Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
IPA number 397
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwaə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacriticɘ̞⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

To type this symbol on Windows, press and hold the ALT key while typing "600" using the number pad keys.


IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cotabato Manobo[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Azerbaijani Standard [example needed] Typically transcribed as /ɯ/.
Dinka Luanyjang[4] ŋeŋ [ŋɘ́ŋ] 'jawbone' Short allophone of /e/.[4]
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[7] [bɘ˞ːd] Rhotacized.
Cardiff[8] foot [fɘt] 'foot' Less often rounded [ɵ];[9] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[10] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[11] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[11] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[12] kõrv [kɘrv] 'ear' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[12] See Estonian phonology
German Standard[13] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtɘ]  'please' Also described as mid [ə].[14][15] See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[16] Irrtum [ˈɘːtuːm] 'error' Common alternative to the centering diphthong [ɪɐ̯].[16] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨː⟩. See Standard German phonology
Irish Munster[17] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[17] See Irish phonology
Jebero[18] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
Kaingang[19] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[20]
Kalagan Kaagan[21] [miˈwɘːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[21]
Kensiu[22] [ɟɘ˞h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.[22]
Kera[23] [t͡ʃɘ̄wā̠a̠] 'fire' Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[23]
Korean[24] [ɘːɾɯ̽n] 'senior' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See Korean phonology
Lizu[25] [Fkɘ] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[25]
Mapudungun[26] elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[27] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Mono[28] dœ [dɘ] 'be (equative)' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[28]
Norwegian Urban East[29] sterkeste [²stæɾkɘstɘ] 'the strongest' Also described as mid [ə];[30] occurs only in unstressed syllables. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. Some dialects (e.g. Trondheimsk) lack this sound.[31] See Norwegian phonology
Polish[32] tymczasowy About this sound [t̪ɘ̟mt͡ʂäˈs̪ɔvɘ̟]  'temporary' Somewhat fronted;[32] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[33] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Some speakers[34] солнце About this sound [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' Unstressed allophone of /ɨ/ after /t͡s/; other speakers realize it as near-close [ɨ̞].[34] See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[35] [example needed]
Temne[36] pər [pɘ́r] 'incite' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[36]
Vietnamese[37] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Upper[38] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[38] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[39]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[40] ne [nɘ] 'and' Most common realization of /e/.[40]


  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  4. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  5. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  6. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  7. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  10. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  11. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  12. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  14. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  15. ^ Lodge (2009:87)
  16. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 52). The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ⟨ɨː⟩, but describes it as a strongly centralized (not "raised and centralized") [ɪ], which it describes as close-mid.
  17. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  18. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  19. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  20. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  21. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  22. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  23. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  24. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  25. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  26. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  27. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  28. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  29. ^ Popperwell (2010), p. 16, 31–32.
  30. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  31. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 21.
  32. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol /ɨ/ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ]
  33. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  34. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  35. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  36. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  37. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  38. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  39. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  40. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)