A bung, stopper or cork is a truncated cylindrical or conical closure to seal a container, such as a bottle, tube or barrel. Unlike a lid, which encloses a container from the outside without displacing the inner volume, a glass stopper is often called a ground glass joint, a rubber stopper is sometimes called a rubber bung, and a cork stopper is called simply a cork. Bung stoppers used for wine bottles are referred to as corks, a common every-day example of a bung is the cork of a wine bottle. Bungs are used to seal the bunghole of barrels, other bungs, particularly those used in chemical barrels, may be made of metal and be screwed into place via threading. Ground glass joint are commonly used with laboratory glassware, mainly because of their nonreactivity, some stoppers used in labs have holes in them to allow the insertion of glass or rubber tubing. This is often used when a reaction is taking place in the flask or test tube, for instance, if one were to boil water in a test tube and wanted to collect the water vapor, one could seal the test tube with a stopper with holes in it.
With tubing inserted into the hole, when the tube is heated, water vapor will rise through the hole, make its way through the tubing, and into the collection chamber of choice. The water vapor would not be able to escape into the air, because the stopper, in chemistry, bungs made of hardened rubber are frequently used in high school level demonstrations, or in small-scale experimental set-ups involving non-corrosive gases. Some chemistry bungs may one or more holes so a glass tube or laboratory funnel may be inserted through the bung. In all cases, the keeps the experimentation environment sealed so that liquids or gases cannot escape. For applications that place higher demand on the bung in terms of temperature and mechanical stability or solvent resistance, silicone bungs are the standard for wine barrels and come in a number of varieties
Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale. In other words, it refer to whether a commodity should no longer be on a pantry shelf. It applies to cosmetics and beverages, medical devices, explosives, pharmaceutical drugs, tires, batteries, in some regions, an advisory best before, mandatory use by or freshness date is required on packaged perishable foods. Most expiration dates are used as based on normal and expected handling. Use prior to the date does not guarantee the safety of a food or drug. According to the USDA, canned foods are safe indefinitely as long as they are not exposed to freezing temperatures, if the cans look ok, they are safe to use. Discard cans that are dented, rusted, or swollen, high-acid canned foods will keep their best quality for 12 to 18 months, low-acid canned foods for 2 to 5 years. Sell by date is an ambiguous term for what is often referred to as an expiration date. Most food is edible after the expiration date.
A product that has passed its shelf life might still be safe, Shelf life depends on the degradation mechanism of the specific product. Most can be influenced by several factors, exposure to light, moisture, transmission of gases, mechanical stresses, product quality is often mathematically modelled around a parameter. For some foods, health issues are important in determining shelf life, bacterial contaminants are ubiquitous, and foods left unused too long will often be contaminated by substantial amounts of bacterial colonies and become dangerous to eat, leading to food poisoning. However, shelf life alone is not an indicator of how long the food can safely be stored. For example, pasteurized milk can remain fresh for five days after its sell-by date if it is refrigerated properly, in contrast, if milk already has harmful bacteria, the use-by dates become irrelevant. The expiration date of pharmaceuticals specifies the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency, most medications continue to be effective and safe for a time after the expiration date. A rare exception is a case of renal tubular acidosis purportedly caused by expired tetracycline, a study conducted by the U. S.
Food and Drug Administration covered over 100 drugs and over-the-counter. The study showed that about 90% of them were safe and effective as long as 15 years past their expiration dates. One major exception is the Shelf Life Extension Program of the U. S. Department of Defense, which commissioned a major study of drug efficacy from the FDA starting in the mid-1980s
Porcelain /ˈpɔːrsəlᵻn, ˈpɔːrslᵻn/ is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C. Porcelain was first developed in China around 2,000 years ago, spread to other East Asian countries, and finally Europe. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels. It has uses in technology and industry. The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell, Porcelain is referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Porcelain has been described as being completely vitrified, impermeable, white or artificially coloured, however, the term porcelain lacks a universal definition and has been applied in a very unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common.
Terms such as porcellaneous or near-porcelain may be used in such cases, a high proportion of modern porcelain is made of the variant bone china. Kaolin is the material from which porcelain is made, even though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of the whole. The word paste is an old term for both the unfired and fired material, a more common terminology these days for the unfired material is body, for example, when buying materials a potter might order an amount of porcelain body from a vendor. The composition of porcelain is highly variable, but the mineral kaolinite is often a raw material. Other raw materials can include feldspar, ball clay, bone ash, quartz, the clays used are often described as being long or short, depending on their plasticity. Long clays are cohesive and have high plasticity, short clays are cohesive and have lower plasticity. Clays used for porcelain are generally of lower plasticity and are shorter than many other pottery clays and they wet very quickly, meaning that small changes in the content of water can produce large changes in workability.
Thus, the range of content within which these clays can be worked is very narrow. The following section provides information on the methods used to form, finish, glaze. Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the wares of Longquan, were designed specifically for their striking effects on porcelain. Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze using pigments that include cobalt and copper or over the glaze using coloured enamels. Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are often biscuit-fired at around 1,000 °C, coated with glaze, another early method is once-fired where the glaze is applied to the unfired body and the two fired together in a single operation
A screw cap or closure is a common type of closure for bottles and tubes. A screw closure is a device which is screwed on. Either continuous threads or lugs are used, some closures need to be tamper resistant and have child-resistant packaging features. A tamper-evident band is a common tamper warning for screw caps of bottles, screw caps use as an alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles is gaining increasing support. A screw cap is a cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle. A layer of plastic, rubber, or other material is used as wad to make a seal with the mouth of the bottle. Sake bottles are almost universally closed with screw caps, soroka, W, Fundamentals of Packaging Technology, IoPP,2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4 Yam, K. L. Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, John Wiley & Sons,2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6 Prlewe, J. Wayne J. Mortensen and Brian K
A label is a piece of paper, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or product, on which is written or printed information or symbols about the product or item. Information printed directly on a container or article can be considered labeling, methods of production and attachment to packaging are many and various and may be subject to internationally recognised standards. In many countries, hazardous products such as poisons or flammable liquids must have a warning label, labels may be used for any combination of identification, warning, instructions for use, environmental advice or advertising. They may be stickers, permanent or temporary labels or printed packaging, Permanent product identification by a label is commonplace, labels need to remain secure throughout the life of the product. For example, a VIN plate on an automobile must be resistant to heat and tampering, removable product labels need to bond until they are removed. For example, a label on a new refrigerator has installation and environmental information, packaging may have labeling attached to or integral with the package.
These may carry pricing, barcodes, UPC identification, usage guidance, advertising and they may be used to help resist or indicate tampering or pilferage. In industrial or military environments, asset labeling is used to identify assets for maintenance. Such labels are made of engraved Traffolyte or a similar material. They are usually tamper-evident, permanent or frangible and usually contain a barcode for electronic identification using readers, for example, the US Military uses a UID system for its assets. Garments normally carry separate care/treatment labels which, in regions, are subject to legislation. These labels typically indicate how the item should be washed, whether bleach can be used, textile labels may be woven into the garment or attached, and may be heat resistant, washable, leather or PVC/Plastic. Printed labels are an alternative to woven labels, some upholstered furniture and mattresses have labels that are required by law, describing the contents of the stuffing. Textiles containing pesticides as an ingredient may require government approval, a label including a company name or identification number and a material content list may be required.
Mailing labels identify the addressee, the sender and any information which may be useful in transit. Many software packages such as word processor and contact manager programs produce standardized mailing labels from a set that comply with postal standards. These labels may include routing barcodes and special handling requirements to expedite delivery, piggyback labels are made from combining two layers of adhesive substrate. The bottom layer forms the backing for the top, the label can be applied to any object as normal, the top layer can be a removable label that can be applied elsewhere, which may change the message or marking on the remaining label underneath
A Mason jar, named after John Landis Mason who first invented and patented it in 1858, is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The jars mouth has a thread on its outer perimeter to accept a metal ring. The band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped aluminium disc-shaped lid against the jars rim, an integral rubber ring on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal. The bands and lids usually come with new jars, but they are sold separately. While the bands are reusable, the lids are intended for use when canning. Largely supplanted by other products and methods for commercial canning, such as tin cans and plastic containers, glass jars and metal lids are still commonly used in home canning. Lightning fruit jars, another type of Mason jar, were not as common as the screw-thread version and they are produced in a variety of volumes, including cup, pint and half-gallon. Among the most common U. S. brands of Mason jars are Ball, Jarden Corporation, based in Boca Raton, retains the license to use the Ball and Kerr registered trademarks on home-canning products as a part of its branded consumables business.
At one time Jarden may have had a license to use the Golden Harvest brand, however, in Canada, which is another division of Jarden, is the most common brand, Golden Harvest is available. Jarden offers its Canadian jars in metric volumes of 125ml, 250ml, 500ml and 1 litre, in home canning, food is packed into the jar, leaving some empty head space between the level of food and the top of the jar. The lid is placed on top of the jar with the rubber seal resting on the rim. A band is screwed loosely over the lid, allowing air, the jar is heat sterilized in boiling water or steam and the lid is secured. The jar is allowed to cool to room temperature, the cooling of the contents creates a vacuum in the head space, pulling the lid into tight contact with the jar rim to create a hermetic seal. Once cooled, the band is removed to prevent residual water between the jar threads and the lid from rusting the band, if the jar seal is properly formed, internal vacuum will keep the lid tightly on the jar.
Most metal lids used today are slightly domed to serve as a status indicator. The vacuum in a properly sealed mason jar pulls the lid down to create a concave-shaped dome, an improper or failed seal or microbial growth will cause the dome to pop upward. Among the earliest glass jars used for home canning were wax sealers and this process, which was complicated and error-prone, became popular in the late 1830s or early 1840s and was commonly used for sealing fruit jars from the early 1850s until about 1890. The wax sealing process was largely the only one available until other sealing methods were developed, by far the most popular and longest used form of closure for the glass canning jar was a zinc screw-on cap, the precursor to todays screw-on lids
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons, wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres. Modern barrels and casks can be made of aluminum, stainless steel, someone who makes barrels is called a barrel maker or cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage, other types include, but are not limited to, tubs, butter churns, firkins, kilderkins, rundlets, pipes, butts and breakers. An aging barrel is used to age wine, distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum, tabasco sauce, when a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in. Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, in an environment with 100% relative humidity, very little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with very high proof.
Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune, beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried. After roughly three years, most of a barrels flavor compounds have been leached out and it is well on its way to becoming neutral, barrels used for aging are typically made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are used. Some Asian beverages use Japanese cedar, which imparts an unusual, in Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in oak or in earthenware. Some wines are fermented on barrel, as opposed to in a container like steel or wine-grade HDPE tanks. Wine can be fermented in large tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called open-tops. Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, the tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are slightly different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas.
To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, some winemakers use 200% new oak, where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are more cheaply flavored by soaking oak chips in them instead of being aged in a barrel. Sherry is stored in 600-litre casks made of North American oak, the casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving the space of two fists empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. NOTE, This section uses both the U. S. –Irish typical spelling whiskey and the British–Canadian typical spelling whisky, laws in several jurisdictions require that whiskey be aged in wooden barrels
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber, which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. The montado landscape of Portugal produces approximately half of cork harvested annually worldwide, Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide, 34% in Portugal and 27% in Spain. Annual production is about 200,000 tons,49. 6% from Portugal,30. 5% from Spain,5. 8% from Morocco,4. 9% from Algeria,3. 5% from Tunisia,3. 1% Italy, and 2. 6% from France. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is traditionally stripped from the trunks every nine years, the trees live for about 300 years. The cork industry is regarded as environmentally friendly. Cork production is considered sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down to obtain cork. The tree continues to live and grow, the sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork products and by-products are two of its most distinctive aspects.
Cork Oak forests prevent desertification and are a habitat in the Iberian Peninsula. The Corticeira Amorim’s study, in particular, was developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, results concluded that, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, each plastic stopper released 10 times more CO2, whilst an aluminium stopper releases 26 times more CO2 than does a cork stopper. The Cork Oak is unrelated to the trees, which have corky bark but are not used for cork production. Cork is extracted only from early May to late August, when the cork can be separated from the tree without causing permanent damage, when the tree reaches 25–30 years of age and about 24 in in circumference, the cork can be removed for the first time. However, this first harvest almost always produces poor quality or male cork, bark from initial harvests can be used to make flooring, shoes and other industrial products. Subsequent extractions usually occur at intervals of 9 years, though it can take up to 13 for the cork to reach an acceptable size.
If the product is of quality it is known as gentle cork. The workers who specialize in removing the cork are known as extractors and this is the most delicate phase of the work because, even though cutting the cork requires quite a bit of strength, the extractor must not damage the underlying phellogen or the tree will be harmed. To free the cork from the tree, the extractor pushes the handle of the axe into the rulers, a good extractor needs to use a firm but precise touch in order to free a large amount of cork without damaging the product or tree. These freed portions of the cork are called planks, the planks are usually carried off by hand since cork forests are rarely accessible to vehicles
A container is a basic tool, consisting of any device creating a partially or fully enclosed space that can be used to contain and transport objects or materials. In commerce, it includes any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in packaging and shipping, things kept inside of a container are protected by being inside of its structure. The term is most frequently applied to devices made from materials that are durable, humans have used containers for at least 100,000 years, and possibly for millions of years. The first containers were probably invented for storing food, allowing humans to preserve more of their food for a longer time, to carry it more easily. The development of storage containers was of immense importance to the evolving human populations. These were followed by woven baskets, carved wood, and pottery, containers thereafter continued to develop along with related advances in human technology, and with the development of new materials and new means of manufacture.
These Phoenician examples from the first millennium BC were thought to have used to contain perfume. The Romans learned glass-making from the Phoenicians and produced many extant examples of glass bottles. By the beginning of the century, sizes for retail containers such as glass bottles had become standardized for their markets. In 1810, Frenchman Philippe de Girard came to London and used British merchant Peter Durand as an agent to patent his own idea for a process for making tin cans. The canning concept was based on food preservation work in glass containers the year before by the French inventor Nicholas Appert. By 1813 they were producing their first tin canned goods for the Royal Navy, the standardized steel shipping container was developed in the 1950s, and quickly became ubiquitous. The introduction of computer-aided design made it possible to highly specialized containers and container arrangements. A well-designed container will ease of use, that is, it is easy for the worker to open or close, to insert or extract the contents.
In addition, a container will have convenient and legible labeling locations, a shape that is conducive to efficient stacking and storing. Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, John Wiley & Sons,2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6 Media related to Container at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of container at Wiktionary
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a payload, when the containers valve is opened, the payload is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. As propellant expands to drive out the payload, only some propellant evaporates inside the can to maintain a constant pressure, outside the can, the droplets of propellant evaporate rapidly, leaving the payload suspended as very fine particles or droplets. Typical payload liquids dispensed in this way are insecticides and paints, an atomizer is a similar device that is pressurised by a hand-operated pump rather than by stored propellant. The concepts of aerosol probably go as far back as 1790, the first aerosol spray can patent was granted in Oslo in 1927 to Erik Rotheim, a Norwegian chemical engineer, and a United States patent was granted for the invention in 1931. The patent rights were sold to a United States company for 100,000 Norwegian kroner, the Norwegian Postal Service, Posten Norge, celebrated the invention by issuing a stamp in 1998.
In 1939, American Julian S. Kahn received a patent for a spray can. Kahns idea was to mix cream and a propellant from two sources to make whipped cream at home — not a true aerosol in that sense, moreover, in 1949, he disclaimed his first four claims, which were the foundation of his following patent claims. It was not until 1941 that the spray can was first put to good use by Americans Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan. Their design of a spray can dubbed the bug bomb, is the ancestor of many popular commercial spray products. In 1948, three companies were granted licenses by the United States government to manufacture aerosols, two of the three companies, Chase Products Company and Claire Manufacturing, still manufacture aerosols to this day. The crimp-on valve, used to control the spray in low-pressure aerosols was developed in 1949 by Bronx machine shop proprietor Robert H. Abplanalp. In 1974, Drs. Frank Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina proposed that chlorofluorocarbons, used as propellants in aerosol sprays, contributed to the depletion of Earths ozone layer.
In response to this theory, the U. S. Congress passed amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1977 authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the presence of CFCs in the atmosphere. The United Nations Environment Programme called for ozone layer research that same year, in 1985, Joe Farman, Brian G. Gardiner, and Jon Shanklin published the first scientific paper detailing the hole in the ozone layer. That same year, the Vienna Convention was signed in response to the UNs authorization, two years later, the Montreal Protocol, which regulated the production of CFCs was formally signed. It came into effect in 1989, the U. S. formally phased out CFCs in 1995. Usually the gas is the vapor of a liquid with boiling point slightly lower than room temperature and this means that inside the pressurized can, the vapor can exist in equilibrium with its bulk liquid at a pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure, but not dangerously high
Box describes a variety of containers and receptacles for permanent use as storage, or for temporary use, often for transporting contents. Boxes may be made of materials such as wood or metal, or of corrugated fiberboard, paperboard. The size may vary from small to the size of a large appliance. A corrugated box is a common shipping container. A decorative or storage box may be opened by raising, sliding or removing the lid, several types of boxes are used in packaginlolg and storage. A corrugated box is a container made of corrugated fiberboard. These are most commonly used to transport and warehouse products during distribution, a folding carton is fabricated from paperboard. The paperboard is printed, die-cut and scored to form a blank and these are transported and stored flat, and erected at the point of filling. These are used to package a wide range of goods, intended either for use or as a storage box for the remaining goods. A set up box is made of paperboard, permanently glued together with paper skins that can be printed or colored.
Unlike folding cartons, these are assembled at the point of manufacture, set-up boxes are more expensive than folding boxes and are typically used for protecting high value items such as cosmetics, watches or smaller consumer electronics. A crate is a heavy duty shipping container made of wood. Crates are distinct from wooden boxes, used as heavy duty shipping containers, for a wooden container to be a crate, all six of its sides must be put in place to result in the rated strength of the container. The strength of a box, on the other hand, is rated based on the weight it can carry before the top or opening is installed. A bulk box is a large box often used in industrial environments and it is sized to fit well on a pallet. Depending on locale and specific usage, the carton and box are sometimes used interchangeably. The invention of large steel intermodal shipping containers has helped advance the globalization of commerce, boxes for storing various items in can often be very decorative, as they are intended for permanent use and sometimes are put on display in certain locations. A jewelry or jewellery box, is a box for trinkets or jewels and it can take a very modest form with paper covering and lining, covered in leather and lined with satin, or be larger and more highly decorated
A drum is a cylindrical container used for shipping bulk cargo. Drums can be made of steel, dense paperboard, or plastics, drums are often certified for shipment of dangerous goods. Shipped goods must be matched with the make of drum necessary to comply with applicable regulations, drums are called barrels in common usage. It is common to hear a drum referred to as a barrel, in the United States, 25-US-gallon drums are in common use and have the same height. This allows easy stacking of mixed pallets, barrels can be constructed of plastic, laminated paperboard or steel. The two common sub-types of drums are the top and the welded top. The latter are almost universally called barrels in preference to drums in the United States and they cannot efficaciously either dispense or be filled with powdered goods, though they might store them very well, so are not used for such goods, being reserved for liquids transport and storage. Plastic drums are manufactured using injection blow moulding technology and have either a separate lid or a welded type top with the holes molded in.
Metal drums are manufactured with cold-rolled steel sheets, welded themselves into long pipe-like sections forged on a stamping press into drum bodies, a rolled seam is made for the drum bottom, or bottom and top both. Some drums have reinforcing rings of thickened metal or plastic, called chimes, at four places, top and this sufficiently strengthens them so that they can readily be turned on their sides and rolled when filled with heavy materials, like liquids. Over short to medium distances, drums can be tipped and rolled on the rim while being held at an angle, balanced. Tops exist with bung holes as above, and these hybrid drums with lid can be used to ship many non-volatile liquids as well as industrial powders. Many drums are used to ship and store powdered products as well as liquids, such as beads for injection moulding, extrusion. If used to transport goods across international boundaries, they may need to have UN certification. In general, drum usage is limited to distribution of bulk products.
These metal drums have two openings with flanges, once the drums are filled, the plugs are screwed in the flanges using pneumatic or hand operated bung tightener. To secure the contents of the drums against theft and adulteration during shipment, cap-seals made of metal and these cap-seals sit on top of the flanges and are crimped, using a drum cap-seal crimping tool, called a drum cap sealer. Once cap-seals are crimped, the plugs can be unscrewed only by breaking these cap-seals and hand-operated cap-seal crimping tools are available