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Clogging is a type of folk dance in which the dancer's footwear is used percussively by striking the heel, the toe, or both against a floor or each other to create audible rhythms to the downbeat with the heel keeping the rhythm. The dance style has fused with others including African-American rhythms, the Peruvian dance "zapateo", resulting in the birth of newer street dances, such as tap, jump, stomping, Gangsta Walking, the Candy Walk dance; the use of wooden-soled clogs is rarer in the more modern dances since clog shoes are not worn in urban society, other types of footwear have replaced them in their evolved dance forms. Clogging is considered the first form of street dance because it evolved in urban environments during the industrial revolution. In periods it was not always called "clogging", being known variously as foot-stomping, buck dancing, clog dancing, jigging, or other local terms. What all these had in common was emphasizing the downbeat of the music by enthusiastic footwork.

As for the shoes, many old clogging shoes had no taps and some were made of leather and velvet, while the soles of the shoes were either wooden or hard leather. Clogging can be divided into five major categories: 1) shuffle clogging, 2) cadence clogging, 3) rhythm clogging, 4) stomp clogging, 5) buck-dancing; the shuffle clogging style is said to be the most popular style for bluegrass music cloggers while rhythm and stomp clogging are more popular with old-time music cloggers. What sets clogging apart from other dance styles such as tap-dancing is the lack of upper body movement used during performance like Irish Sean-nós dance which had significant influence on the origins of the dance. While tap dancers place emphasis on stage presence and arm movements, cloggers limit their upper body movement, focusing on their feet. Clogging is the official state dance of Kentucky and North Carolina and was the social dance in the Appalachian Mountains as early as the 18th century. In the United States, team clogging originated from square dance teams in Asheville, North Carolina's Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, organized by Bascom Lamar Lunsford in the Appalachian region.

American Clogging is associated with the predecessor to bluegrass—"old-time" music, based on English, Irish fiddle tunes as well as African banjo tunes. Clogging developed from Irish step dancing called Sean-nós dance there was some English, Scottish and Cherokee step dances, as well as African rhythms and movement influences too, it was from clogging that tap dance evolved. Now, many clogging teams compete against other teams for prizes such as money and trophies; the term "buck," as in buck dancing, is traceable to the West Indies and is derived from a Tupi Indian word denoting a frame for drying and smoking meat. Another source states that the word "bockorau" can be traced to the "Angolan" word "buckra', was used to refer to white people, disputed; the term came to describe Irish immigrant sailors whose jig dance was known as'the buck.'" Another origin of the term "buck dance" comes from the idea that this style of dance was a flirtation. The male dancer would show off his skills on the dance floor to attract the female, thus being compared to the buck's courting ritual of the doe.

One source states that buck dancing was the earliest combination of the basic shuffle and tap steps performed to syncopated rhythms in which accents are placed not on the straight beat, as with the jigs and other dances of European origin, but on the downbeat or offbeat, a style derived from the rhythms of African tribal music. Buck dancing was popularised in America by minstrel performers in the late 19th century. Many folk festivals and fairs utilise dancing clubs or teams to perform both Buck and regular clogging for entertainment. Traditional Appalachian clogging is characterised by loose bent knees and a "drag-slide" motion of the foot across the floor, is performed to old-time music. Four organizations sanction competitive events in the modern American clog dancing world; the longest running of the organizations, the National Clogging and Hoedown Council, began in 1974 and is now a part of the C. L. O. G. National Clogging Organization; the sanctioning body hosts its annual grand championships at the Opryland Hotel in Nashville, Tennessee each Labor Day Weekend.

The N. C. H. C. was influential in establishing the basic rules and scoring guidelines that have shaped clogging competition. Information about the organization can be found on its website at America's Clogging Hall of Fame is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of the old time square dance and clogging. ACHF was founded by Dan and Sandy Angel in 1981. ACHF holds its annual National Championships on the 4th weekend in October each year, unless it falls on Halloween it is moved to the third weekend in October. ACHF sanctions many competitions throughout the year where teams and dancers can qualify to compete in the ACHF National Championship dance-off the last full weekend in October. Any team finishing 1st or 2nd with each dance in TWO sanctioned competitions qualifies to compete at the National Championships Dance-off. America's Clogging Hall of Fame honors many of its dancers at the October Championships. An All-American Clogging Team is selected each year through a nominating and selection process in which 24 of our best dancers are chosen.

ACHF selects 16 dancers to the Junior All-American Team and 4 dancers to the Senior All-American Team each year. These dancers are showcas

Christopher Thomas

Christopher Yancy Thomas was a politician and lawyer from Virginia. Born in Pittsylvania County, Thomas attended local schools as a child and went on to graduate from a private academy in 1838. Thomas was admitted to the bar in 1844, commencing practice in Martinsville, Virginia, he served in the Confederate Virginia Senate from 1860 to 1864 and was member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina. Thomas served as prosecuting attorney for Henry County, in 1867 was elected to serve the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868. After approval of the new state Constitution, Thomas served in the Virginia House of Delegates in 1869, both succeeding fellow Confederate delegate and Conservative George W. Booker and being succeeded by him. In 1872, Thomas ran as a Republican for the United States House of Representatives for Virginia's 5th district, he ran against former Confederate officer and Conservative Democrat Alexander Davis, declared the victor, but Thomas contested the result and was seated.

However, Thomas served only a single term from 1874 to 1875, losing his reelection bid in 1874 to Democrat George Cabell, another lawyer and former Confederate officer active in railroad promotion. Thomas resumed practicing law until his death in Martinsville, Virginia on February 11, 1879, he was interred in the family cemetery on Leatherwood plantation. United States Congress. "Christopher Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Let's Say Goodbye Like We Said Hello

Let's Say Goodbye Like We Said Hello is a compilation of Ernest Tubb recordings from 1947 to 1953, released in 1991. It contains 113 songs; the set includes session notes and photographs. Among the songs are performances by Tubb with Red Foley, The Andrews Sisters, Minnie Pearl. In his Allmusic review, Bruce Eder describes the album as "These 119 songs over five CDs represent Ernest Tubb at the peak of his career musically and commercially, from 1947 until 1953. Disc One is filled with winners. Ernest Tubb – vocals, guitar Red Foley – vocals Minnie Pearl – vocals LaVerne Andrews – vocals Maxene Andrews – vocals Patty Andrews – vocals Jerry Byrd – steel guitar Jack Drakebass Owen Bradleypiano, organ Farris Coursey – drums Buddy Harman – drums Dickie Harris – steel guitar Don Helms – steel guitar Billy Robinson – steel guitar Bill Drake – guitar Billy Byrd – guitar Hank Garland – guitar Walter Garland – guitar Grady Martin – guitar Jack Shook – guitar Jimmie Short – guitar Leon Short – guitar Johnny "Tub" Johnson – guitar Hal Smithfiddle Thomas Lee Jackson Jr. – fiddle Mack Mcgarr – mandolin Alcyone Beasley – choir, chorus Dottie Dillard – choir, chorus Evelyn Wilson – choir, chorus Anita Kerr Singers – choir, chorus The Sunshine Trio – choir, chorusProduction notes: Paul Cohen – producer Dave Kapp – producer Richard Weize – reissue producer Rebecca Everett – mastering R.

A. Andreas – photography, illustrations Robert K. Oermann – photography, illustrations Don Roy – photography, illustrations Ekkehard Schumann – photography, illustrations Jerry Strobel – photography, illustrations Elaine Tubb – vocals, illustrations Ronnie Pugh – liner notes, discography

Weyl group

In mathematics, in particular the theory of Lie algebras, the Weyl group of a root system Φ is a subgroup of the isometry group of the root system. It is the subgroup, generated by reflections through the hyperplanes orthogonal to the roots, as such is a finite reflection group. Abstractly, Weyl groups are finite Coxeter groups, are important examples of these; the Weyl group of a semisimple Lie group, a semisimple Lie algebra, a semisimple linear algebraic group, etc. is the Weyl group of the root system of that group or algebra. It is named after Hermann Weyl. Let Φ be a root system in a Euclidean space V. For each root α ∈ Φ, let s α denote the reflection about the hyperplane perpendicular to α, given explicitly as s α = v − 2 α,where is the inner product on V; the Weyl group W of Φ is the subgroup of the orthogonal group O generated by all the s α's. By the definition of a root system, each s α preserves Φ, from which it follows that W is a finite group. In the case of the A 2 root system, for example, the hyperplanes perpendicular to the roots are just lines, the Weyl group is the symmetry group of an equilateral triangle, as indicated in the figure.

As a group, W is isomorphic to the permutation group on three elements, which we may think of as the vertices of the triangle. Note that in this case, W is not the full symmetry group of the root system. We may consider the A n root system. In this case, V is the space of all vectors in R n + 1; the roots consist of the vectors of the form e i − e j, i ≠ j, where e i is the i th standard basis element for R n + 1. The reflection associated to such a root is the transformation of V obtained by interchanging the i th and j th entries of each vector; the Weyl group for A n is the permutation group on n + 1 elements. If Φ ⊂ V is a root system, we may consider the hyperplane perpendicular to each root α. Recall that σ α denotes the reflection about the hyperplane and that the Weyl group is the group of transformations of V generated by all the σ α's; the complement of the set of hyperplanes is disconnected, each connected component is called a Weyl chamber. If we have fixed a particular set Δ of simple roots, we may define the fundamental Weyl chamber associated to Δ as the set of points v ∈ V such that > 0 for all α ∈ Δ.

Since the reflections σ α, α ∈ Φ preserve Φ, they preserve the set of hyperplanes perpendicular to the roots. Thus, each Weyl group element permutes the Weyl chambers; the figure illustrates the case of the A2 root system. The "hyperplanes" orthogonal to the roots are indicated by dashed lines; the six 60-degree sectors are the Weyl chambers and the shaded region is the fundamental Weyl chamber associated to the indicated base. A basic general theorem about Weyl chambers is this: Theorem: The Weyl group acts and transitively on the Weyl chambers. Thus, the order of the Weyl group is equal to the number of Weyl chambers. A related result is this one: Theorem: Fix a Weyl chamber C. For all v ∈ V, the Weyl-orbit of v contains one point in the closure C ¯ {\displaystyle {\bar


Treateth is a melodic death metal band. In the beginning named Hostilis of Mort, they are from Guatemala. Formed at the end of 2007, as an idea of Erick and Marco Orozco, who always get a lot of trouble for find members for the band that be qualified by the expectations for the brothers. Treateth stars in 2008; the band has released one EP, five singles, one studio album being recorded. The band began, at late 2007 with the original band members and creators of Treateth, the brothers Marco and Erick. At the beginning the band was called Hostilis Of Mort, but what they two wanted to play deserved a different name, so Treateth was born; the two brothers went to a lot of trouble finding good members for the band since the beginning, but, no one filled the expectations of the brothers, so, no one stayed much in the band, since they found Pablo and Lin. Treateth Began 4 October 2008 when they entered a Band contest named Rock-A-Guate. Treateth went to the finals, but didn't win the contest, but they won much more, Completing the line-up with front-girl Lin.

A Demo was released at the beginning of 2009 as a "Good Bye" to the old Treateth and a Welcome to the new Metal Band Treateth. The demo was a compilation of 3 of a few more songs that the band used to play in shows called "Ineo di Legato"; the songs on the demo are: Track listing: All tracks are written by Treateth. Treateth, now complete, began writing new stuff, Treateth got serious, with brutal vocals, sick drumming, mixing some crazy guitar riffs and what is something that in the band can't miss is the Melodic riffs, giving the band a new and brutal sound, a FULL-METAL sound. Now Treateh is working in his second studio album called "Beneath The Gods". Linda Orellana - Vocals Marco Orozco - Lead Guitar / Back Vocals Luis Solis - 2nd Guitar Erick Orozco - Bass Josue del Valle - Drums Pablo Rios - 2nd Guitar Ineo di Legato Eugenics Beneath The Gods Scars of a new beginning Unreachable Consilium of Occasus Myspace

Spirit Lake (Washington)

Spirit Lake is a lake north of Mount St. Helens in Washington State; the lake was a popular tourist destination for many years until the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Prior to 1980, there were six camps on the shore of Spirit Lake: a Boy Scout camp, a Girl Scout camp, two YMCA camps, Harmony Fall Lodge, another for the general public. There was a number of lodges catering to visitors, including Spirit Lake Lodge and Mt. St. Helens Lodge. Prior to 1980, Spirit Lake consisted of two arms that occupied what had been the valleys of the North Fork Toutle River and a tributary. About 4,000 years ago, these valleys were blocked by lahars and pyroclastic flow deposits from Mount St. Helens to form the pre-1980 Spirit Lake; the longest branch of Spirit Lake was about 2.1 miles long. A stable outlet channel flowed from the lake to the North Fork Toutle River across a natural dam composed of volcanic material; the level of Spirit Lake remained stable, at an altitude of about 3,198 ft. Pre-eruption weather data from the Spirit Lake Ranger Station indicates the area either had the rare dry-summer variant of the subarctic climate, or the rare cold-summer mediterranean climate, both of which are found only in small areas across the world.

Recent climate data for the area is not available to confirm whether the post-eruption site still has either one of these rare climate types. During the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Spirit Lake received the full impact of the lateral blast from the volcano; the blast and the debris avalanche associated with this eruption temporarily displaced much of the lake from its bed and forced lake waters as a wave as much as 850 ft above lake level on the mountain slopes along the north shoreline of the lake. The debris avalanche deposited about 430,000,000 cubic metres of pyrolized trees, other plant material, volcanic ash, volcanic debris of various origins into Spirit Lake; the deposition of this volcanic material decreased the lake volume by 56,000,000 cubic metres. Lahar and pyroclastic flow deposits from the eruption blocked its natural pre-eruption outlet to the North Fork Toutle River valley at its outlet, raising the surface elevation of the lake by between 197 ft and 206 ft; the surface area of the lake was increased from 1,300 acres to about 2,200 acres and its maximum depth decreased from 190 ft to 110 ft.

The eruption swept them into Spirit Lake. These thousands of shattered trees formed a floating log raft on the lake surface that covered about 40% of the lake's surface after the eruption. After the eruption, Spirit Lake contained toxic water with volcanic gases seeping up from the lake bed. A month after the eruption, the bacteria-carrying water was devoid of oxygen. Scientists predicted that the lake would not recover but the reemergence of phytoplankton starting in 1983 began to restore oxygen levels. Amphibians such as frogs and salamanders recolonized the lake, fish thrived; the water level of Spirit Lake is maintained at about 3,406 ft by draining water through Spirit Lake Outlet Tunnel, a gravity-feed tunnel completed in 1985. The 8,465-foot-long tunnel was cut through Harrys Ridge to South Coldwater Creek, which flows to Coldwater Lake and into the North Fork of the Toutle River. Had the lake level not been stabilized, the dam, composed of volcanic avalanche debris created by the 1980 eruption, would have been breached and caused catastrophic flooding within the Toutle River Valley.

Harry R. Truman: Resident of the Spirit Lake area. Anonymous, CVO Photo Archives: Hydrology and Hydrologic Monitoring Images. Cascades Volcano Observatory, United State Geological Survey, Washington. Glicken, HX, W Meyer, MA Sabol and ground-water hydrology of Spirit Lake blockage, Mount St. Helens, with implications for lake retention. Bulletin no. 1789. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Evarts, RC, RP Ashley Geologic map of the Spirit Lake East quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington. Scale 1:24,000, Geologic Quadrangle no. 1679, U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Evarts, RC, RP Ashley Geologic map of the Spirit Lake West quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington. Scale 1:24,000, Geologic Quadrangle no. 1681, U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Patton, V Ecological Mysteries of Spirit Lake Documentary produced by Oregon Field Guide, Oregon Public Broadcasting