Coat rack, coat stand or a hatstand is an item of furniture on which clothes may be hung. A coat rack refers to a set of hooks that are attached to a wall and is used to hang coats and jackets. In a kitchen or bathroom environment the coat rack is used to hang towels. In some cases, a coat rack refers to a self-standing piece of furniture; the self-standing variant is more referred to as a hatstand and is used to hang coats, jackets and hats. Clothes hanger Clotheshorse Clothes valet Hatstand
A casket or jewelry box is a container, smaller than a chest, in the past were decorated. In recent times they are receptacles for trinkets and jewels, but in earlier periods, when other types of container were rarer, the amount of documents held by the typical person far fewer, they were used for keeping important documents and many other purposes, it may take a modest form, covered in leather and lined with satin, or it may reach the monumental proportions of the jewel cabinets which were made for Marie Antoinette, one of, at Windsor, another at Versailles. Both were the work of Schwerdfeger as cabinet maker, his assistants Michael Reyad, Mitchell Stevens, Christopher Visvis, Degault as miniature painter, Thomire as chaser. Caskets are made in precious materials, such as gold, silver or ivory. In ancient East Asia, caskets made in wood, china, or covered with silk; some of these caskets could be collected as decorative boxes. Some examples have remained unburied from the late Roman Empire; the 4th century Brescia Casket, 8th century Franks Casket and 10th-11th century Veroli Casket are all in elaborately carved ivory, a popular material for luxury boxes until recent centuries.
Boxes that contain or contained relics are known as reliquaries, though not all were made for this purpose. The house-shaped chasse is a common shape for reliquaries in the High Middle Ages in Limoges enamel, but some were secular. Casket: Definition on TheFreeDictionary
A timer is a specialized type of clock used for measuring specific time intervals. Timers can be categorized into two main types. A timer which counts upwards from zero for measuring elapsed time is called a stopwatch, while a device which counts down from a specified time interval is more called a timer. A simple example of this type is an hourglass. Working method timers have two main groups: Hardware and Software timers. Most timers give an indication that the time interval, set has expired. Time switches, timing mechanisms which activate a switch, are sometimes called "timers". Mechanical timers use clockwork to measure time. Manual timers are set by turning a dial to the time interval desired, they function to a mechanical alarm clock. Each swing of the wheel releases the gear train to move forward by a small fixed amount, causing the dial to move backward until it reaches zero when a lever arm strikes a bell; the mechanical kitchen timer was invented in 1926 by Thomas Norman Hicks. Some less accurate, cheaper mechanisms use a flat paddle called a fan fly that spins against air resistance.
The simplest and oldest type of mechanical timer is the hourglass, in which a fixed amount of sand drains through a narrow opening from one chamber to another to measure a time interval. Short-period bimetallic electromechanical timers use a thermal mechanism, with a metal finger made of strips of two metals with different rates of thermal expansion sandwiched together. An electric current flowing through this finger causes heating of the metals, one side expands less than the other, an electrical contact on the end of the finger moves away from or towards an electrical switch contact; the most common use of this type is in the "flasher" units that flash turn signals in automobiles, sometimes in Christmas lights. This is a non-electronic type of multivibrator. An electromechanical cam timer uses a small synchronous AC motor turning a cam against a comb of switch contacts; the AC motor is turned at an accurate rate by the alternating current, which power companies regulate. Gears drive a shaft at the desired rate, turn the cam.
The most common application of this timer now is in washers and dishwashers. This type of timer has a friction clutch between the gear train and the cam, so that the cam can be turned to reset the time. Electromechanical timers survive in these applications because mechanical switch contacts may still be less expensive than the semiconductor devices needed to control powerful lights and heaters. In the past, these electromechanical timers were combined with electrical relays to create electro-mechanical controllers. Electromechanical timers reached a high state of development in the 1950s and 1960s because of their extensive use in aerospace and weapons systems. Programmable electromechanical timers controlled launch sequence events in early rockets and ballistic missiles; as digital electronics has progressed and dropped in price, electronic timers have become more advantageous. Electronic timers are quartz clocks with special electronics, can achieve higher precision than mechanical timers.
Electronic timers may have an analog or digital display. Integrated circuits have made digital logic so inexpensive that an electronic timer is now less expensive than many mechanical and electromechanical timers. Individual timers are implemented as a simple single-chip computer system, similar to a watch and using the same, mass-produced, technology. Many timers are now implemented in software. Modern controllers use a programmable logic controller rather than a box full of electromechanical parts; the logic is designed as if it were relays, using a special computer language called ladder logic. In PLCs, timers are simulated by the software built into the controller; each timer is just an entry in a table maintained by the software. Digital timers are used in safety devices such as a gas timer; these types of timers are not parts of devices. They rely on the accuracy of a clock generator built into a hardware device that runs the software. Nowadays when people are using more and more mobile phones, there are timer apps that mimic the old mechanical timer, but which have highly sophisticated functions.
These apps are easier to use daily, because they are available at once, without any need to purchase or carry the separate devices, as today timer is just a software application on a phone or tablet. Some of these apps are stopwatch timers, etc.. These timer apps can be used for tracking working or training time, motivating children to do tasks, replacing an hour glass in board games, or for the traditional purpose for tracking time when cooking and baking. Apps may be superior to mechanical timers. Hour glasses are not precise and clear, they can jam. Mechanical timers lack the customization that applications support, such as sound volume adjustments for individual needs. Most applications will offer selectable alarm sounds; some timer applications can help children to understand the concept of time, help them to finish tasks in time, help them to get motivated. These applications are used with children with special needs like ADHD, Down syndrome, etc. but everybody else can benefit from them.
Computer systems have at least one hardware timer. These are digital counters that either increm
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, or to store things. Furniture is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a religious purpose, it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne; the first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, includes cupboards and beds all constructed from stone.
Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory; the evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century; the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles; the first three-quarters of the twentieth century are seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural textures; the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide.
Thus fourniture in French means provisions. The English usage, referring to household objects, is specific to that language; the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture dates to the beginning of human civilisation. Early humans are to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, mossy areas for sleeping. During the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones; the earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, which depicts the goddess in a sitting position, on a throne. A similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BCE; the inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were common artefacts of that age. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland.
The site dates from 3100–2500 BCE and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a available material that could be worked and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats, limpet tanks; the stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls found at the site. Ancient furniture has been excavated from the 8th-century BCE Phrygian tumulus, the Midas Mound, in Gordion, Turkey. Pieces found here inlaid serving stands. There are surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BCE Assyrian palace of Nimrud; the earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BCE.
Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile, which began in about 6000 BCE. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. At this period, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by around 4000 BCE The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer and stored it in pits lined with reed mats, they raised cattle and pigs and they wove linens and baskets. Evidence of furniture from the predynastic period is scarce, but samples from First Dynasty tombs indicate an advanced use of furnishings in the houses of the age. During the dynastic period, which began in around 3200 BCE, Egyptian art developed and this included furniture design. Egyptian furniture was constructed using wood, but other materials were sometimes used, such as leather, pieces were adorned with gold, silver and ebony, for decoration.
Wood found in Egypt was not suitable for furniture construction
The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes interior design, but not architecture; the decorative arts are categorized in distinction to the "fine arts", namely painting, drawing and large-scale sculpture, which produce objects for their aesthetic quality and capacity to stimulate the intellect. The distinction between the decorative and fine arts arose from the post-Renaissance art of the West, where the distinction is for the most part meaningful; this distinction is much less meaningful when considering the art of other cultures and periods, where the most valued works, or all works, include those in decorative media. For example, Islamic art in many periods and places consists of the decorative arts using geometric and plant forms, as does the art of many traditional cultures; the distinction between decorative and fine arts is not useful for appreciating Chinese art, neither is it for understanding Early Medieval art in Europe.
In that period in Europe, fine arts such as manuscript illumination and monumental sculpture existed, but the most prestigious works tended to be in goldsmith work, in cast metals such as bronze, or in other techniques such as ivory carving. Large-scale wall-paintings were much less regarded, crudely executed, mentioned in contemporary sources, they were seen as an inferior substitute for mosaic, which for the period must be considered a fine art, though in recent centuries mosaics have tended to be considered decorative. The term "ars sacra" is sometimes used for medieval Christian art executed in metal, ivory and other more valuable materials but not for rarer secular works from that period. Modern understanding of the art of many cultures tends to be distorted by the modern privileging of fine art media over others, as well as the different survival rates of works in different media. Works in metal, above all in precious metals, are liable to be "recycled" as soon as they fall from fashion, were used by owners as repositories of wealth, to be melted down when extra money was needed.
Illuminated manuscripts have a much higher survival rate in the hands of the church, as there was little value in the materials and they were easy to store. The promotion of the fine arts over the decorative in European thought can be traced to the Renaissance, when Italian theorists such as Vasari promoted artistic values, exemplified by the artists of the High Renaissance, that placed little value on the cost of materials or the amount of skilled work required to produce a work, but instead valued artistic imagination and the individual touch of the hand of a supremely gifted master such as Michelangelo, Raphael or Leonardo da Vinci, reviving to some extent the approach of antiquity. Most European art during the Middle Ages had been produced under a different set of values, where both expensive materials and virtuoso displays in difficult techniques had been valued. In China both approaches had co-existed for many centuries: ink and wash painting of landscapes, was to a large extent produced by and for the scholar-bureaucrats or "literati", was intended as an expression of the artist's imagination above all, while other major fields of art, including the important Chinese ceramics produced in industrial conditions, were produced according to a different set of artistic values.
The lower status given to works of decorative art in contrast to fine art narrowed with the rise of the Arts and Crafts movement. This aesthetic movement of the second half of the 19th century was born in England and inspired by William Morris and John Ruskin; the movement represented the beginning of a greater appreciation of the decorative arts throughout Europe. The appeal of the Arts and Crafts movement to a new generation led the English architect and designer Arthur H. Mackmurdo to organize the Century Guild for craftsmen in 1882, championing the idea that there was no meaningful difference between the fine and decorative arts. Many converts, both from professional artists' ranks and from among the intellectual class as a whole, helped spread the ideas of the movement; the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement led to the decorative arts being given a greater appreciation and status in society and this was soon reflected by changes in the law. Until the enactment of the Copyright Act 1911 only works of fine art had been protected from unauthorised copying.
The 1911 Act extended the definition of an "artistic work" to include works of "artistic craftsmanship". In the context of mass production and consumerism some individuals will attempt to create or maintain their lifestyle or to construct their identity when forced to accept mass produced identical objects in their life. According to Campbell in his piece “The Craft Consumer”, this is done by selecting goods with specific intentions in mind to alter them. Instead of accepting a foreign object for what it is, the foreign object is incorporated and changed to fit one's lifestyle and choices, or customized. One way to achieve a customized look and feel to common objects is to change their external appearance by applying decorative techniques, as in decoupage, art cars, truck art in South Asia and IKEA hacking. American craft Art for art's sake Applied arts Design museum Faux painting Fine arts History of decorative arts Industrial design Ornament References Sources Dormer, The Culture of Craft, 1997, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719046181, 9780719046186, google books Home Economics Archive: Tradition, History Cornell University Victoria and Albert Museum Argentine Decorativ
Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.
A clothes horse, sometimes called a clothes rack, drying horse, clothes maiden, garment donkey, drying rack, drying stand, airer, or winterdyke, is a frame upon which clothes are hung after washing, indoors or outdoors, to dry by evaporation. The frame is made of wood, metal or plastic, it is a cheap low-tech piece of laundry equipment, as opposed to a clothes dryer, which necessitates electricity. There are many types of drying racks, including large, stationary outdoor racks, folding portable racks, wall-mounted drying racks. A drying rack is similar in usage and function to a clothes line, used as an alternative to the powered clothes dryer. A pulley clothes airer can be loaded and unloaded at a convenient height, hoisted out of the way to ceiling height while the clothes dry; the racks are used in kitchens, to hang utensils out of the way. A pulley clothes airer is sometimes described as "Victorian", "Edwardian", or "Lancashire" and comprises two iron frames positioned as far apart as desired to provide a suitable length, with wooden laths four or six, passed through holes in them.
The frames are suspended from the ceiling by a system of rope and pulleys. The result is a hoistable rack with several parallel bars on which clothes can be draped out of the way, or hung, extending further down, with clothes hangers. A modern development uses a wooden frame with seven to eleven continuous clothes lines which increase the capacity of the clothes horse; the frame hangs on four ropes. This increases the necessary installation effort, but improves safety by increasing redundancy of the suspension, it uses a pulley system. Used figuratively, the single-word term clotheshorse describes men and women who are passionate about clothing and always appear in public dressed in the latest styles. From 1850 the term referred to a male fop or female quaintrelle, a person whose main function is, or appears to be, to wear or show off clothes. In this context, the term is similar to "fashion plate," which referred to a lithograph illustration of fashionable clothing in a book or magazine