La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo is an operatic dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioachino Rossini. The libretto was written by Jacopo Ferretti, based on the fairy tale Cendrillon by Charles Perrault; the opera was first performed in Rome's Teatro Valle on 25 January 1817. Rossini composed La Cenerentola when he was 25 years old, following the success of The Barber of Seville the year before. La Cenerentola, which he completed in a period of three weeks, is considered to have some of his finest writing for solo voice and ensembles. Rossini saved some time by reusing an overture from La gazzetta and part of an aria from The Barber of Seville and by enlisting a collaborator, Luca Agolini, who wrote the secco recitatives and three numbers; the facsimile edition of the autograph has a different aria for Alidoro, "Fa' silenzio, odo un rumore". For an 1820 revival in Rome, Rossini wrote a bravura replacement, "La, del ciel nell'arcano profondo"; the genesis of this work - whose literary and musical aspects were both created with surprising speed – deserves to be told, according to the account given by librettist Jacopo Ferretti.
In December 1816, Rossini was in Rome and tasked with writing a new opera for the Teatro Valle, to be staged on St. Stephen's Day. An existing libretto, Francesca di Foix, had unexpectedly been vetoed by the papal censor, leaving no time to amend the text so that it might satisfy all parties involved. A replacement would have to be found. Ferretti, despite harboring some ill-will against Rossini, nonetheless met with the composer and the impresario Cartoni and agreed to join the project. However, when he began to suggest topics for the new work, one after another was rejected: too serious for the Carnival season in which the opera would premiere. Ferretti proposed more than two dozen subjects without success. Between yawns, with Rossini half asleep on a sofa, the poet mentioned Cinderella. At this, Rossini roused himself sufficiently to challenge Ferretti on whether he dared write a libretto for the tale. Rossini asked the librettist if he had some verses ready to start working on. Ferretti replied, "despite my tiredness, tomorrow morning!"
The composer nodded, wrapped himself in his clothes, fell asleep. Ferretti worked through the night and had the first parts of the work ready as promised in the morning, he finished the libretto in twenty-two days of breakneck work, Rossini completed the score in an hectic twenty-four days. The poet had serious doubts about the success of this opera. La Cenerentola premiered on Jan. 25, 1817 and gained popularity, both in Italy and internationally, despite a cold initial reception by the critics. In short, Rossini's prediction came true, Cenerentola soon overshadowed Barber throughout the nineteenth century. Nonetheless, the collaboration between composer and librettist got no easier, Ferretti wrote only one more libretto for Rossini, the Matilde di Shabran, in 1821. 19th century At the first performance, the opera was received with some hostility, but it soon became popular throughout Italy and beyond. Throughout most of the 19th century, its popularity rivalled that of Barber, but as the coloratura contralto, for which the leading role was written, became rare, it fell out of the repertoire.
20th century and beyond From the 1960s onward, Rossini's work enjoyed a renaissance, a new generation of Rossini contraltos ensured that La Cenerentola would once again be heard around the world. The opera is now considered a staple of the standard repertoire. In this variation of the fairy tale, the wicked stepmother is replaced by a stepfather, Don Magnifico; the Fairy Godmother is replaced by a philosopher and tutor to the Prince. Cinderella is identified, not by her bracelet; the supernatural elements that traditionally characterize the Cinderella story were removed from the libretto for ease of staging. Time: Late 18th century – early 19th century Place: Salerno Angelina, known to her stepfather and stepsisters as "Cenerentola," is forced to serve as the maid in her own home, she sings of a king. A beggar arrives. Courtiers follow, announcing that Prince Ramiro will come to visit while he searches for the most beautiful girl in the land to wed. Cenerentola's stepfather, Don Magnifico, hopes to use this as an opportunity to save his own failing fortune.
When the room is empty, Ramiro enters alone. The "beggar" - in fact, his tutor, Alidoro - has informed him of a goodhearted young woman spotted here. Ramiro intends to find her incognito. Cenerentola returns, she and Ramiro are attracted to each other, but when he asks who she is, she's overwhelmed and flees; the "prince" arrives — the real valet, who has taken his master's place - and Magnifico and Tisbe fall over themselves to flatter him. He invites the family to a ball that evening, wher
Maid Marian or Marion, is the love interest of the legendary outlaw Robin Hood in English folklore. Maid Marian was in origin a "shepherdess" figure associated with May Day, her role as the love interest of Robin Hood dates to at least the 16th century. She is portrayed as beautiful and sincere in her love of Robin Hood, she is a noblewoman in the stories, though sometimes she is a commoner. Most modern Robin Hood stories present her as an admirable woman. Of particular note are Marian's independence and relative equality to her lover, marking her as one of the earliest strong female characters in English literature. Maid Marian is never mentioned in any of the earliest extant ballads of Robin Hood, she appears to have been a character in May Games festivities and is sometimes associated with the Queen or Lady of May or May Day. Jim Lees in The Quest for Robin Hood suggests that Maid Marian was a personification of the Virgin Mary. Francis J. Childe argues that she was portrayed as a trull associated with a lascivious Friar Tuck: "She is a trul of trust, to serue a frier at his lust/a prycker a prauncer a terer of shetes/a wagger of ballockes when other men slepes."
Both a "Robin" and a "Marian" character were associated with May Day by the 15th century, but these figures were part of separate traditions. It isn't clear if there was an association of the early "outlaw" character of Robin Hood and the early "May Day" character Robin, but they did become identified, associated with the "Marian" character, by the 16th century. Alexander Barclay, writing in c. 1500, refers to "some merry fytte of Maid Marian or else of Robin Hood". Marian remained associated with May Day celebrations after the association of Robin Hood with May Day had again faded; the early Robin Hood is given a "shepherdess" love interest, in Robin Hood's Birth, Breeding and Marriage, his sweetheart is "Clorinda the Queen of the Shepherdesses". Clorinda survives in some stories as an alias of Marian; the "gentrified" Robin Hood character, portrayed as a historical outlawed nobleman, emerges in the late 16th century. From this time, Maid Marian is cast in terms of a noblewoman though her role was never virginal and she retained aspects of her "shepherdess" or "May Day" characteristics.
Robin was called Ryder. In the play, The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon by Anthony Munday, written in 1598, Marian appears as Robin's lawfully-wedded wife, who changes her name from Matilda when she joins him in the greenwood, she has a cousin called Elizabeth de Staynton, described as being the Prioress of Kirklees Priory near Brighouse in West Yorkshire. The 19th century antiquarian, Joseph Hunter, identified a Robert Hood, yeoman from Wakefield, Yorkshire, in the archives preserved in the Exchequer, whose personal story matched closely the story of Robin in Anthony Munday's play, this Robert Hood married a woman named Matilda, who changed her name to Marian when she joined him in exile in Barnsdale Forest in 1322, who had a cousin named Elizabeth de Staynton, Prioress of Kirklees Priory. If these parallels are not coincidental the Marian of Robin Hood fame, whose origins may be distinct from the Marian of the May games or of Monday's play, may derive all her roots from her association with the historical Robert Hood of Wakefield.
In an Elizabethan play, Anthony Munday identified Maid Marian with the historical Matilda, daughter of Robert Fitzwater, who had to flee England because of an attempt to assassinate King John. In versions of Robin Hood, Maid Marian is named as "Marian Fitzwater", only child of the Earl of Huntingdon, is the Maid Marian in McSpadden, J. Walker. "Chapter I: How Robin Hood Became An Outlaw". Robin Hood. London, UK: George Harrap – via Project Gutenberg.</ref> In Robin Hood and Maid Marian, Maid Marian is "a bonny fine maid of a noble degree" said to excel both Helen and Jane Shore in beauty. Separated from her lover, she dresses as a page "and ranged the wood to find Robin Hood,", himself disguised, so that the two begin to fight when they meet; as is the case in these ballads, Robin Hood loses the fight to comical effect, Marian only recognizes him when he asks for quarter. This ballad is in the "Earl of Huntington" tradition, a supposed "historical identity" of Robin Hood forwarded in the late 16th century.20th-century pop culture adaptations of the Robin Hood legend have invariably featured a Maid Marian, have made her a highborn woman with a rebellious or "tomboy" character.
In 1938's The Adventures of Robin Hood, she is a courageous and loyal woman, a ward of the court, an orphaned noblewoman under the protection of King Richard. Although always ladylike, her initial antagonism to Robin springs not from aristocratic disdain but out of an aversion to robbery. In The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men, despite being a lady-in-waiting to Eleanor of Aquitaine during the Crusades, is in reality a mischievous t
Clorinda (Jerusalem Delivered)
Clorinda is a fictional character appearing in Torquato Tasso's poem Jerusalem Delivered, first published in 1581. She is a warrior woman of the Saracen army. First introduced in the second canto of the poem, when she rescues from execution Sofronia and Olindo, two Christian lovers of Jerusalem, she is next discovered under the command of the King of Jerusalem, aiding that city's defences, together with the bold knight Argantes. Tancred fell in love with her, thus refusing to do battle with her; because of this, a lesser champion was sent out from the Christian hosts, Clorinda slew him. Erminia, her companion, being herself enamoured of Tancred escaped Jerusalem in the guise of Clorinda, purposing to enter the Christian camp, but being surprised by a party of knights without, she fled and was lost in the forests. Tancred falls in love with her in Canto 3. During a night battle in which she sets the Christian siege tower on fire, she is killed by Tancredi, who does not recognise her in her armour and the darkness.
She converts to Christianity before dying. The character of Clorinda is inspired in part by Bradamante in Ariosto. Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda is an operatic scena for three voices by Claudio Monteverdi, dramatising the final fight, first performed in 1624, popular since the revival of interest in early music in the mid-20th century. Though the spate of 18th-century operas based on Tasso covered different parts of the plot the story of Armida, Clorinda was the first contralto role in French opera, in Tancrède, a tragédie en musique of 1702 by composer André Campra and librettist Antoine Danchet. Clorinda's fight with Tancred and her conversion and death were popular subjects for artists
Clorinda Matto de Turner
Clorinda Matto de Turner was a Peruvian writer who lived during the early years of Latin American independence. Her own independence inspired women throughout the region as her writings sparked controversy in her own culture, she was raised in Cuzco, Peru. Matto de Turner's father was Ramón Torres Mato and her mother was Grimanesa Concepción Usandivares; when her mother died, she became known as Azucena de los Andes throughout the region. Matto de Turner was baptized Grimanesa Martina Mato, but was called Clorinda among her friends and family, she had one "T" in her last name, but after studying the Inca culture she added the extra "T" to give the name an Inca flavor. Growing up in Cuzco, the former Inca capital, Matto spent most of her days on her family's estate, Paullo Chico, near the village of Coya; as a teenager, Matto attended the school, now known as the Escuela Nacional de Educandas. There she took some unconventional courses that were viewed as unfeminine in the culture, she majored in independent studies, which included Philosophy, Natural History, Physics.
Matto left school at the age of sixteen to spend more time taking care of her father. In 1871, at the age of 19, Matto married Dr. Turner, a wealthy landowner. Shortly after their marriage they moved to Tinta. In Tinta, Matto de Turner became more aware of Peru's two histories: the Inca, she became familiar with indigenous culture, the more she learned, the more she embraced it. Much of her writing is inspired by, she found work with local and foreign papers. In 1878, Matto de Turner founded El Recreo de Casco, a magazine offering literature, science and education, she became known for literary works that portrayed indigenous people in a positive light, in contrast to the mainstream views of her society. Though she was of white ancestry, she did not agree with the oppressive treatment of Peru's indigenous peoples, she used her writings to speak out on their behalf. Matto de Turner used her writings to campaign for better education for women. In 1881, her husband died. Unable to improve her financial situation in Tinta, Matto de Turner moved to Arequipa where she worked as editor in chief at the newspaper La Bolsa Americana.
While there she published two volumes of "tradiciones cuzqueñas," one in 1884 and another in 1886. She wrote the drama Himacc-Suacc and translated the four Gospels into Quechua, a language spoken by the indigenous people in Peru. Besides her literary works she got involved in politics, raised money for the development of the battleship Almirante Grau. Matto de Turner moved from Tinta to live in Lima, although with her political and controversial writings she thought it would be safer to live outside of Peru. In Lima she joined publications. In 1887, Matto de Turner became director of El Peru Ilustrado, where she published many of her novels, she published three novels between 1889 and 1895: Aves Sin Nido and Herencia. These novels talk about the indigenous people getting stripped of all their civil rights as well as getting persecuted by the community and the self-indulgent priests. Matto de Turner's most famous novel was Aves Sin Nido; this novel was controversial because it was about a love affair between a white man and an indigenous woman, considered a disgrace among Latin American society during this time, because it spoke of the immorality of the priests during that period.
The reason the characters in the novel couldn’t marry was because they learned that they were both fathered by the same philandering priest. Aves Sin Nido was not Matto de Turner's only controversial work, she published a controversial story written by a Brazilian writer by the name of Henrique Coelho Neto in her newspaper, El Perú Illustrado. Her controversial writings led to her excommunication by the Archbishop. In 1895, she moved to Buenos Aires, where she continued her literary activities. In 1900, she wrote Boreales, Miniaturas y Porcelanas a collection of essays which includes "Narraciones históricas," and important histroriographical contribution that shows her deep sorrow at being exiled from Peru and her longing to return. In Buenos Aires Matto de Turner founded Búcaro Americano. Matto de Turner spent most of her time teaching at a local university as a Professor. In 1908, she visited Europe for the first time in her life, she made sure to document this in the book Viaje de Recreo; the book was released in newspapers upon her death in 1909.
Tradiciones y leyendas Perú: Tradiciones cuzqueñas. Arequipa: "La Bolsa", 1884. Tradiciones cuzqueñas. 2 vols. Lima: Torres Aguirre, 1886. Leyendas y recortes. Lima: "La Equitativa", 1893. Fiction Aves sin nido. Lima: Imprenta del Universo de Carlos Prince, 1889. Índole. Lima: Imprenta Bacigalupi, 1891. Herencia. Lima: Imprenta Bacigalupi, 1893. Biography, Epistolary Prose, Travel Writing, Essays Bocetos al lápiz de americanos célebres. Lima: Peter Bacigalupi, 1889. Boreales, miniaturas y porcelanas. Buenos Aires: Juan A. Alsina, 1902. Cuatro conferencias sobre América del Sur. Buenos Aires: Juan A. Alsina, 1909. Viaje de recreo: España, Inglaterra, Suiza, Alemana. Valencia: F. Sempere, 1909. Theatre Hima-Sumac: Drama en tres actos y en prosa. Lima: "La Equ
French frigate Clorinde (1808)
Clorinde was a 40-gun Pallas-class frigate of the French Navy, designed by Sané. The British Royal Navy renamed her HMS Aurora. After 19 years as a coal hulk she was broken up in 1851. From June 1809, she was stationed with the 38-gun Renommée. In September, she sailed with Renommée, Seine to Guadeloupe. On 13 December and Renommée captured HMS Junon. On 15 December 1809, Clorinde ran aground, freed herself by dropping guns and ammunition overboard, she took part in the Action of 20 May 1811, fought off Madagascar, returned to Brest. Captain Jacques Saint-Cricq was found guilty of failing to properly support his commodore, demoted of rank, expelled from the Legion of Honour, sentenced to three years in prison. On 6 December 1813, Clorinde captured the British merchant vessel Lusitania in the Atlantic Ocean. Lusitania, master, had been sailing from London to Suriname. Clorinde put the crews of four other vessels that she had captured aboard Lusitania and sent her into Plymouth; the other four were: Blenden Hall, of 473 tons, master, sailing from London to Bermuda.
Clorinde abandoned Blenden Hall at sea, where the Falmouth packet Eliza, homeward bound from Malta, found her floating. HMS Challenger brought Blenden Hall into Plymouth, they arrived on 19 December, on the same day as Lusitania. On 25 February 1814, at 47°40′N 9°30′W, under Commander René Joseph Marie Denis-Lagarde, she was chased by the 38-gun HMS Eurotas. A violent fight ensued for two hours and 20 minutes that left both ships dismasted, Eurotas suffering 20 killed and 30 wounded, Clorinde, 40 killed and 80 wounded. During the night, the ships built jury rigs and resumed the pursuit the next day, when HMS Dryad and HMS Achates intervened; the helpless Clorinde struck. Clorinde was brought into British service as HMS Aurora, she served off South America during the years 1821–25, in the Caribbean, 1826–28. From January 1832, she was used as a coal hulk in Falmouth, she was broken up in May 1851. Citations References Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours 1 1671 - 1870.
ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922
Clorinda is a city in the province of Formosa, Argentina. It is the head town of the Pilcomayo Department, has 47,240 inhabitants as per the 2001 census, it is located 115 km north-northeast from the provincial capital Formosa, at the easternmost tip of the province, 4 km from the Paraguayan border, on the right bank of the Pilcomayo River, 10 km before its confluence with the Paraguay River. Opposite Clorinda lies the Paraguayan capital Asunción; the two cities are linked by the San Ignacio de Loyola International Bridge. Clorinda marks the junction between National Route 11 and National Route 86. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs. Brachiopod valves are hinged at the rear end, while the front can be opened for feeding or closed for protection. Two major groups are recognized and inarticulate; the word "articulate" is used to describe the tooth-and-groove features of the valve-hinge, present in the articulate group, absent from the inarticulate group. This is the leading diagnostic feature, by which the two main groups can be distinguished. Articulate brachiopods have toothed hinges and simple opening and closing muscles, while inarticulate brachiopods have untoothed hinges and a more complex system of muscles used to keep the two valves aligned. In a typical brachiopod a stalk-like pedicle projects from an opening in one of the valves near the hinges, known as the pedicle valve, keeping the animal anchored to the seabed but clear of silt that would obstruct the opening.
The word "brachiopod" is formed from podos. They are known as "lamp shells", since the curved shells of the class Terebratulida look rather like pottery oil-lamps. Lifespans range from three to over thirty years. Ripe gametes float from the gonads into the main coelom and exit into the mantle cavity; the larvae of inarticulate brachiopods are miniature adults, with lophophores that enable the larvae to feed and swim for months until the animals become heavy enough to settle to the seabed. The planktonic larvae of articulate species do not resemble the adults, but rather look like blobs with yolk sacs, remain among the plankton for only a few days before leaving the water column upon metamorphosing. In addition to the traditional classification of brachiopods into inarticulate and articulate, two approaches appeared in the 1990s: one approach groups the inarticulate Craniida with articulate brachiopods, since both use the same material in the mineral layers of their shell. However, some taxonomists believe it is premature to suggest higher levels of classification such as order and recommend a bottom-up approach that identifies genera and groups these into intermediate groups.
Traditionally, brachiopods have been regarded as members of, or as a sister group to, the deuterostomes, a superphylum that includes chordates and echinoderms. One type of analysis of the evolutionary relationships of brachiopods has always placed brachiopods as protostomes while another type has split between placing brachiopods among the protostomes or the deuterostomes, it was suggested in 2003 that brachiopods had evolved from an ancestor similar to Halkieria, a slug-like Cambrian animal with "chain mail" on its back and a shell at the front and rear end. However, new fossils found in 2007 and 2008 showed that the "chain mail" of tommotiids formed the tube of a sessile animal. Lineages of brachiopods that have both fossil and extant taxa appeared in the early Cambrian and Carboniferous periods, respectively. Other lineages have arisen and become extinct, sometimes during severe mass extinctions. At their peak in the Paleozoic era, the brachiopods were among the most abundant filter-feeders and reef-builders, occupied other ecological niches, including swimming in the jet-propulsion style of scallops.
Brachiopod fossils have been useful indicators of climate changes during the Paleozoic. However, after the Permian–Triassic extinction event, brachiopods recovered only a third of their former diversity. A study in 2007 concluded the brachiopods were vulnerable to the Permian–Triassic extinction, as they built calcareous hard parts and had low metabolic rates and weak respiratory systems, it was thought that brachiopods went into decline after the Permian–Triassic extinction, were out-competed by bivalves, but a study in 1980 found both brachiopod and bivalve species increased from the Paleozoic to modern times, with bivalves increasing faster. Brachiopods live only in the sea, most species avoid locations with strong currents or waves; the larvae of articulate species settle in and form dense populations in well-defined areas while the larvae of inarticulate species swim for up to a month and have wide ranges. Brachiopods now live in cold water and low light. Fish and crustaceans seem to find brachiopod flesh distasteful and attack them.
Among brachiopods, only the lingulids have been fished commercially, on a small scale. One brachiopod species may be a measure of environmental conditions around an oil terminal being built in Russia on the shore of the Sea of Japan. Modern brachiopods range from 1 to 100 millimetres long, most species are about 10 to 30 millimetres; the largest brachiopods known – Gigantoproductus and Titanaria, reaching 30 to 38 centimetres in width – occurred in the upper part of the Lower Carboniferous. Each has two valves which cover the dorsal and ventral surface of the animal, unlike bivalve molluscs whose shells cover the lateral surfaces; the valves are t