saving is at play, this may be the association of the technique with the display of power and strength, from its use in military architecture. Rough finishes on stone are very common in architecture outside the European tradition, but these too would not be called rustication.
For example, the bases of Japanese castles and other fortifications use rough stone very attractively. Although rustication is known from a few buildings of Greek and Roman antiquity, for example Rome's Porta Maggiore, the method first became popular during the Renaissance, when the stone work of lower floors and sometimes entire facades of buildings were finished in this manner, it was used for secular buildings, has always remained uncommon in churches through a lingering association with the architecture of military power. The earliest and most influential example is the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence, built between 1444 and 1484, with two contrasting rusticated finishes; the ground floor has an irregular and genuinely rugged appearance, with a variation in the degree to which parts of the faces of blocks project from the wall, equalled later. Above, the rustication is to emphasize the individual blocks, the faces are all smooth and even. In Florence, Palazzo Strozzi, begun 1489, with large oblong rounded cushions, the front of the Pitti Palace, begun 1458, rusticated their whole facades in the same style.
These facades only used the classical orders in mullions and aedicules, with arched forms in rustication the main relief from the massive flat walls. The Palazzo Rucellai of the 1460s, begins to classicize such facades, using smooth-faced rustication throughout, except for the pilasters at each level. In Rome, Donato Bramante's Palazzo Caprini provided a standard model for the integration of rustication with the orders. Here the obvious strength of a blind arched arcade with emphatic voussoirs on the rusticated ground storey gave reassuring support to the upper storey's paired Doric columns standing on rusticated piers, set against a smooth wall; the first major Renaissance building in Spain, the Palace of Charles V in Granada, had a rusticated ground floor facade with regular rounded cushions. The technique was enthusiatically taken up by the next generation of Mannerist architects, with Giulio Romano in the lead. Most early examples of this "rustic" style are therefore built for sophisticated patrons in the leading centres of taste.
Giulio's Palazzo Stati Maccarani in Rome and Palazzo Te in Mantua expand the voussoirs still further, the courtyard in Mantua plays games with the technique, with some blocks ashlar, other projecting further than the rest, larger blocks placed higher than smaller ones. The Mannerist architectural writer Sebastiano Serlio and others of his generation enjoyed the play between rusticated and finished architectural elements. In the woodcut of a doorway from Serlio's 1537 treatise, the banded rustication of the wall is carried right across the attached column and the moldings of the doorway surround, binding together all the elements; the Italians brought in to expand the Palace of Fontainebleau introduced the technique to France. Its spread to Germany and England took longer, but by about the end of the 16th century it had reached all parts of Europe. In his Banqueting House in London, Inigo Jones gave a rusticated surface texture to emphasize the blocks on both storeys, to unify them behind his orders of pilasters and columns.
During the 18th century, following the Palladian revival, rustication was used on the ground floors of large buildings, as its contrived appea
Classical architecture denotes architecture, more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes more from the works of Vitruvius. Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Although classical styles of architecture can vary they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day; the term "classical architecture" applies to any mode of architecture that has evolved to a refined state, such as classical Chinese architecture, or classical Mayan architecture. It can refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy; the term might be used differently from "traditional" or "vernacular architecture", although it can share underlying axioms with it.
For contemporary buildings following authentic classical principles, the term New Classical Architecture may be used. Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient ancient Rome. With a collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, the architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe. In the Byzantine Empire, the ancient ways of building lived on but soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style; the first conscious efforts to bring back the disused language of form of classical antiquity into Western architecture can be traced to the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey, in present-day Germany thus displays a system of alternating attached columns and arches which could be an direct paraphrase of e.g. that of the Colosseum in Rome. Byzantine architecture, just as Romanesque and to some extent Gothic architecture, can incorporate classical elements and details but do not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity.
In general, they are not considered classical archerchitectural styles in a strict sense. During the Italian renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome; this was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruvius, to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy. Nonetheless, the classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a specific interpretation of the classical ideas. In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, one of the earliest Renaissance buildings, the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture. During this time period, the study of ancient architecture developed into the architectural theory of classical architecture.
Most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture; the elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language much in their own right. During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance; as a reaction to late baroque and rococo forms, architectural theorists from circa 1750 through what became known as Neoclassicism again consciously and earnestly attempted to emulate antiquity, supported by recent developments in Classical archaeology and a desire for an architecture based on clear rules and rationality. Claude Perrault, Marc-Antoine Laugier and Carlo Lodoli were among the first theorists of neoclassicism, while Étienne-Louis Boullée, Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Friedrich Gilly and John Soane were among the more radical and influential.
Neoclassical architecture held a strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early 1800s, the part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only or not at all related to classicism, eclecticism. Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the "Nordic Classicism" during the 1920s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance. With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably completely ceased to be practised; as noted above, classical styles of architecture dominated Western architecture for a long time from the Renaissance until the advent of Modernism. That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime s
Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls. Many clock towers are freestanding structures but they can adjoin or be located on top of another building. Clock towers are a common sight in many parts of the world with some being iconic buildings. One example is the Elizabeth Tower in London. There are many structures which may have clocks or clock faces attached to them and some structures have had clocks added to an existing structure. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat a building is defined as a building if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, are defined as towers. A clock tower fits this definition of a tower and therefore can be defined as any tower built with one or more clock faces and that can be either freestanding or part of a church or municipal building such as a town hall.
Not all clocks on buildings therefore make the building into a clock tower. The mechanism inside the tower is known as a turret clock, it marks the hour by sounding large bells or chimes, sometimes playing simple musical phrases or tunes. Although clock towers are today admired for their aesthetics, they once served an important purpose. Before the middle of the twentieth century, most people did not have watches, prior to the 18th century home clocks were rare; the first clocks didn't have faces, but were striking clocks, which sounded bells to call the surrounding community to work or to prayer. They were therefore placed in towers. Clock towers were placed near the centres of towns and were the tallest structures there; as clock towers became more common, the designers realized that a dial on the outside of the tower would allow the townspeople to read the time whenever they wanted. The use of clock towers dates back to the antiquity; the earliest clock tower was the Tower of the Winds in Athens.
In its interior, there was a water clock, driven by water coming down from the Acropolis. In Song China, an astronomical clock tower was designed by Su Song and erected at Kaifeng in 1088, featuring a liquid escapement mechanism. In England, a clock was put up in a clock tower, the medieval precursor to Big Ben, at Westminster, in 1288; the oldest surviving turret clock part of a clock tower in Europe is the Salisbury cathedral clock, completed in 1306. Al-Jazari constructed an elaborate clock and described it in his Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206, it was about 3.3 metres high, had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar paths, a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour, it was possible to re-program the length of day and night daily in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year, it featured five robotic musicians who automatically play music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel.
Other components of the castle clock included a main reservoir with a float, a float chamber and flow regulator and valve trough, two pulleys, crescent disc displaying the zodiac, two falcon automata dropping balls into vases. Line synchronous tower clocks were introduced in the United States in the 1920s; some clock towers have become famous landmarks. Prominent examples include Elizabeth Tower built in 1859, which houses the Great Bell in London, the tower of Philadelphia City Hall, the Rajabai Tower in Mumbai, the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin, the Torre dell'Orologio in the Piazza San Marco in Venice and the Zytglogge clock tower in the Old City of Bern, Switzerland; the tallest freestanding clock tower in the world is the Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower at the University of Birmingham in Birmingham, United Kingdom. The tower stands at 100 metres tall and was completed in 1908; the clock tower of Philadelphia City Hall was part of the tallest building in the world from 1894, when the tower was topped out and the building occupied, until 1908.
Taller buildings have had clock faces added to their existing structure such as the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, with a clock added in 2000. The building has a roof height of 187.68 m, an antenna height of 237 m. The NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Tokyo, with a clock added in 2002, has a roof height of 240 m, an antenna height of 272 m; the Abraj Al Bait, a hotel complex in Mecca constructed in 2012, has the largest and highest clock face on a building in the world, with its Makkah Royal Clock Tower having an occupied height of 494.4 m, a tip height of 601 m. The tower has four clock faces. List of clock towers Bell tower Minaret Street clock Thirteenth stroke of the clock Towerclocks.org - Tower clocks database Railway Station Clock Towers Architecture of time
Brighton railway station
Brighton railway station is the southern terminus of the Brighton main line in England, the principal station serving the city of Brighton, East Sussex. It is 50 miles 49 chains from London Bridge via Redhill; the station is managed by Southern, which operates many of the trains. Thameslink, Gatwick Express and Great Western Railway operate some trains from Brighton, it was built by the London & Brighton Railway in 1840 connecting Brighton to Shoreham-by-Sea, westwards along the coast, shortly afterwards connecting it to London Bridge and the county town of Lewes to the east. In 1846, the railway became the London Brighton and South Coast Railway following mergers with other railways with lines between Portsmouth and Hastings. With 16.1 million passenger entries and exits in 2011/12, Brighton was the seventh-busiest station in the country outside London. By 2016/17, Brighton was only the ninth-busiest station in the country outside London, with 16.0 million. The London and Brighton Railway built a passenger station, goods station, locomotive depot and railway works on a difficult site on the northern edge of Brighton.
This site was 0.5 miles from, 70 feet above the sea shore, had involved considerable excavation work to create a reasonable gradient from Patcham Tunnel. The passenger station was a three-storey building in an Italianate style, designed by David Mocatta in 1839–40 which incorporated the head office of the railway company; the station is said to have many similarities to the Nine Elms railway station of the London and Southampton Railway designed by Sir William Tite. Baker & Son were paid £9766 15s for the station building between May and August 1841; the platform accommodation was built by John Urpeth Rastrick and consisted of four pitched roofs each 250 ft long. It opened for trains to Shoreham on 11 May 1840, in September 1841 for trains to London; the station site was extended for the opening of the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway in June 1846. In July 1846, the L&BR merged with other railways to form the London and South Coast Railway. Further extensions to the station occurred during the mid-19th century but only a limited number of additional platforms could be added because of the awkward sloping site.
By the late 1870s the facilities were inadequate for the growing volume of traffic and so the existing platforms were lengthened to be able to accommodate two trains, the three separate roofs were replaced by an overall roof during 1882/1883. The station has an impressive large double-spanned curved glass and iron roof covering all of the platforms, renovated in 1999 and 2000. At the front of the station is a taxi rank and a bus station. A tunnel runs under the station which once provided an open-air cab run at a shallower gradient than Trafalgar Street outside, the main approach to the station before the construction of Queen's Road; the cab run was covered. The cab run has been sealed at the station end. A goods station and yard was constructed on the eastern side of the passenger station but on a site 30 ft lower due to the sloping site, accessed from the Shoreham line by a second tunnel under the passenger station; the tunnel entrance was filled in after new tracks were laid into the goods yard, but a portion of it was converted into offices during World War II, these were in use until the early 21st century.
A portion of the tunnel is still used by a local rifle club. The site of the goods yard has since been redeveloped, much of it forms the New England Quarter. To the north of the station, on the east side of the main line, the railway constructed its locomotive and carriage works, which operated from 1841 until 1911, when the carriage works was moved to Lancing and 1957 when the locomotive works closed. Thereafter Isetta cars were built in a part of the works; the London and Brighton Railway opened a small locomotive shed and servicing facility to the north west of the station for locomotives on the Shoreham line, in May 1840, another, adjacent to the locomotive works for main line locomotives, the following year. During 1860–1861 John Chester Craven, the Locomotive Superintendent of the London Brighton and South Coast Railway began the removal of a large chalk hill to the north of the station, dumped during the excavation of the main line; the space created was used to accommodate a new much enlarged motive power depot in 1861, replacing the two existing facilities.
During the early 1930s, following the electrification of the lines the steam motive power depot was rebuilt and reduced in size. It was closed 15 June 1961, but remained in use for stabling steam locomotives until 1964, was demolished in 1966; the site is the Network Rail's ECR and infrastructure maintenance depot, Southern's Lovers Walk Depot, used for servicing most of Southern's single voltage Class 377 Electrostar fleet and their newly acquired Class 442s and Class 313s. Brighton station was listed at Grade II* on 30 April 1973; as of February 2001, it was one of 70 Grade II*-listed buildings and structures, 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove. The station has 8 platforms, numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. All platforms are long enough to accommodate 12-car trains. Platforms 1 and 2 can only be used by services on the West Coastway Line, it is served by Southern ser