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Closed captioning

Closed captioning and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. Both are used as a transcription of the audio portion of a program as it occurs, sometimes including descriptions of non-speech elements. Other uses have been to provide a textual alternative language translation of a presentation's primary audio language, burned-in to the video and unselectable. HTML5 defines subtitles as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue... when sound is available but not understood" by the viewer and captions as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue, sound effects, relevant musical cues, other relevant audio information... when sound is unavailable or not audible". The term "closed" indicates that the captions are not visible until activated by the viewer via the remote control or menu option. On the other hand, "open", "burned-in", "baked on", "hard-coded", or "hard" captions are visible to all viewers.

In the United States and Canada, the terms subtitles and captions have different meanings. Subtitles assume the viewer can hear but cannot understand the language or accent, or the speech is not clear, so they transcribe only dialogue and some on-screen text. Captions aim to describe to the deaf and hard of hearing all significant audio content — spoken dialogue and non-speech information such as the identity of speakers and their manner of speaking — along with any significant music or sound effects using words or symbols; the term closed caption has come to be used to refer to the North American EIA-608 encoding, used with NTSC-compatible video. The United Kingdom and most other countries do not distinguish between subtitles and closed captions and use "subtitles" as the general term; the equivalent of "captioning" is referred to as "subtitles for the hard of hearing". Their presence is referenced on screen by notation which says "Subtitles", or "Subtitles 888" or just "888", why the term subtitle is used to refer to the Ceefax-based Teletext encoding, used with PAL-compatible video.

The term subtitle has been replaced with caption in a number of markets — such as Australia and New Zealand — that purchase large amounts of imported US material, with much of that video having had the US CC logo superimposed over the start of it. In New Zealand, broadcasters superimpose an ear logo with a line through it that represents subtitles for the hard of hearing though they are referred to as captions. In the UK, modern digital television services have subtitles for the majority of programs, so it is no longer necessary to highlight which have captioning and which do not. Remote control handsets for TVs, DVDs, similar devices in most European markets use "SUB" or "SUBTITLE" on the button used to control the display of subtitles/captions. Regular open-captioned broadcasts began on PBS's The French Chef in 1972. WGBH began open captioning of the programs Zoom, ABC World News Tonight, Once Upon a Classic shortly thereafter. Closed captioning was first demonstrated at the First National Conference on Television for the Hearing Impaired in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1971.

A second demonstration of closed captioning was held at Gallaudet College on February 15, 1972, where ABC and the National Bureau of Standards demonstrated closed captions embedded within a normal broadcast of The Mod Squad. The closed captioning system was encoded and broadcast in 1973 with the cooperation of PBS station WETA; as a result of these tests, the FCC in 1976 set aside line 21 for the transmission of closed captions. PBS engineers developed the caption editing consoles that would be used to caption prerecorded programs; the British Broadcasting Corporation in the UK was the first broadcaster to include closed captions in 1979 based on the Teletext framework for pre-recorded programming. Real-time captioning, a process for captioning live broadcasts, was developed by the National Captioning Institute in 1982. In real-time captioning, court reporters trained to write at speeds of over 225 words per minute to give viewers instantaneous access to live news and entertainment; as a result, the viewer sees the captions within two to three seconds of the words being spoken.

Major US producers of captions are VITAC, CaptionMax and the National Captioning Institute. In the UK and Australasia, Red Bee Media and Independent Media Support are the major vendors. Improvements in speech recognition technology means that live captioning may be or automated. BBC Sport broadcasts use a "respeaker": a trained human who repeats the running commentary for input to the automated text generation system; this is reliable, though errors are not unknown. The National Captioning Institute was created in 1979 in order to get the cooperation of the commercial television networks; the first use of scheduled closed captioning on American television occurred on March 16, 1980. Sears had developed and sold the Telecaption adapter, a decoding unit that could be connected to a standard television set; the first programs seen with captioning were a Disney's Wonderful World presentation of the film Son of Flubber on NBC, an ABC Sunday Night Movie airing of Semi-Tough, Masterpiece Theatre on PBS.


Geoffrey Dodsworth

Geoffrey Hugh Dodsworth was a merchant banker and British Conservative Party politician. Geoffrey Hugh Dodsworth was born on 7 June 1928, he was educated at York. He began his working life in 1945 as an articled clerk and subsequently a Chartered Accountant at Barron & Barron in York. After two years' service in the army, from 4 July 1946 to 26 August 1948, he returned to Barron & Barron, where he worked on a number of major business activities for large estates in Yorkshire and London until 1963. Whilst at Barron & Barron, Geoffrey became Justice of the Peace for York in 1960 - at just 32, he was one of the youngest magistrates for the city, he set up a group of companies in the export and import trade in 1963 and travelled extensively in Ottawa, New York and Washington, developing these businesses. In 1970, he joined Co. Ltd.. He became Managing Director of Grindlay Brandt’s Ltd. in 1974, in the same year became Director of Grindlays Bank Ltd.. Dodsworth made presentations on behalf of the UK leasing Industry with the British Export Council in the United States, Brazil and India.

In 1980, he became President and co-Chief Executive of Oceanic Finance Corporation Ltd. based in Bermuda. He moved on to become Chairman and Chief Executive of Jorvik Finance Corporation Ltd. in Bermuda, in 1988, set up Dodsworth and Company Ltd. in 1988, under personal control, specialising in equity and bank funding for asset and project finance. One of his biggest deals was negotiating the sale of a cable and telephone franchise to Cable & Wireless, he was Director of a quoted Property Company for three years in the 1990s and worked with First International Shipping Corporation in the late 1990s. He moved on to doing consultancy work for WRDC Limited, a computer software company, he is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, was Chairman and founder of the UK Equipment Leasing Association and Vice-Chairman of the European Leasing Federation. He acted as Trustee on a number of Family Trusts. Dodsworth twice stood unsuccessfully for Parliament before getting elected.

In 1959 he was beaten at the safe-Labour Don Valley by Richard Kelley, in 1964 he was defeated by Ted Leadbitter at The Hartlepools. He became Deputy Leader of the Conservative Group on York City Council in 1964 and was a member of the Council for six years, serving on major committees specialising in financial matters, he was Member of Parliament for South West Hertfordshire from February 1974, was re-adopted for the June 1979 election, despite his views being wholly unacceptable to a substantial number of Conservatives in his constituency, who took strong objection to his views on Margaret Thatcher. To the great relief of his constituency party he as resigned as an MP in October 1979, ostensibly on medical advice.. He had held office in the backbench Shipping and Shipbuilding Committees and was Joint Secretary of the Finance Committee. Geoffrey served on the Select Committees on The Wealth Tax and Statutory Instruments. Richard Page was elected to succeed him in the subsequent by-election.

He returned north and was Chairman of the Vale of York constituency association in 1998 and stood for the North Yorkshire County Council in 1997. He married Isabel Neale, in 1949, who died in September 1967 after a long illness, they had Helen. He married his second wife, Elizabeth Beeston, in 1971, they had Simon on 15 January 1972 and Mary on 1 January 1974. In October 2002, he underwent a heart bypass, he died on 29 March 2018 at the age of 89. Times Guide to the House of Commons, 1979 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Geoffrey Dodsworth

Canadian patent law

Canadian patent law is the legal system regulating the granting of patents for inventions within Canada, the enforcement of these rights in Canada. A patent is a government grant that gives the inventor and his or her heirs and assigns, the exclusive right within Canada, during the term of the patent, to make, use and/or sell the invention claimed in the patent, subject to adjudication; the granting of Canadian patents is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Canadian federal government and is governed by the federal Patent Act, the Patent Rules, various international treaties and the regulations thereunder. The enforcement of Canadian patents is the responsibility of the Canadian Federal Court, or the Courts of the Canadian provinces. For patent applications filed prior to October 1, 1989, the patent expires 17 years after the patent issues. For patent applications filed on or after October 1, 1989, the patent expires 20 years after the patent application was filed. To be considered patentable, an invention must pass three criteria: novelty, non-obviousness and utility.

To be patentable, an invention must be novel. That is, the invention must not have been described or claimed in a filed third party Canadian patent application, must not have been publicly disclosed by a third party, anywhere in the world; the test for novelty is whether or not a single, publicly disclosed example of prior art "contained all of the information which, for practical purposes, is needed to produce the claimed invention without the exercise of any inventive skill". If a third party filed a Canadian patent application disclosing the invention, or if a third party document or device publicly disclosed the invention anywhere in the world a subsequently applied-for Canadian patent application for that invention is lacking in novelty and is invalid. A lack of novelty is referred to as "anticipation". For example, if a piece of prior art has each of the elements of a claimed invention, the piece of prior art is said to "anticipate" the claimed invention, or alternatively, the claimed invention is said to have been "anticipated by" the piece of prior art.

In Canada, the requirements for novelty are codified under s. 28.2 of the Patent Act: The section does not restrict disclosure to prior patents, giving a broad description of what includes prior disclosure. This may include prior publications or the invention itself being put on display. Disclosures in a private document, such as an internal memo, not available to the public, do not count. There is an eight-pronged test to determine; the prior art must: give an exact prior description. The test for non-obviousness is whether an "unimaginative skilled technician, in light of his general knowledge and the literature and information on the subject available to him on, would have been led directly and without difficulty to invention."The requirement for non-obviousness is codified under s. 28.3 of the Patent Act. In Apotex Inc. v. Sanofi‑Synthelabo Canada Inc. the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the test for non-obviousness laid out in the 1985 English case of Windsurfing International Inc. v. Tabur Marine Ltd.: Identify the notional "person skilled in the art" and the relevant common general knowledge of that person.

For a product to have utility it must perform some useful function. The requirement for utility originates from the definition of invention as a "new and useful art" The requirement is easy to meet, however, it does limit the scope of protection by excluding methods that would not be useful. There are number of matters. Among such matters include certain new plant matters, some types of computer programs, medical treatments within the body; the list of prohibited matters notably differs from the United States. With respect to patents for software, while mere algorithms are not patentable per se, software may be protected by Canadian patent law if it meets the traditional criteria for patentability. In other words, if for example the software is new and non-obvious, it would be patentable in Canada if the software directly provided a functional real world useful result (and not the calculation of a mere al

Dear 23

Dear 23 is the second album by Seattle Alternative rock/grunge/power pop band The Posies. "Apology" appears in Children of Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the Second Psychedelic Era, 1976–1995 along with "I May Hate you Sometimes" from their first album, Failure. All tracks by Jon Auer & Ken Stringfellow "My Big Mouth" – 2:27 "Golden Blunders" – 4:28 "Apology" – 5:16 "Any Other Way" – 4:07 "You Avoid Parties" – 4:49 "Suddenly Mary" – 4:13 "Help Yourself" – 4:29 "Mrs. Green" – 5:52 "Everyone Moves Away" – 4:15 "Flood of Sunshine" – 8:22 Jon Auer – vocals, guitars Ken Stringfellow – vocals, guitars Arthur "Rick" Roberts – bass Mike MusburgerDrums Grant Alden – Typography Jon Auer – Engineer, Assistant Engineer Gary GershExecutive Producer Fred Kelly – Assistant Engineer John Leckie – Producer, Mixing Stephen MarcussenMastering Karen Moskowitz – Photography Arthur "Rick" Roberts – Cover Art Concept Carl Smool – Set Design Dennis WhiteArt Direction, Set Design

Iki Island

Iki Island, or the Iki Archipelago, is an archipelago in the Tsushima Strait, administered as the city of Iki in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The islands have a total area of 138.46 square kilometres with a total population of 28,008. Only four of the twenty-three named islands are permanently inhabited. Together with the neighboring islands of Tsushima, they are collectively within the borders of the Iki–Tsushima Quasi-National Park; the Iki Islands are volcanic in origin: they are the exposed and eroded basaltic summit of a massive Quaternary stratovolcano last active over 400,000 years ago. Iki Island is oval in shape, measures 17 kilometres from north-south and 14 kilometres from east-west; the highest elevation is Takenotsuji, a weakly curved peak with a highest elevation at 212.9 metres above sea level. The average height of the land surface is 100 meters above sea level; the archipelago is 20 kilometres north-northeast of the Kyushu coast at its closest point and southeast of the Tsushima Islands.

The Iki Islands have been inhabited since the Japanese Paleolithic era, numerous artifacts from the Jōmon and Kofun periods have been found by archaeologists, indicating continuous human occupation and activity. In the Chinese Wèizhì Wōrén chuán, part of the Records of the Three Kingdoms dating from the third century, mention is made of a country called “Iki”, located on an archipelago east of the Korean Peninsula. Archaeologists have tentatively identified this with the large Yayoi period settlement of Harunotsuji, one of the largest to have been discovered in Japan, where artifacts uncovered indicate a close contact with the Japanese islands and the Asian mainland; the islands were organized as Iki Province under the Ritsuryō reforms in the latter half of the seventh century, the name Iki-no-kuni appears on wooden markers found in the imperial capital of Nara. During the Heian period, the island was attacked by Jurchen pirates in the Toi invasion of 1019. Afterwards, the islands came under the rule of the Matsura clan, who developed trade and commercial relations between Goryeo in Korea, Tsushima and Kyushu.

However, the islands were again devastated by the Kamakura period Mongol invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281 during which time many of its inhabitants were slaughtered. Throughout the Muromachi period, the islands were a main base for the Japanese Wokou pirates, who plundered coastal settlements in Korea and China. Following the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Edo period, the islands came under the rule of Hirado Domain. Following the Meiji Restoration, the islands became part of "Hirado Prefecture" from 1871, which became part of Nagasaki Prefecture; the islands were fortified with numerous coastal artillery batteries during World War II, but did not experience any combat. Remains of these fortifications can be found on the island of Wakamiyajima, north of the main Iki Island. On November 18, 1948, Lt. William Downham, from the USAF 36th Fighter Group stationed at Ashiya Air Field, experienced engine failure in his North American P-51 Mustang while patrolling the Korea Strait between Japan and the Korean Peninsula.

He parachuted onto Iki Island. In the 1960s and 1970s, in the town of Iki, the islanders were notorious for overfishing, but blamed declining catches on the local species of whales and dolphins. In 1977, the local fishermen invited television companies to film the mass slaughter of dolphins. In response, activists condemned the fishermen's acts of killing the dolphins. In view of the endangered Japanese amberjack, the local town government banned large-scale, commercial fishing of Japanese amberjack after 1982. Iki Island has ferry terminals in Ishida and Gōnoura, which connect Iki to mainland Japan. Located on the east coast Iki Airport connects the island to Nagasaki; the Japan National Route 382 connects the hamlets of the island together, the bus company "Iki-kotsu" provides for public transport. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Prostar Sailing Directions 2005 Japan Enroute. Prostar Publications. ISBN 1577856511

The B.S. Report

The B. S. Report was an ESPN podcast, that touched on mature subjects, hosted by Bill Simmons, it featured interviews with athletes, sports commentators, pop-culture experts and friends of Simmons. The B. S. Report had no fixed publication schedule, however there were 2 or 3 episodes posted per week; as of 2009,'The B. S. Report' was ESPN's most-downloaded podcast, with over 10 million downloads through June. Simmons had significant guests from the sports world, such as NBA Commissioner David Stern, or NBA Players Association head Billy Hunter. named The B. S. Report one of the best podcasts of 2010; the B. S. Report opens with a theme song written and performed by Ronald Jenkees and a voice-over announcement that the podcast "is a free-flowing conversation that touches on mature subjects." Simmons performs a monologue, but instead holds a conversation with one or more guests for the entire episode. Most B. S. Report episodes are based on discussions of sports, but Simmons will have entertainers or pop-culture observers on to talk about entertainment issues of the day, such as Saturday Night Live, reality television and music