A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are a type of front vowel. Rounded front vowels are centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation; this is one reason. The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: close front unrounded vowel close front compressed vowel near-close front unrounded vowel near-close front compressed vowel close-mid front unrounded vowel close-mid front compressed vowel open-mid front unrounded vowel open-mid front compressed vowel near-open front unrounded vowel open front unrounded vowel open front rounded vowel There are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA: close front protruded vowel near-close front protruded vowel close-mid front protruded vowel mid front unrounded vowel or mid front compressed vowel or mid front protruded vowel or open-mid front protruded vowel As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨i̞⟩, ⟨e̝⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.
In articulation, front retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, and, mid-central vowels. Raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/. In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar; this change can be allophonic variation. This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and in quantity, they are voiced, are involved in prosodic variation such as tone and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract; the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them. There are two complementary definitions of one phonetic and the other phonological. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" or "oh", produced with an open vocal tract. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis; this contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel.
In oral languages, phonetic vowels form the peak of many or all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden"; the phonetic definition of "vowel" does not always match the phonological definition. The approximants and illustrate this: both are without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables which suggests that phonologically they are consonants. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a rhotic dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/; the American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms "vocoid" for a phonetic vowel and "vowel" for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology, are classified as vocoids but not vowels. However and Emmory demonstrated from a range of languages that semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, so may be considered consonants on that basis.
Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic /l/ in table, or the syllabic nasals in button and rhythm. The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness; these three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, tongue root position; this conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928. Peter Ladefoged has said that "early phoneticians... thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, but they were not. They were describing formant frequencies."
The IPA Handbook concedes that "the vowel quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction and not a direct mapping of tongue position."Nonetheless, the concept that vowel qualities are determined by tongue position and lip rounding continues to be used in pedagogy, as it provides an intuitive explanation of how vowels are distinguished. Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1, associated with the height of the tongue. In close vowels known as high vowels, such as and, the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels known as low vowels, such as, F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the frequency of the first formant, the lower the vowel; the International Phonetic Alphabet defines seven degrees of vowel height, but no language is known to distinguish all of them without distinguishing another attribute: close near-close close-mid mid open-mid near-open open The letters are used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels.
However, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. The Kensiu language, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is unusual in that it contrasts true-mid with close-mid and open-mid vowels, without any difference in other parameters like backness or roundness. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness, many are parts of diphthongs, it appears that some varieties of German have five vowel heights that contrast independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten h
Gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. In Ancient Greek, the letter gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, this letter represents either a voiced velar fricative or a voiced palatal fricative. In the International Phonetic Alphabet and other modern Latin-alphabet based phonetic notations, it represents the voiced velar fricative; the Greek letter Gamma Γ was derived from the Phoenician letter for the /g/ phoneme, as such is cognate with Hebrew gimel ג. Based on its name, the letter has been interpreted as an abstract representation of a camel's neck, but this has been criticized as contrived, it is more that the letter is derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph representing a club or throwing stick. In Archaic Greece, the shape of gamma was closer to a classical lambda, while lambda retained the Phoenician L-shape. Letters that arose from the Greek gamma include Etruscan, Roman C and G, Runic kaunan ᚲ, Gothic geuua, the Coptic Ⲅ, the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.
The Ancient Greek /g/ phoneme was the voiced velar stop, continuing the reconstructed proto-Indo-European *g, *ǵ. The modern Greek phoneme represented by gamma is realized either as a voiced palatal fricative before a front vowel, or as a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ in all other environments. Both in Ancient and in Modern Greek, before other velar consonants, gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ or /ŋɣ/; the gamma was added to the Latin alphabet, in the following forms: majuscule Ɣ, minuscule ɣ, superscript modifier letter ˠ. Lowercase Greek gamma is used in the Americanist phonetic notation and Uralic Phonetic Alphabet to indicate voiced consonants. In International Phonetic Alphabet, it represents the voiced velar fricative. In the International Phonetic Alphabet the minuscule letter is used to represent a voiced velar fricative and the superscript modifier letter is used to represent velarization, it is not to be confused with the character ɤ, which looks like a lowercase Latin gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing, which represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel.
In certain nonstandard variations of the IPA, the uppercase form is used. It is as a full-fledged majuscule and minuscule letter in the alphabets of some of languages of Africa such as Dagbani, Dinka and Ewe, Berber languages using the Berber Latin alphabet, it is sometimes used in the romanization of Pashto. The lowercase letter γ is used as a symbol for: Chromatic number of in graph theory Gamma radiation in nuclear physics The photon, the elementary particle of light and other electromagnetic radiation Surface energy in materials science The Lorentz factor in the theory of relativity In mathematics, the lower incomplete gamma function The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics The activity coefficient in thermodynamics The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism Gamma waves in neuroscience Gamma motor neurons in neuroscience A non-SI metric unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram; this always-rare use is deprecated. A non-SI unit of measure of magnetic flux density, sometimes used in geophysics, equal to 1 nanotesla.
The power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction The Euler–Mascheroni constant In civil and mechanical engineering: Specific weight The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lowercase gamma with a dot above it: γ ˙ Austenite, a metallic non-magnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron. The gamma carbon, the third carbon attached to a functional group in organic chemistry and biochemistry; the uppercase letter Γ is used as a symbol for: In mathematics, the gamma function is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers In mathematics, the upper incomplete gamma function The Christoffel symbols in differential geometry In probability theory and statistics, the gamma distribution is a two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions. Circulation in fluid mechanics As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical engineering The tape alphabet of a Turing machine The Feferman–Schütte ordinal Γ 0 The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are &Gamma.
Greek GammaCoptic GammaLatin Gamma / phonetic GammaCJK Square GammaTechnical / Mathematical GammaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. Г, г - Ge G, g - Latin
In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font. The line that descenders reach down to is known as the beard line. For example, in the letter y, the descender is the "tail", or that portion of the diagonal line which lies below the v created by the two lines converging. In the letter p, it is the stem reaching down past the o. In most fonts, descenders are reserved for lowercase characters such as g, j, q, p, y, sometimes f; some fonts, however use descenders for some numerals. Such numerals are called old-style numerals; some fonts use descenders for the tails on a few uppercase letters such as J and Q. The parts of characters that extend above the x-height of a font are called ascenders; the dictionary definition of descender at Wiktionary