Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Icddr,b is an international health research organisation located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Dedicated to saving lives through research and treatment, icddr,b addresses some of the most critical health concerns facing the world today, ranging from improving neonatal survival to HIV/AIDS. In collaboration with academic and research institutions over the world, icddr,b conducts research and extension activities, as well as programme-based activities, to develop and share knowledge for global lifesaving solutions. Icddr,b is one of the leading research institutes of the Global South, according to the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, 18 percent of the Bangladesh's publications.icddr,b has a mix of national and international staff, including public health scientists, laboratory scientists, nutritionists, demographers and behavioural scientists, IT professionals, experts in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, vaccine sciences. Icddr,b is supported by about 55 donor countries and organisations, including Sweden, Canada, UK, Bangladesh, USA, UN specialised agencies, universities, research institutes and private sector organisations and companies that share the Centre's concern for the health problems of developing countries and who value its proven experience in helping solve those problems.
The Centre is governed by a distinguished multinational Board of Trustees comprising 17 members from all over the world. Icddr,b has its roots in the SEATO Cholera Research Laboratory formed in 1960; when Bangladesh became independent in 1971, activities were scaled down because of scarce funds flow. Subsequently, a bilateral agreement was signed by Bangladesh and USAID for direct fund flow to the organisation; until 1978, there were number research accomplishments such as ORS, Patho-Physiology of shigellosis, uplifting family planning program etc. In 1978 proposal by an international group of scientists was put forward to elevate the organisation to an international research centre; the organisation was established in its current form via an ordinance promulgated by the President and, ratified in parliament in 1979. The Centre has, among its other accomplishments, played a major role in the discovery and implementation of oral rehydration therapy for the treatment of diarrhoea and cholera. Oral rehydration therapy is thought to have saved over 50 million people worldwide.
Since 1978, the Centre has trained more than 27,000 health professionals from over 78 countries. Courses provide practical training in hospital management of diarrhoeal diseases, biostatistics, family planning, demographic surveillance, child survival strategies; as child deaths from disease have been reduced, deaths from injuries, such as drowning, have become a proportionately greater threat to child survival. In 2017, icddr,b won the Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize with $2 million in prize money in recognition of the institute's innovative approach to solving global health issues impacting the world's most impoverished communities. In 2016, former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon noted that icddr,b's innovations are directly contributing to sustainable development, helping reduce infant and maternal mortality in Bangladesh and beyond. In 2001, icddr,b received the first Gates Award for Global Health from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2002 the first Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research was awarded to Drs. Norbert Hirschhorn, Nathaniel Pierce, Dilip Mahalanabis and David Nalin for their contributions to the development and implementation of oral rehydration therapy.
The work of Drs. Hirschhorn and Nalin was done at the Cholera Research Laboratory beginning in 1967. Dr. Dilip Mahalanabis made his major contribution to oral rehydration therapy in 1971 while working in Calcutta and served as Director of Clinical Research at icddr,b in the 1990s. In 2006, the Prince Mahidol Award for public health was given jointly to Drs. Mahalanabis, Richard A. Cash, David Nalin, Stanley Schultz for their work on oral rehydration therapy. In 2007, icddr,b received the Leadership Award from the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, it won the $2 million 2017 Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. 1960: Cholera Research Laboratory begins. 1963: Population surveillance – the world's longest running field site starts in Matlab Bazaar.1966: Cholera fatality reduced to less than 1%. 1967: Work leading to the development of oral rehydration therapy begins. 1969: Relationship between breastfeeding and menstruation resumption is demonstrated. 1974: Tetanus toxoid vaccine recommended for pregnant women, reducing neonatal mortality by 30%.
1978: Rotavirus identified as the most common cause of diarrhoea in infants in Bangladesh, as highest priority for new vaccines. 1982: Rice-based ORS shown to be effective alternative to glucose-based ORS and preferred for routine use at icddr,b. 1982: Matlab Maternal Child Health and Family Planning project shares its success in lowering national fertility rates with the Government of Bangladesh. 1983: Epidemic Control and Preparedness Programme begins. 1984: Full Expanded Programme on Immunization data is validated. Benefit of measles vaccine demonstrated, leading to inclusion in EPI. 1985: Cholera vaccine trial launched. 1988: Treatment of, research into, acute respiratory infections/pneumonia begins. 1989: Matlab record keeping system, specially adapted for Government use, extended to the national family planning programme. 1993: New Vibrio cholerae 0139 identified and characterised by icddr,b. 1994: icddr,b epidemic response team goes to Goma, Zaire to assist cholera-stricken Rwandan refug
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology. New Scientist, based in London, publishes editions in the UK, the United States, Australia. Since 1996 it has been available online. Sold in retail outlets and on subscription, the magazine covers news, features and commentary on science and their implications. New Scientist publishes speculative articles, ranging from the technical to the philosophical; the magazine was founded in 1956 by Tom Margerison, Max Raison and Nicholas Harrison as The New Scientist, with Issue 1 on 22 November, priced one shilling. The British monthly science magazine Science Journal, published 1965–71, was merged with New Scientist to form New Scientist and Science Journal; the cover of New Scientist listed articles in plain text. Page numbering followed academic practice with sequential numbering for each quarterly volume. So, for example, the first page of an issue in March could be 649 instead of 1.
Issues numbered issues separately. From the beginning of 1961 "The" was dropped from the title. From 1965, the front cover was illustrated; until the 1970s, colour was not used except for on the cover. Since its first issue, New Scientist has written about the applications of science, through its coverage of technology. For example, the first issue included an article "Where next from Calder Hall?" on the future of nuclear power in the UK, a topic that it has covered throughout its history. In 1964 there was a regular "Science in British Industry" section with several items. An article in the magazine's 10th anniversary issues provides anecdotes on the founding of the magazine. In 1970, the Reed Group, which went on to become Reed Elsevier, acquired New Scientist when it merged with IPC Magazines. Reed retained the magazine when it sold most of its consumer titles in a management buyout to what is now TI Media. Throughout most of its history, New Scientist has published cartoons as light relief and comment on the news, with contributions from regulars such as Mike Peyton and David Austin.
The Grimbledon Down comic strip, by cartoonist Bill Tidy, appeared from 1970 to 1994. The Ariadne pages in New Scientist commented on the lighter side of science and technology and included contributions from Daedalus; the fictitious inventor devised plausible but impractical and humorous inventions developed by the DREADCO corporation. Daedalus moved to Nature. Issues of New Scientist from Issue 1 to the end of 1989 have been made free to read online. Subsequent issues require a subscription. In the first half of 2013, the international circulation of New Scientist averaged 125,172. While this was a 4.3% reduction on the previous year's figure, it was a much smaller reduction in circulation than many mainstream magazines of similar or greater circulation. For the 2014 UK circulation fell by 3.2% but stronger international sales, increased the circulation to 129,585. See #Website below. In April 2017, New Scientist changed hands when RELX Group known as Reed Elsevier, sold the magazine to Kingston Acquisitions, a group set up by Sir Bernard Gray, Louise Rogers and Matthew O’Sullivan to acquire New Scientist.
Kingston Acquisitions renamed itself New Scientist Ltd. New Scientist contains the following sections: Leader, Technology, Features, CultureLab, The Last Word and Jobs & Careers. A Tom Gauld cartoon appears on the Letters page. A readers' letters section discusses recent articles and discussions take place on the website. Readers contribute observations on examples of pseudoscience to Feedback, offer questions and answers on scientific and technical topics to Last Word. New Scientist has produced a series of books compiled from contributions to Last Word. There are 51 issues a year, with a New Year double issue; the double issue in 2014 was the 3,000th edition of the magazine. The Editor-in-chief is Emily Wilson, Executive Editor is Graham Lawton, Managing Editor is Rowan Hooper and Editor-at-Large is Jeremy Webb. Consultants include Fred Pearce, Marcus Chown, Linda Geddes. Simon Ings and former editor Alun Anderson are contributors.) Percy Cudlipp Nigel Calder Donald Gould Bernard Dixon Michael Kenward David Dickson Alun Anderson Jeremy Webb Roger Highfield Sumit Paul-Choudhury Emily Wilson The New Scientist website carries blogs and news articles.
Users with free-of-charge registration have limited access to new content and can receive emailed New Scientist newsletters. Subscribers to the print edition have full access to all articles and the archive of past content that has so far been digitised. Online readership takes various forms. Overall global views of an online database of over 100,000 articles are 8.0m by 3.6m unique users according to Adobe Reports & Analytics, as of September 2014. On social media there are 1.47m+ Twitter followers, 2.3m+ Facebook likes and 365,000+ Google+ followers as of January 2015. New Scientist has published books derived from its content, many of which are selected questions and answers from the Last Word section of the magazine and website: 1998; the Last Word. ISBN 978-0-19-286199-3 2000; the Last Word 2. ISBN 978-0-19-286204-4 2005. Does Anything Eat Wasps?. ISBN 978-1-86197-973-5 2006. Why Don't Penguins' Feet Freeze?. ISBN 978-1861978769 2007. How to
The micrometre or micrometer commonly known by the previous name micron, is an SI derived unit of length equalling 1×10−6 metre. The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres; the width of a single human hair ranges from 10 to 200 μm. The longest human chromosome is 10 μm in length. Between 1 μm and 10 μm: 1–10 μm – length of a typical bacterium 10 μm – Size of fungal hyphae 5 μm – length of a typical human spermatozoon's head 3–8 μm – width of strand of spider web silk about 10 μm – size of a fog, mist, or cloud water droplet Between 10 μm and 100 μm about 10–12 μm – thickness of plastic wrap 10 to 55 μm – width of wool fibre 17 to 181 μm – diameter of human hair 70 to 180 μm – thickness of paper The term micron and the symbol μ were accepted for use in isolation to denote the micrometre in 1879, but revoked by the International System of Units in 1967; this became necessary because the older usage was incompatible with the official adoption of the unit prefix micro-, denoted μ, during the creation of the SI in 1960.
In the SI, the systematic name micrometre became the official name of the unit, μm became the official unit symbol. In practice, "micron" remains a used term in preference to "micrometre" in many English-speaking countries, both in academic science and in applied science and industry. Additionally, in American English, the use of "micron" helps differentiate the unit from the micrometer, a measuring device, because the unit's name in mainstream American spelling is a homograph of the device's name. In spoken English, they may be distinguished by pronunciation, as the name of the measuring device is invariably stressed on the second syllable, whereas the systematic pronunciation of the unit name, in accordance with the convention for pronouncing SI units in English, places the stress on the first syllable; the plural of micron is "microns", though "micra" was used before 1950. The official symbol for the SI prefix micro- is a Greek lowercase mu. In Unicode, there is a micro sign with the code point U+00B5, distinct from the code point U+03BC of the Greek letter lowercase mu.
According to the Unicode Consortium, the Greek letter character is preferred, but implementations must recognize the micro sign as well. Most fonts use the same glyph for the two characters. Metric prefix Metric system Orders of magnitude Wool measurement The dictionary definition of micrometre at Wiktionary
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U. S. President Jimmy Carter, he and his wife Rosalynn Carter partnered with Emory University just after his defeat in the 1980 U. S. Presidential elections; the center is located in a shared building adjacent to the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum on 37 acres of parkland, on the site of the razed neighborhood of Copenhill, two miles from downtown Atlanta, Georgia. The library and museum are owned and operated by the United States National Archives and Records Administration, while the Center is governed by a Board of Trustees, consisting of business leaders, former government officials, philanthropists; the Carter Center's goal is to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering, including helping improve the quality of life for people in more than 80 countries. The center has many projects including election monitoring, supporting locally led state-building and democratic institution-building in various countries, mediating conflicts between warring states, intervening with heads of states on behalf of victims of human rights abuses.
It leads disease eradication efforts, spearheading the campaign to eradicate Guinea worm disease, as well as controlling and treating onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria through awareness campaigns. In 2002, President Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work “to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, to promote economic and social development” through the Carter Center. In 2007, he wrote an autobiography entitled Beyond the White House: Waging Peace, Fighting Disease, Building Hope, which chronicles the first 25 years of The Carter Center; the Center was dedicated in 1986 with William Foege as its executive director. In 1993, John Hardman was appointed executive director, during the 1990s the Center received several multimillion-dollar donations to fight Guinea worm disease and to prevent blindness. In 1994, the center launched. On October 2, 1995, The Rosalynn Carter Georgia Mental Health Forum was held at The Carter Center.
The Center is governed by a board of trustees, which oversees the organization’s assets and property and promotes its objectives and goals. A community advisory group – the Board of Councilors – includes public and private-sector leaders who support The Carter Center and its activities in their communities and organizations. Members attend quarterly presentations on the Center’s work. CEO Ambassador Mary Ann Peters oversees the Center’s day-to-day operations and staff of 175. Center-based councils of eminent persons who offer guidance to or participate in Center activities include: the Council of Presidents and Prime Ministers of the Americas, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication, the Mental Health Task Force; the Carter Center collaborates with other public and private organizations. The Carter Center performs election observation, sending teams of observers to determine the legitimacy of 101 elections in 39 countries since 1989. Carter Center observers analyze election laws, assess voter education and registration processes, evaluate fairness in campaigns.
The presence of impartial election observers deters interference or fraud in the voting process, reassures voters that they can safely and secretly cast their ballots and that vote tabulation will be conducted without tampering. Teams include 30-100 qualified impartial observers – regional leaders, political scientists, regional specialists, election observation professionals; the Carter Center sends observers only when invited by a country’s electoral authorities and welcomed by the major political parties. Observers do not interfere in the electoral process and do not represent the U. S. government. The Center played a key role – with the U. N. Electoral Assistance Division and the National Democratic Institute – in building consensus on a common set of international principles for election observation, it is leading the effort to develop effective methodologies for observing elections that employ new electronic voting technologies. The Carter Center supports the growth of democratic institutions to ensure that there is a respect for rule of law and human rights, that government decisions are open and transparent, that everyone can have adequate resources to compete for public office.
For example, the Center is supporting the efforts of civic leaders in Ethiopia to convene discussions about the most pressing and contentious political and social issues facing the country, in the Palestinian Territories, it maintains a small presence in Ramallah focused on the ongoing monitoring and analysis of critical issues of democratic development. Democratic initiatives in Latin America include support for regional access-to-information programs, creation of an inter-American support network, reform of political campaign financing; the Center-based Council of Presidents and Prime Ministers of the Americas plays an important role in accomplishing these objectives. The Carter Center promotes the dissemination to emerging democracies and regional organizations of models and best practices for democratic governance; the goal is to empower those in transitioning countries who are trying to build stronger democratic institutions and practices. The Carter Center believes; these rights include political rights, such as peace and self-governance, as well as the social rights of health care, food and economic opportunity.
The Center supports human rights defenders around the world. In partnership with Human Rights First
Cheesecloth is a loose-woven gauze-like carded cotton cloth used in cheese making and cooking. Cheesecloth is available in at least seven different grades, from open to extra-fine weave. Grades are distinguished by the number of threads per inch in each direction; the primary use of cheesecloth is in some styles of cheesemaking, where it is used to remove whey from cheese curds, to help hold the curds together as the cheese is formed. Cheesecloth is used in straining stocks and custards, bundling herbs, making tofu and ghee, thickening yogurt. Queso blanco and queso fresco are Spanish and Mexican cheeses that are made from whole milk using cheesecloth. Quark is a type of German unsalted cheese, sometimes formed with cheesecloth. Paneer is a kind of Indian fresh cheese, made with cheesecloth. Fruitcake is wrapped in rum-infused cheesecloth during the process of "feeding" the fruitcake as it ripens. Cheesecloth can be used for several printmaking processes including lithography for wiping up gum arabic.
In intaglio a starched cheesecloth called tarlatan is used for wiping away excess ink from the printing surface. Cheesecloth # 60 is used in regulatory testing for potential fire hazards. Cheesecloth is wrapped over the device under test, subjected to simulated conditions such as lightning surges conducted through power or telecom cables, power faults, etc; the device must not ignite the cheesecloth. This is to ensure that the device can fail safely, not start electrical fires in the vicinity. Cheesecloth made to United States Federal Standard CCC-C-440 is used to test the durability of optical coatings per United States Military Standard MIL-C-48497; the optics are exposed to a 95%-100% humidity environment at 120 °F for 24 hours, a 1⁄4 inch thick by 3⁄8 in wide pad of cheesecloth is rubbed over the optical surface for at least 50 strokes under at least 1 pound-force. The optical surface is examined for streaks or scratches, its optical performance is measured to ensure that no deterioration occurred.
Cheesecloth is used in Pakistan for making summer shirts. Cheesecloth material shirts were popular for beachwear during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States. Cheesecloth has been used to create the illusion of "ectoplasm" during spirit channelling or other ghost-related phenomena. Cheesecloth has a use in anatomical dissection laboratories to slow the process of desiccation; the cloth can be soaked with a preservative solution such as formalin wrapped around the specimen or at other times wrapped first sprayed with water. Muslin Pudding cloth