Paul Sérusier was a French painter, a pioneer of abstract art and an inspiration for the avant-garde Nabis movement and Cloisonnism. Sérusier was born in Paris, he was a monitor there in the mid-1880s. In the summer of 1888 he travelled to Pont-Aven and joined the small group of artists centered there around Paul Gauguin. While at the Pont-Aven artist's colony he painted a picture that became known as The Talisman, under the close supervision of Gauguin; the picture was an extreme exercise in Cloisonnism. He was a Post-Impressionist painter, a part of the group of painters called Les Nabis. Sérusier along with Paul Gauguin named the group. Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis became the best known of the group, but at the time they were somewhat peripheral to the core group, he taught at the Académie Ranson and published his book ABC de la peinture in 1921. He died at Morlaix. ABC de la peinture, La Douce France & Henri Floury, Paris 1921- Second edition, accompanied by a study on Sérusier's life and work, by Maurice Denis, Librairie Floury, Paris 1942 - Third edition, accompanied by an unpublished correspondence, collected by Madame P. Sérusier and annotated by Mademoiselle H. Boutaric, Librairie Floury, Paris 1950 References SourcesGauguin and the Nabis: Prophets of Modernism by Arthur Ellridge.
Terrail, 1995. The Nabis: Bonnard and Their Circle by Claire Freches-Thory, Antoine Terrasse. Flammarion, 2003; the Nabis and the Parisian Avant-Garde by Patricia Eckert Boyer, Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, Elizabeth Prelinger. Rutgers University Press, 1988; the Nabis and Their Period by Charles Chassé. Lund Humphries, 1969; the Nabis, Their History and Their Art, 1888–1896 by George Mauner. Garland Publishing, 1978. Frèches-Thory, Claire, & Perucchi-Petry, Ursula, ed.: Die Nabis: Propheten der Moderne, Kunsthaus Zürich & Grand Palais, Paris & Prestel, Munich 1993 ISBN 3-7913-1969-8, Sérusier at Olga's Gallery biography Pierre Bonnard, the Graphic Art, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Sérusier
The Wave (Paul Gauguin)
The Wave is an 1888 painting by Paul Gauguin. It was purchased by David Rockefeller, an American banking executive, in 1966, it was owned by the Paris-based American writer Alden Brooks by 1934, gifted to Filippa Brooks Veren of Big Sur, who sold it at auction at the Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, on 19 May 1966, where it was bought by David Rockefeller
The Flageolet Player on the Cliff
The Flageolet Player on the Cliff is an 1889 oil painting by French artist Paul Gauguin, located in the Indianapolis Museum of Art, in Indianapolis, Indiana. It depicts a Breton couple on a narrow path precipitously overlooking the Atlantic; the Flageolet Player on the Cliff is a panoramic view of a rugged patch of shoreline in Brittany, viewed from a dizzying overhead perspective. The unusual point of view and brilliant patchwork of colors make the painting somewhat challenging visually, but it is not an inaccurate representation of the scene. Period photographs show similar wave patterns, Gauguin wrote that the sand was rose, rather than yellow. On a narrow path stand a boy and girl; these attributes and flute, represent Gauguin's enduring attachment to "the harmonies of Breton life." The lower right corner is signed "P. Gauguin 89." In 1889, Gauguin traveled to a remote coastal village in Brittany. Its dramatic scenery evoked a strong response in him. Applying the Pont-Aven School approach called Synthetism, he merged the actual appearance of the scene, his emotional reaction to it, his artistic sense of design.
The Flageolet Player on the Cliff was acquired in 1998 as part of a collection of Gauguin and his Pont-Aven coterie. Samuel Josefowitz, a Swiss collector, amassed the 17 paintings and 84 prints, worth an estimated $30 million. $20 million of that came courtesy of a challenge grant from the Lilly Endowment. The remainder was raised by the IMA, with an undisclosed amount being given by Josefowitz himself, a museum trustee, he acquired the Pont-Aven collection in the 1950s and'60s, before that period's importance in Gauguin's development was appreciated. This particular painting hangs in the Jane H. Fortune Gallery and has the acquisition number 1998.168. The Green Christ IMA page
Société des Artistes Indépendants
The Société des Artistes Indépendants, Salon des Indépendants was formed in Paris on 29 July 1884. The association began with the organization of massive exhibitions in Paris, choosing the slogan "sans jury ni récompense". Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac were among its founders. For the following three decades their annual exhibitions set the trends in art of the early 20th century, along with the Salon d'Automne; this is where artworks were first displayed and discussed. World War I brought a closure to the salon. Since 1920, the headquarters is located in the vast basements of the Grand Palais; the Salon des Indépendants is an annual independent art exhibition aimed at a large audience that takes place in Paris. It was established in response to the rigid traditionalism of the official government-sponsored Salon. Since the first exhibition of 1884, at the Pavilion de la ville de Paris, the organizing Société des Artistes Indépendants has vowed to bring together the works of artists claiming a certain independence in their art.
The event is characterized by the absence of a selection jury. There are however hanging committees. In contrast to the Salon d'Automne, which takes place in Paris during autumn months, the Indépendants is held during the springtime, inspiring artistic production during winter months, as artists prepare for the show. Several important dates have marked the history of the salon. During the Second Empire, artists not backed by the official Académie de peinture et de sculpture in charge of the exhibits at the annual Salon or without support supplied by actual political constellations had little chance to advance. From year to year the number of artists working in Paris, the number of artists submitting works to the official Salon and the number of works refused by the jury increased, but neither the Second Empire nor the Third Republic found an answer to this situation. For years, the artists had counted on official support. In 1884 the artists began to organise themselves, a "Group of independent artists" was authorised by the Ministry of Fine Arts to arrange an exhibition, while the City of Paris agreed to supply rooms for the presentation.
So, from May 15 through July 15, the first "free" exhibition of contemporary art showed more than 5000 works by more than 400 artists. Although sustained by Mesureur, deputy chairman of the Council of Paris and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of France, by Frédéric Hattat, chairman of the Fine Art commission in the same council, by Albert Dubois-Pillet, commanding the Republican Guard, member of the Grand Orient de France, the beginning of the Company, considered as a nest of revolutionaries, were difficult. June 11, 1884, Maître Coursault, notary at Montmorency, Val-d'Oise confirmed the establishment of the Société Article 1 of the organization's statutes reads...the purpose of Société des Artistes Indépendants – based on the principle of abolishing admission jury – is to allow the artists to present their works to public judgement with complete freedom. Members of the Groupe challenged this foundation and succeeded to have an exhibition arranged "for the victims of the recent cholera epidemic", inaugurated December 1, 1884, by Lucien Boué, President of the Paris City Council.
But financially the result was a catastrophe. In spring 1885, the "Groupe" organised its next exhibition, this time with some success; the Salon des Indépendants arose through the need by artists to present their works to the general public independently, rather than through the official selective method of the "Salon". A small collective of innovative artists—Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Camille Pissarro along with Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon, Georges Seurat, Paul Signac—created the Salon des Indépendants; the right to present their works to the public with no restrictions was their only condition. Article no. 1 of the By-laws of the organization: "The purpose of Société des Artistes Indépendants—based on the principle of abolishing admission jury—is to allow the artists to present their works to public judgement with complete freedom". On 1 December 1884, Lucien Boué, President of the Paris City Council, opened the first Salon des Artistes Indépendants at the Palais Polychrome.
The Salon became the refuge for artworks deemed unacceptable by the traditional Salon. Among the works exhibited were Seurat's "La baignade à Asnières" Signac's "Le Pont d'Austerlitz", works of Henri-Edmond Cross, Odilon Redon, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Louis Valtat, Armand Guillaumin, Charles Angrand, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Vincent van Gogh; the proceeds of the first show were earmarked for the victims of cholera. The second exhibition was held in 1886 in a temporary building in the Tuileries Garden with 200 paintings exhibited. By 1905 Henri Rousseau, Pierre Bonnard, Jean Metzinger and Henri Matisse had exhibited there. During the period between 1890 and 1914 known as La Belle Époque all of the artists associated with modernism and the avant-garde exhibited at the Indépendants; the works exhibited ranged in style from Realist to post-Impressionist, Symbolist, Neo-impressionist/Divisionist, Expressionist and Abstract art. The submission payment was 10 francs for four works.
In 1906 ten works could be submitted from 1909 only two. In 1901 more than thousand paintings were shown. 2,395 works were exhibit
Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. Italian Renaissance painters and architects including Filippo Brunelleschi, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca and Luca Pacioli studied linear perspective, wrote treatises on it, incorporated it into their artworks, thus contributing to the mathematics of art. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle, to the viewer's eye, as if a viewer were looking through a window and painting what is seen directly onto the windowpane. If viewed from the same spot as the windowpane was painted, the painted image would be identical to what was seen through the unpainted window; each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the other side of the window.
Because each portion of the painted object lies on the straight line from the viewer's eye to the equivalent portion of the real object it represents, the viewer sees no difference between the painted scene on the windowpane and the view of the real scene. All perspective drawings assume. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer. An object is not scaled evenly: a circle appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid; this distortion is referred to as foreshortening. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, implied; this line, directly opposite the viewer's eye, represents objects infinitely far away. They have shrunk, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line, it is analogous to the Earth's horizon. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a single vanishing point directly opposite the viewer's eye and on the horizon line. All lines parallel with the viewer's line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point.
This is the standard "receding railroad tracks" phenomenon. A two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of parallel lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of many parallel lines are observed most when drawing architecture; because it is rare to have a scene consisting of lines parallel to the three Cartesian axes, it is rare to see perspectives in practice with only one, two, or three vanishing points. The earliest art paintings and drawings sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, did not use foreshortening; the most important figures are shown as the highest in a composition from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called "vertical perspective", common in the art of Ancient Egypt, where a group of "nearer" figures are shown below the larger figure or figures.
The only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of oblique perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century, it is not certain. Oblique projection is seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance. Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery; this was detailed within Aristotle's Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth. The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined to the stage.
Euclid's Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclid's perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition. Various paintings and drawings from the Middle Ages show amateur attempts at projections of objects, where parallel lines are represented in isometric projection, or by nonparallel ones without a vanishing point. By the periods of antiquity, artists those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was used in a work depended on many factors; some of the paintings found in the ruins o
Jug in the Form of a Head, Self-Portrait
Jug in the form of a Head, Self-portrait was produced in glazed stoneware early in 1889 by the French Post-Impressionist artist Paul Gauguin. This self-portrayal is stark and brutal, was created in the aftermath of two traumatic events in the artist's life. In December 1888 Gauguin was visiting Vincent van Gogh in Arles when Van Gogh hacked off his left ear before leaving it at a brothel frequented by them both. A few days in Paris, Gauguin witnessed the beheading of the notorious murderer Prado. Gauguin shows his severed head, dripping with rivulets of blood, his ear cut off, his eyes closed as if in denial. Gauguin portrays himself with a severed ear. Glaze is used to suggest blood; as with many of his self-portraits the object is infused with self-pity. The head resembles a death mask, the way it is modelled suggests that it has been decapitated, reminiscent of Prado; the portrait evokes Van Gogh in a number of ways, most with the removed ear and its dominant red colouring which gives it, according to writer Naomi Margolis Maurer, "a strong fictitious resemblance to the suffering van Gogh."The stoneware contains subtle green and olive tones that are not apparent in reproduction, while its brutal physicality is in part achieved by its three-dimensionality.
It has been noted by a number of art critics that photographic reproductions of the object fail to convey the impact it makes when viewed firsthand. In 1989 the critic Laurel Gasque wrote, "This macabre image, fired at a high temperature and figuratively, fuses life and history into an unforgettable emblem of a ravaged man." A number of events in Gauguin's life led to the object's creation. During the November and December of the previous year he had lived with van Gogh in Arles; the objective had been to found an artists' commune. Van Gogh admired Gauguin, wanted to be treated as his equal, but Gauguin was arrogant and domineering, a fact that frustrated the Dutchman. Relations between the two deteriorated and Gauguin, alarmed by Van Gogh's drunkenness and temperament, told him he was leaving; that day, on a self-serving account supplied by Gauguin fifteen years Van Gogh confronted Gauguin with the same razor-blade he used hours to mutilate himself, cutting off his left ear, an injury sufficiently serious to induce arterial bleeding.
Accounts differ as to what happened next, not least because van Gogh himself had no subsequent recollection of the events, but it is certain that van Gogh, after staunching the bleeding, bandaged his injury and left the severed ear at a maison de tolérance on Rue du Bout d'Aeles that van Gogh and Gauguin frequented. Van Gogh at this time was extolling the virtue of sexual continence in the pursuit of Art, but used prostitutes for "hygienic reasons"; the story that he left the ear with a prostitute called Rachel asking her to "guard it like a treasure" that gained currency, appears to originate from a local news report of the time. Gauguin's own account was that he left it with the bouncer with the message "Remember me", before staggering back to the house he shared with Gauguin. Gauguin was amongst the first to find the Dutch artist the morning after, lying unconscious with his head covered in blood. According to art critic Martin Gayford, prostitutes were to van Gogh Sisters of Mercy, providing "a little taste of paradise at 2 francs a time", representing his single emotional and sensuous point of contact with other people.
He was around this time reading about Christ's agony in the garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus prayed with his disciples the night before his crucifixion. The story struck a deep chord, in particular the words "If thou be willing, remove this cup from me: not my will, but thine, be done", he and Gauguin had been discussing a recent series of murders of prostitutes. He had read Émile Zola's novel "The Sin of Father Mouret", in which a character "as Father Mournet was finishing his prayers...calmly pulled a knife from his pocket, opened it, chopped off the friar's ears."There is no conclusive evidence for the theory that the unpredictable Gauguin attacked his temperamental friend that day. When Vincent's brother Theo arrived at the Arles hospital a few days later—after being informed of the event by Gauguin—he spoke of Vincent's irrationality, high fever and apparent "madness" in the days before the mutilation. From his hospital bed, Van Gogh asked for Gauguin continually over the next number of days, but the Frenchman stayed away.
He had told one of the policeman attending the case when van Gogh was discovered unconscious, "Be kind enough, Monsieur, to awaken this man with great care, if he asks for me tell him I have left for Paris. From accounts related by Gauguin to friends on his arrival back in Paris a few days it has been suggested that he associated the amputation with Gethsemane. On December 28, two days after his return to Paris, Gauguin went to the dawn execution of the criminal Prado. Van Gogh and Gauguin had talked about Prado's high profile trial. Prado had murdered a prostitute and Gauguin thought his trial unjust, a view he shared with Friedrich Nietzsche who refers to him in his last "madness letter". Both Prado and the infamous murderer Pranzini were at one time patrons at the Parisian café Le Tambourin where Van Gogh had exhibited Japanese prints; the execution left a deep mark on the artist a
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin was a French post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. Toward the end of his life, he spent ten years in French Polynesia, most of his paintings from this time depict people or landscapes from that region, his work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin's art became popular after his death from the efforts of art dealer Ambroise Vollard, who organized exhibitions of his work late in his career and assisted in organizing two important posthumous exhibitions in Paris. Gauguin was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, printmaker and writer, his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms.
Gauguin was born in Paris to Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal on June 7, 1848. His birth coincided with revolutionary upheavals throughout Europe that year, his father, a 34-year-old liberal journalist, came from a family of petits bourgeois entrepreneurs residing in Orléans. He was compelled to flee France when the newspaper for which he wrote was suppressed by French authorities. Gauguin's mother was the 22-year-old daughter of André Chazal, an engraver, Flora Tristan, an author and activist in early socialist movements, their union ended when André assaulted his wife Flora and was sentenced to prison for attempted murder. Paul Gauguin's maternal grandmother, Flora Tristan, was the illegitimate daughter of Thérèse Laisnay and Don Mariano de Tristan Moscoso. Details of Thérèse's family background are not known, he was an officer of the Dragoons. Members of the wealthy Tristan Moscoso family held powerful positions in Peru. Nonetheless, Don Mariano's unexpected death plunged his daughter Flora into poverty.
When Flora's marriage with André failed, she petitioned for and obtained a small monetary settlement from her father's Peruvian relatives. She sailed to Peru in hopes of enlarging her share of the Tristan Moscoso family fortune; this never materialized. An active supporter of early socialist societies, Gauguin's maternal grandmother helped to lay the foundations for the 1848 revolutionary movements. Placed under surveillance by French police and suffering from overwork, she died in 1844, her grandson Paul "idolized his grandmother, kept copies of her books with him to the end of his life."In 1850, Clovis Gauguin departed for Peru with his wife Alina and young children in hopes of continuing his journalistic career under the auspices of his wife's South American relations. He died of a heart attack en route, Alina arrived in Peru a widow with the 18-month-old Paul and his 2½ year-old sister, Marie. Gauguin's mother was welcomed by her paternal granduncle, whose son-in-law would shortly assume the presidency of Peru.
To the age of six, Paul enjoyed a privileged upbringing, attended by servants. He retained a vivid memory of that period of his childhood which instilled "indelible impressions of Peru that haunted him the rest of his life."Gauguin's idyllic childhood ended abruptly when his family mentors fell from political power during Peruvian civil conflicts in 1854. Aline returned to France with her children, leaving Paul with his paternal grandfather, Guillaume Gauguin, in Orléans. Deprived by the Peruvian Tristan Moscoso clan of a generous annuity arranged by her granduncle, Alina settled in Paris to work as a dressmaker. After attending a couple of local schools, Gauguin was sent to the prestigious Catholic boarding school Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, he spent three years at the school. At age fourteen, he entered the Loriol Institute in Paris, a naval preparatory school, before returning to Orléans to take his final year at the Lycée Jeanne D'Arc. Gauguin signed on as a pilot's assistant in the merchant marine.
Three years he joined the French navy in which he served for two years. His mother died on 7 July 1867, but he did not learn of it for several months until a letter from his sister Marie caught up with him in India. In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris. A close family friend, Gustave Arosa, got him a job at the Paris Bourse, he remained one for the next 11 years. In 1879 he was earning 30,000 francs a year as a stockbroker, as much again in his dealings in the art market, but in 1882 the Paris stock market crashed and the art market contracted. Gauguin's earnings deteriorated and he decided to pursue painting full-time. In 1873, he married Mette-Sophie Gad. Over the next ten years, they had five children: Émile. By 1884, Gauguin had moved with his family to Copenhagen, where he pursued a business career as a tarpaulin salesman, it was not a success: He could not speak Danish, the Danes did not want French tarpaulins. Mette became the chief breadwinner, his middle-class family and marriage fell apart after 11 years when Gauguin was driven to paint full-time.
He returned to Paris in